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This article is about the Toronto district and former Canadian municipality. For the regional municipality between Lake Simcoe and Toronto, see Regional Municipality of York. For Toronto before its incorporation in 1834, see York, Upper Canada. For other places, see York (disambiguation).
York
—  Dissolved Municipality  —
Motto: From individuals, a community (translated from Latin: E singulis communitas)
Location of York (red), as compared with the rest of Toronto.
Country  Canada
Province  Ontario
Municipality Toronto Toronto
Incorporated 1793 (township)
1 January 1967 (borough)
June 1983 (city)
Changed Region 1954 Flag of Metropolitan Toronto.svg Metropolitan Toronto from York County
Amalgamated 1 January 1998 into Toronto
Government
 - Mayor David Miller (Toronto Mayor)
 - Governing Body Toronto City Council
 - MPs Carolyn Bennett, Mario Silva, Alan Tonks, Joe Volpe
 - MPPs Laura Albanese, Eric Hoskins, Mike Colle, Tony Ruprecht
Area [1]
 - Total 23.18 km2 (8.9 sq mi)
Population (2001)[1]
 - Total 150,255
 Density 6,482.1/km2 (16,788.6/sq mi)
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Area code(s) 416, 647

York is a community in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Formerly a separate city, it was one of six municipalities that amalgamated in 1998 to form the current city of Toronto. Its population, as of the 2001 census, was 150,255, the second smallest of the six former municipalities, yet it is one of the most ethnically diverse. By the 2006 census, the population had fallen somewhat to 143,255.

Contents

History

York Township was incorporated by Canada West in 1850 (Canada West later became Ontario in 1867 due to the Confederation), bounded in the west by the Humber River, in the east by what would become Victoria Park Avenue, and in the north by what would become Steeles Avenue. Etobicoke Township and Scarborough Township were located west and east, respectively, while the townships of Vaughan and Markham bordered on the north.

Humewood-Cedarvale was developed in the 1910s to attract development in the growing township. Oakwood-Vaughan was also developed during this time. In the 1920s, the character of the township changed, with its southern reaches abutting the city of Toronto taking on a more urban character, compared with the very rural character of the north. The decision was made to split the township in two, with the northern, rural portion becoming North York. The remaining, two pockets of unincorporated urban development at the north end of the city, were split by the village of North Toronto, which was by then a part of the City of Toronto. Within years, the Province of Ontario saw that this arrangement was impractical, and further subdivided York, creating the township of East York out of the eastern pocket. The Township of York contracted streetcar and bus services from the Toronto Transportation Commission (later became Toronto Transit Commission in 1954), but remained independent from Toronto. During this time, American novelist Ernest Hemingway resided in the Humewood-Cedarvale community.

Vaughan Road Academy (in the Oakwood-Vaughan neighbourhood) was York's first high school. It was built in 1927 and was known as Vaughan Road Collegiate Institute until 1997, along with York Memorial Collegiate Institute at Eglinton Avenue and Keele Street in 1929.

York was part of the federation of twelve suburban municipalities that joined Toronto in 1954 to form Metropolitan Toronto. York's first and largest library, York Public Library, was built near the intersection of Eglinton Ave. and Dufferin St. in 1964, later renamed Maria Shchuka and rebuilt in 2003. In 1967, it absorbed the village of Weston, and became the Borough of York, later known as the City of York. It was amalgamated into the new City of Toronto on January 1, 1998. Since amalgamation, Maria Shchuka is part of the Toronto Public Library system.

The York Civic Centre is located at 2700 Eglinton Avenue West, between Black Creek Drive and Keele Street, near York's Museum and York Memorial Collegiate Institute.

Demographics

This time capsule outside the York Civic Centre is intended to be sealed for one hundred and ninety-six years. It also depicts the city's logo and coat of arms, which contains the city's motto in Latin.

All statistics are taken from the Canada 2006 Census.[1]

As of 2006, more than half of York's population were foreign born. 51.8% were immigrants.

Among non-visible minority groups, the largest group in York are Portuguese people (southern half of Oakwood-Vaughan and along the whole southern part of York). St. Clair West, Rogers Road, Caledonia Road, and Dufferin Street have many Portuguese businesses. Eastern European and Jewish populations live mainly in Humewood-Cedarvale in the east end of York. There used to be a large Italian population along St. Clair West, but most have moved out to the suburbs like Woodbridge. Many Portuguese and Latin Americans live along St. Clair now. There are still many Italian businesses along the street, which is still called Corso Italia, and every year has the Corso Italia festival.

The largest visible minority group in York are Blacks who live along Eglinton Avenue West, Weston Road, and Jane Street. Several neighbourhoods had more than 30% of its population being Black such as Weston, Eglinton West, Mount Dennis, Woolner, and Oakwood-Vaughan. Many are Caribbean people with most being from Jamaica. Eglinton West is also known as Little Jamaica, home to many West Indian businesses. York also has a large Black African community with many people coming from Ghana, and Nigeria. Out of all the former cities of Toronto, York has the highest percentage of Black Canadians.

Most of the Latin Americans are from Central America. There are also a large number of people from Ecuador and Argentina. They are spread throughout York with almost every neighbourhood having a presence of Latin American people and businesses. St. Clair West is home to many Latin American restaurants and nightclubs. It also hosts many Latino festivals, including "Salsa on St. Clair" which attracts hundreds of thousands of people every year. It is Canada's biggest celebration of Latino culture. Out of all the former cities, York also has the largest percentage of Latin Americans. It is also the fastest growing minority in York, along with Filipinos, who concentrate in the eastern half of the former city. They are the fastest growing minority in York along with Latin Americans.

York also has a large Southeast Asian community, whom many are from Vietnam. They mainly live in the west end of York.

York has the lowest percentage of South Asians and Chinese people out of all the former cities of Toronto.

The religious demographics of York vary from Roman Catholic in the southern half Oakwood-Vaughan to Anglican in Weston to Jewish in Humewood-Cedarvale to even Rastafarian in Little Jamaica in the northern half of Oakwood-Vaughan and west along Eglinton Avenue to slightly west of Keele Street. There are also significant numbers of Seventh-day Adventists, Pentecostals and Evangelical Christians.

Crime

York has had a history of violence, but in 2009, York was named the new murder capital of Toronto, taking the title from previous areas such as Jane and Finch, Rexdale, and Malvern. The Keele Street and Eglinton Avenue West area is considered Toronto's "hot spot" in crime, along with Jane and Finch. Toronto as a whole has dropped in crime and might have the lowest number of homicides this year in a decade, which brings more attention to the York-Weston area that accounts for only 4.5% of Toronto's population but has almost almost one-third of Toronto's homicides.

12 Division police believe there is a gang war between the The Gatorz and the Five Point Generals (also have been responsible for several national headlines such as the Boxing Day shooting of 15-year-old student Jane Creba, the funeral shooting of Amon Beckles, and the shooting that killed 11-year-old Ephraim Brown), which may be responsible for the rise in violence. Innocent people have been caught in the crossfire with people getting shot to death waiting at a bus stop, and 5-year-old girls playing in their backyards.[2]

The police had a massive drug sweep during the spring of 2009 around the Keele & Eglinton area called Project Spring Clean, which closed many grow-ops and crack houses and left 120 people facing more than 400 charges. Of them arrested were two Five Point General leaders. 12 Division police have also added extra police in the area and Toronto Anti-Violence Intervention Strategy (TAVIS) police officers to patrol for the summer. Before the TAVIS officers came, more than half of Toronto's homicides were in York. They also plan on putting more police cameras on major intersections of York. This resulted in a much quieter summer, but there is concern about the violence coming back.[3]

Arts and culture

York has a local community newspaper called the York Guardian. It is published by Metroland Media Group, which also publishes several other local papers in the Toronto area.

Reeves and mayors

Following the 1966 election, the chief magistrate of York, formerly known as the reeve, assumed the title of mayor.

The following are the reeves of the Township of York:

  • R.J. Stuart (1934-1935)
  • W.M. Magwood (1936-1937)
  • F.J. MacRae (1938-1946)
  • C.J. McMaster (1947-1948)
  • W.G. Beech (1949-1951)
  • Fred W. Hall (1952-1956)
  • Chris A. Tonks (1957-1960) - father of Alan Tonks
  • Fred C. Taylor (1961)
  • Walter Saunders (1962)

The following individuals served as York's mayor:

See also

References

Coordinates: 43°41′23″N 79°28′41″W / 43.689829°N 79.478066°W / 43.689829; -79.478066

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