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Yorkshire
Flag of Yorkshire
Flag of Yorkshire
Yorkshire in England
Yorkshire within England, showing ancient extent
Geography
1831 area 3,669,510 acres (14,850 km2)[1]
1901 area 3,883,979 acres (15,718 km2)[1]
1991 area 2,941,247 acres (11,903 km2)[1]
HQ York
Chapman code YKS
History
Origin Kingdom of Jórvík
Created In antiquity
Succeeded by Various
Demography
1831 population
- 1831 density
1,371,359[1]
0.37/acre
1901 population
- 1901 density
3,512,838[1]
0.9/acre
1991 population
- 1991 density
3,978,484[1]
1.35/acre
Subdivisions
Type Ridings
Ridings of Yorkshire
Units 1 North2 West3 East

Yorkshire is a historic county of northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom.[2] Because of its great size, functions have been increasingly undertaken over time by its subdivisions, which have also been subject to periodic reform. Throughout these changes, Yorkshire has continued to be recognised as a geographical territory and cultural region.[3][4] The name is familiar and well understood across the United Kingdom and is in common use in the media and the military,[5] and also features in the titles of current areas of civil administration, such as Yorkshire and the Humber and West Yorkshire.

Within the borders of the historic county of Yorkshire are areas which are widely considered to be among the greenest in England, due to the vast stretches of unspoiled countryside in the Yorkshire Dales and North York Moors and to the open aspect of some of the major cities.[6][7] Yorkshire has sometimes been nicknamed God's Own County.[4][8] The emblem of Yorkshire is the white rose of the English royal House of York, and the most commonly used flag representative of Yorkshire is the White Rose on a dark blue background,[9] which after years of use, was recognised by the Flag Institute on 29 July 2008.[10] Yorkshire Day, held on 1 August, is a celebration of the general culture of Yorkshire, ranging from its history to its own language.[11]

Contents

Toponymy

The county of Yorkshire was so named as it is the Shire (administrative area or county) of the City of York (pronounced /ˈjɔrk/ ( listen)) or York's Shire. "York" comes from the Latin (via Brythonic) name for the city, Eboracum. "Shire" is from Old English, scir, and appears to be allied to shear as it is a division of the land. The "shire" suffix is locally pronounced /-ʃər/ "shur", or occasionally /-ʃɪər/, a homophone of "sheer".[12]

History

Celtic tribes

Early inhabitants of Yorkshire were Celts, who formed two separate tribes, the Brigantes and the Parisii. The Brigantes controlled territory which would later become all of the North Riding of Yorkshire and the West Riding of Yorkshire. The tribe controlled most of Northern England and more territory than any other Celtic tribe in England.[13] That they had the Yorkshire area as their heartland is evident in that Isurium Brigantum (now known as Aldborough) was the capital town of their civitas under Roman rule. Six of the nine Brigantian poleis described by Claudius Ptolemaeus in the Geographia fall within the historic county.[14][15] The Parisii who controlled the area that would become the East Riding of Yorkshire, may have been related to the Parisii of Lutetia Parisiorum, Gaul (known today as Paris, France).[16] Their capital was at Petuaria close to the Humber estuary. The Roman conquest of Britain began in 43 AD, however the Brigantes remained in control of their kingdom as a client state of Rome for an extended period, reigned over by the Brigantian monarchs Cartimandua and her husband Venutius. Initially, this situation suited both the Romans and the Brigantes who were known as the most militant tribe in Britain.[17]

Roman Yorkshire

Statue of Constantine I outside York Minster.

Queen Cartimandua left her husband for Vellocatus, setting off a chain of events which would change the ownership of the Yorkshire area. Cartimandua, due to her good relationship with the Romans was able to keep control of the kingdom, however her former husband staged rebellions against her and her Roman allies.[18] At the second attempt Venutius took back the kingdom, but the Romans under general Petillius Cerialis conquered the Brigantes in 71 AD.[19] Under Roman rule, the high profile of the area continued; the fortified city of Eboracum (now known as York) was named as capital of Britannia Inferior and joint-capital of all Roman Britain.[20] For the two years before the death of Emperor Septimus Severus, the entire Roman Empire was run from Eboracum by him.[21]

A second Emperor Constantius Chlorus died in Yorkshire during a visit in 306 AD, this saw his son Constantine the Great proclaimed Emperor in the city; he would become renowned due to his contributions to Christianity.[22] In the early 400s, the Roman rule ceased with the withdrawal of the last active Roman troops, by this stage the Empire was in heavy decline.[21]

Second Celtic period and Angles

After the Romans left, small Celtic kingdoms arose in Yorkshire; the Kingdom of Ebrauc around York and more notably the Kingdom of Elmet in West Yorkshire.[23][24] Elmet remained independent from the Northumbrian Angles until some time in the early 7th Century, when King Edwin of Northumbria expelled its last king, Certic, and annexed the region. At its greatest extent, Northumbria stretched from the Irish Sea to the North Sea and from Edinburgh down to Hallamshire in South Yorkshire.[25]

Kingdom of Jórvík

Coin from Eric Bloodaxe's reign

An army of Danish Vikings, the Great Heathen Army[26] as its enemies often referred to it, invaded Northumbrian territory in 866 AD. The Danes conquered and assumed what is now modern day York and renamed it Jórvík, making it the capital city of a new Danish kingdom under the same name. The area which this kingdom covered included most of Southern Northumbria, roughly equivalent to the borders of Yorkshire extending further West.[27]

The Danes went on to conquer an even larger area of England which afterwards became known as the Danelaw; but whereas most of the Danelaw was still English land, albeit in submission to Viking overlords, it was in the Kingdom of Jórvík that the only truly Viking territory on mainland Britain was ever established. The Kingdom prospered, taking advantage of the vast trading empire of the Viking nations, and established commercial ties with the British Isles, North-West Europe, the Mediterranean and the Middle East.[28]

Founded by the Dane Halfdan Ragnarsson,[29] ruled for the great part by Danish kings, and populated by the families and subsequent ancestors of Danish Vikings, the kingdom nonetheless passed into Norwegian hands during its twilight years.[29] Eric Bloodaxe, a Norwegian who was the last independent Viking king of Jórvík, is a particularly noted figure in history,[30] and his bloodthirsty approach towards leadership may have been at least partly responsible for convincing the Danish inhabitants of the region to accept English sovereignty so readily in the years that followed.

After around 100 years of its volatile existence, the Kingdom of Jorvik finally came to an end. The Kingdom of Wessex was now in its ascendant and established its dominance over the North in general, placing Yorkshire again within Northumbria, which retained a certain amount of autonomy as an almost-independent earldom rather than a separate kingdom. The Wessex Kings of England were reputed to have respected the Norse customs in Yorkshire and left law-making in the hands of the local aristocracy.[31]

Norman conquest

York Minster, Western elevation

In the weeks immediately leading up to the Battle of Hastings in 1066 AD, Harold II of England was distracted by events in Yorkshire. His brother Tostig and Harold Hardrada King of Norway were attempting a take over bid in the North and had already won the Battle of Fulford. The King of England marched North and the two armies met at the Battle of Stamford Bridge. Tostig and Hardrada were both killed and their army was defeated decisively. However, Harold Godwinson was forced immediately to march his army back down to the South where William the Conqueror was landing. The King was defeated at Hastings and this led to the Norman conquest of England.

The people of the North rebelled against the Normans in September 1069 AD, enlisting Sweyn II of Denmark; they tried to take back York but the Normans burnt it before they could.[32] What followed was the Harrying of the North ordered by William, from York to Durham all crops, domestic animals and farming tools were scorched. Many villages between the towns were burnt and many local Northerners were indiscriminately murdered.[33] During the winter that followed, whole families starved to death, thousands of peasants died of cold and hunger; Orderic Vitalis put the estimation at "more than 100,000" people from the North dead from hunger.[34]

In the centuries following, many abbeys and priories were built in Yorkshire. The Norman landowners were keen to increase their revenues and established new towns such as Barnsley, Doncaster, Hull, Leeds, Scarborough, Sheffield and others. Of the towns founded before the conquest only Bridlington, Pocklington and York carried on at a prominent level.[35] The population of Yorkshire was booming, until it like the rest of Britain was hit by the Great Famine in the years between 1315 and 1322.[35] In the early 1300s the people of Yorkshire also had to contest with the Battle of the Standard at Northallerton with the Scots, representing the Kingdom of England led by Archbishop Thurstan of York soldiers from Yorkshire defeated the more numerous Scots.[36] The Black Death reached Yorkshire by 1349, killing around a third of the entire population.[35]

Wars of the Roses

Yorkist king Richard III grew up at Middleham.[37]

When King Richard II was overthrown in 1399, antagonism between the House of York and the House of Lancaster, both branches of the royal House of Plantagenet, began to emerge. Eventually the two houses fought for the throne of England in a series of civil wars, commonly known as the Wars of the Roses. Some of the battles took place in Yorkshire, such as those at Wakefield and Towton, the latter of which is known as the bloodiest battle ever fought on English soil.[38] Richard III was the last Yorkist king. Henry Tudor of the House of Lancaster, defeated and killed Richard at the Battle of Bosworth Field. He then became King Henry VII and married Elizabeth of York daughter of Yorkist Edward IV, ending the wars.[39] The two roses of white and red, emblems of the Houses of York and Lancaster respectively, were combined to form the Tudor Rose of England.[a][40] This rivalry between the royal houses of York and Lancaster has passed into popular culture as a rivalry between the counties of Yorkshire and Lancashire, particularly manifested in sport - for example the Roses Match played in County Cricket, or the Roses Tournament between the Universities of York and Lancaster.

Saints, Civil War and textile industry

The Industrial Revolution led to the building of slums in industrial Yorkshire such as these in Wetherby.

The wool textile industry which had previously been a cottage industry centred on the old market towns moved to the West Riding where budding entrepreneurs were building mills that took advantage of water power gained by harnessing the rivers and streams flowing from the Pennines. The developing textile industry in general helped Wakefield and Halifax grow.[41]

When Henry VIII started the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1536 a popular uprising known as Pilgrimage of Grace started in Yorkshire as a protest. Due to the Protestant Reformation of this period England became a Protestant country, however some of the Catholic contingent in Yorkshire continued to practice their religion and those caught were executed during the reign of Elizabeth I. One such person was a York woman named Margaret Clitherow who was later canonised.[42]

During the English Civil War, which started in 1642 between king and parliament, Yorkshire had divided loyalties; Hull famously shut the gates of the city on the king when he came to enter the city a few months before fighting began, while the North Riding of Yorkshire in particular was strongly royalist.[43][44] York was the base for Royalists, and from there they captured Leeds and Wakefield only to have them recaptured a few months later. The royalists won the Battle of Adwalton Moor meaning they controlled Yorkshire (with the exception of Hull). From their base in Hull the Roundheads (parliamentarians) fought back, re-taking Yorkshire town by town, until they won the Battle of Marston Moor and with it control of all of the North of England.[45]

In the 16th and 17th centuries Leeds and other wool industry centred towns continued to grow, along with Huddersfield, Hull and Sheffield, while coal mining first came into prominence in the West Riding of Yorkshire.[46] Canals and turnpike roads were introduced in the late 1700s. In the following century the spa towns of Harrogate and Scarborough also flourished, due to people believing mineral water had curing properties.[47]

Modern Yorkshire

The 19th century saw Yorkshire's continued growth, with the population growing and the Industrial Revolution continuing with prominent industries in coal, textile and steel (especially in Sheffield). However, despite the booming industry, living conditions declined in the industrial towns due to overcrowding, this saw bouts of cholera in both 1832 and 1848.[48] Fortunately for the county, advances were made by the end of the century with the introduction of modern sewers and water supplies. Several Yorkshire railway networks were introduced as railways spread across the country to reach remote areas.[49] County councils were created for the three ridings in 1889, but their area of control did not include the large towns, which became county boroughs, and included an increasing large part of the population.[50]

During the Second World War, Yorkshire became an important base for RAF Bomber Command and brought the county into the cutting edge of the war.[51] In the 1970s there were major reforms of local government throughout the United Kingdom. Some of the changes were unpopular,[52] and controversially Yorkshire and its ridings lost status in 1974[53] as part of the Local Government Act 1972.[54] The East Riding was resurrected with reduced boundaries in 1996 with the abolition of Humberside. With slightly different borders, the government office entity which currently contains most of the area of Yorkshire is the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England.[53] This region includes a northern slice of Lincolnshire, but omits Saddleworth (now in Greater Manchester); the Forest of Bowland (Lancashire); Sedbergh and Dent (Cumbria); Upper Teesdale (County Durham) as well as Middlesbrough, and Redcar and Cleveland.[52]

Geography

Physical and geological

Main articles: Geology of Yorkshire and list of places in Yorkshire
Geology of Yorkshire

Historically, the northern boundary of Yorkshire was the River Tees, the eastern boundary was the North Sea coast and the southern boundary was the Humber Estuary and River Don and River Sheaf. The western boundary meandered along the western slopes of the Pennine Hills to again meet the River Tees.[55] It is bordered by several other historic counties in the form of County Durham, Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, Cheshire, Lancashire and Westmorland.[56] In Yorkshire there is a very close relationship between the major topographical areas and the geological period in which they were formed.[55] The Pennine chain of Hills in the west is of Carboniferous origin. The central vale is Permo-Triassic. The North York Moors in the north-east of the county are Jurassic in age while the Yorkshire Wolds to the south east are Cretaceous chalk uplands.[55]

The main rivers of Yorkshire

Yorkshire is drained by several rivers. In western and central Yorkshire the many rivers empty their waters into the River Ouse which reaches the North Sea via the Humber Estuary.[57] The most northerly of the rivers in the Ouse system is the River Swale, which drains Swaledale before passing through Richmond and meandering across the Vale of Mowbray. Next, draining Wensleydale, is the River Ure, which joins the Swale east of Boroughbridge. The River Nidd rises on the edge of the Yorkshire Dales National Park and flows along Nidderdale before reaching the Vale of York.[57]

The Ouse is the name given to the river after its confluence with the Ure at Ouse Gill Beck. The River Wharfe, which drains Wharfedale, joins the Ouse upstream of Cawood.[57] The Rivers Aire and Calder are more southerly contributors to the River Ouse and the most southerly Yorkshire tributary is the River Don, which flows northwards to join the main river at Goole. In the far north of the county the River Tees flows eastwards through Teesdale and empties its waters into the North Sea downstream of Middlesbrough. The smaller River Esk flows from west to east at the northern foot of the North York Moors to reach the sea at Whitby.[57] The River Derwent rises on the North York Moors, flows south then westwards through the Vale of Pickering then turns south again to drain the eastern part of the Vale of York. It empties into the River Ouse at Barmby on the Marsh.[57] To the east of the Yorkshire Wolds the River Hull flows southwards to join the Humber Estuary at Kingston upon Hull. The western Pennines are served by the River Ribble which drains westwards into the Irish Sea close to Lytham St Annes.[57]

Natural areas

The countryside of Yorkshire has acquired the common nickname of God's Own County.[4][8] In recent times, North Yorkshire has displaced Kent to take the title Garden of England according to The Guardian.[58] Yorkshire includes the North York Moors and Yorkshire Dales National Parks, and part of the Peak District National Park. Nidderdale and the Howardian Hills are designated Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty.[59] Spurn Point, Flamborough Head and the coastal North York Moors are designated Heritage Coast areas,[60] and are noted for their scenic views with rugged cliffs[61] such as the jet cliffs at Whitby,[61] the limestone cliffs at Filey and the chalk cliffs at Flamborough Head.[62][63] Moor House - Upper Teesdale, most of which is part of the former North Riding of Yorkshire, is one of England's largest national nature reserves.[64]

The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds runs nature reserves such as the one at Bempton Cliffs with coastal wildlife such as the Northern Gannet, Atlantic Puffin and Razorbill.[65] Spurn Point is a narrow, 3 miles (4.8 km) long sand spit. It is a National Nature Reserve owned by the Yorkshire Wildlife Trust and is noted for its cyclical nature whereby the spit is destroyed and re-created approximately once every 250 years.[66] There are seaside resorts in Yorkshire with sand beaches; Scarborough is Britain's oldest seaside resort dating back to the spa town-era in the 17th century,[67] while Whitby has been voted as the United Kingdom's best beach, with a "postcard-perfect harbour".[68]

Economy

Bridgewater Place, a symbol of Leeds' growing financial importance.

Yorkshire largely has a mixed economy. Leeds is Yorkshire's largest city and the main centre of trade and commerce. Leeds is one of the UK's largest financial centres. Leeds' traditional industries have been mixed between the service based industries as well as textile manufacturing and Coal mining to the south and east of the city. Sheffield traditionally has had heavy industrial manufacturing such as Coal mining and the Steel industry. Since the decline of such industries Sheffield has attracted tertiary and administrative businesses including a growing retail trade, particularly with the development of Meadowhall. However, whilst Sheffield's heavy industry has declined the region has reinvented itself as a world renowned centre for specialist engineering. A cluster of hi-tech facilities including The Welding Institute, the Boeing partnered Advanced Materials Research Centre [69] have all helped to raise the regions profile and to bring significant investment into Yorkshire. Bradford, Halifax, Keighley and Huddersfield are traditional centres of Wool milling. These have since declined, and in areas such as Bradford, Dewsbury and Keighley have suffered a decline in their local economy. North Yorkshire has an established tourist industry with two national parks (Yorkshire Dales National Park, North Yorkshire Moors National Park, Harrogate, York and Scarborough and such an industry is growing in Leeds. Kingston upon Hull is Yorkshire's largest port and has a large manufacturing base, its fishing industry has however declined somewhat in recent years. The North still has an agricultural backdrop, although this is much more diversified than once was the case, with tourism to help support local businesses.

Many large British companies are based in Yorkshire such as Morrisons (Bradford), Comet, (Hull), Jet2.com (Leeds), Ronseal (Sheffield), Optare (Leeds), Wharfedale (Leeds), Plaxton (Scarborough), Little Chef (Sheffield), Halifax Bank (Halifax) and McCains (Scarborough).

Transport

The A1(M) and M62 junction at Ferrybridge, West Yorkshire

The most prominent road in Yorkshire, historically called the Great North Road, is known as the A1.[70] This trunk road passes through the centre of the county and is the prime route from London to Edinburgh.[71] Another important road is the more easterly A19 road which starts in Doncaster and ends just north of Newcastle-upon-Tyne at Seaton Burn. The M62 motorway crosses the county from east to west from Hull towards Greater Manchester and Merseyside.[72] The M1 carries traffic from London and the south of England to Yorkshire. In 1999 about 8 miles (13 km) was added to make it swing east of Leeds and connect to the A1.[73] The East Coast Main Line rail link between Scotland and London runs roughly parallel with the A1 through Yorkshire and the Trans Pennine rail link runs east to west from Hull to Liverpool via Leeds.[74]

Leeds Bradford International Airport, Yorkshire's largest airport

Before the advent of rail transport, seaports of Hull and Whitby played an important role in transporting goods. Historically canals were used, including the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, which is the longest canal in England. Nowadays mainland Europe (the Netherlands and Belgium) can be reached from Hull via regular ferry services from P&O Ferries.[75] Yorkshire also has air transport services from Leeds Bradford International Airport. This airport has experienced significant and rapid growth in both terminal size and passenger facilities since 1996, when improvements began, until the present day.[76] South Yorkshire is served by the Robin Hood Airport Doncaster Sheffield, based in Finningley.[77] Sheffield City Airport opened in 1997 after years of Sheffield having no airport, due to a council decision in the 1960s not to develop one because of the city's good rail links with London and the development of airports in other nearby areas. The newly opened airport never managed to compete with larger airports such as Leeds Bradford International Airport and East Midlands Airport and attracted only a few scheduled flights, while the runway was too short to support low cost carriers. The opening of Doncaster Sheffield Airport, effectively made the airport redundant and it officially closed in April 2008.

Culture

The culture of the people of Yorkshire is an accumulated product of various different civilisations who have directly controlled its history, including; the Celts (Brigantes and Parisii), Romans, Angles, Norse Vikings and Normans amongst others.[78] The western part of the historic North Riding had an additional infusion of Breton culture due to the Honour of Richmond being occupied by Alain Le Roux, grandson of Geoffrey I, Duke of Brittany.[79] The people of Yorkshire are immensely proud of their county and local culture and it is sometimes suggested they identify more strongly with their county than they do with their country.[80] Yorkshire people have their own distinctive dialect known as Tyke, which some have argued is a fully fledged language in its own right.[81] The county has also produced a unique set of Yorkshire colloquialisms, which are in use in the county. Among Yorkshire's unique traditions is the Long Sword dance, a traditional dance not found elsewhere in England. The most famous traditional song of Yorkshire is On Ilkla Moor Baht 'at ("On Ilkley Moor without a hat"), it is considered the unofficial anthem of the county.[82]

Architecture

Throughout Yorkshire many castles were built during the Norman-Breton period, particularly after the Harrying of the North. These included Bowes Castle, Pickering Castle, Richmond Castle, Skipton Castle, York Castle and others.[83] Later medieval castles at Helmsley, Middleham and Scarborough were built as a means of defence against the invading Scots.[84] Middleham is notable because Richard III of England spent his childhood there.[84] The remains of these castles, some being English Heritage sites, are popular tourist destinations.[84] There are several stately homes in Yorkshire which carry the name "castle" in their title, even though they are more akin to a palace.[85] The most notable examples are Allerton Castle and Castle Howard,[86] both linked to the Howard family.[87] Castle Howard and the Earl of Harewood's residence, Harewood House, are included amongst the Treasure Houses of England, a group of nine English stately homes.[88]

There are numerous other Grade I listed buildings within the historic county including public buildings such as Leeds Town Hall, Sheffield Town Hall, the Yorkshire Museum and Guildhall at York. Large estates with significant buildings were constructed at Brodsworth Hall, Temple Newsam and Wentworth Castle. In addition to this there are properties which are conserved and managed by the National Trust, such as Nunnington Hall, the Rievaulx Terrace & Temples and Studley Royal Park.[89] Religious architecture includes extant cathedrals as well as the ruins of monasteries and abbeys. Many of these prominent buildings suffered from the Dissolution of the Monasteries under Henry VIII; these includes Bolton Abbey, Fountains Abbey, Gisborough Priory, Rievaulx Abbey, St Mary's Abbey and Whitby Abbey among others.[90] Notable religious buildings of historic origin still in use include York Minster, the largest Gothic cathedral in northern Europe,[90] Beverley Minster, Bradford Cathedral and Ripon Cathedral.[90]

Literature and art

The Brontë sisters

When Yorkshire formed the southern part of the kingdom of Northumbria there were several notable poets, scholars and ecclesiastics, including Alcuin, Cædmon and Wilfrid.[91] The most esteemed literary family from the county are the three Brontë sisters, with part of the county around Haworth being nicknamed Brontë Country in their honour.[92] Their novels, written in the mid-1800s, caused a sensation when they were first published, yet were subsequently accepted into the canon of great English literature.[93] Among the most celebrated novels written by the sisters are Anne Brontë's The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre and Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights.[92] Wuthering Heights was almost a source used to depict life in Yorkshire, illustrating the type of people that reside there in its characters, and emphasizing the use of the stormy Yorkshire moors. Nowadays, the parsonage which was their former home is now a museum in their honour.[94] Bram Stoker authored Dracula while living in Whitby[95] and it includes several elements of local folklore including the beaching of the Russian ship Dmitri, which became the basis of Demeter in the book.[96]

The novelist tradition in Yorkshire continued into the 20th century, with authors such as J. B. Priestley, Alan Bennett and Barbara Taylor Bradford being prominent examples.[97][98] Taylor Bradford is noted for A Woman of Substance which was one of the top-ten best selling novels in history.[99] Another well known author was children's writer Arthur Ransome who penned the Swallows and Amazons series.[98] James Herriot, the best selling author of over 60 million copies of books about his experiences of some 50 years as a veterinarian in Thirsk, North Yorkshire, the town which he refers to as Darrowby in his books[100] (although born in Sunderland), has been admired for his easy reading style and interesting characters.[101] Poets include Ted Hughes, W. H. Auden, William Empson and Andrew Marvell.[98][102][103] Two well known sculptors emerged in the 20th century; contemporaries Henry Moore and Barbara Hepworth. Some of their works are available for public viewing at the Yorkshire Sculpture Park.[104] There are several art galleries in Yorkshire featuring extensive collections, such as Ferens Art Gallery, Leeds Art Gallery, Millennium Galleries and York Art Gallery.[105][106][107] Some of the better known local painters are William Etty and David Hockney;[108] many works by the latter are housed at Salts Mill 1853 Gallery in Saltaire.[109]

Sport

Badge of the world's oldest football club; Sheffield FC.

Yorkshire has a long tradition in the field of sports, with participation in football, rugby league, cricket and horse racing being the most established sporting ventures.[110][111][112][113] Yorkshire County Cricket Club represents the historic county in the domestic first class cricket County Championship; with a total of 30 championship titles, 12 more than any other county, Yorkshire is the most decorated county cricket club.[112] Some of the most highly regarded figures in the game were born in the county[114] amongst them Geoff Boycott, Len Hutton and Herbert Sutcliffe.[114] England's oldest horse race, which began in 1519, is run each year at Kiplingcotes near Market Weighton.[113] Continuing this tradition in the field of horse racing, there are currently nine established racecourses in the county.[115] Britain's oldest organised fox hunt is the Bilsdale, originally founded in 1668.[116][117] Yorkshire is officially recognised by FIFA as the birth-place of club football,[118][119] as Sheffield FC founded in 1857 are certified as the oldest association football club in the world.[120] The world's first inter-club match and local derby was competed in the county, at the world's oldest ground Sandygate Road.[121] The Laws of the Game which are now used worldwide were drafted by Ebenezer Cobb Morley from Hull.[122]

The most successful football clubs founded in Yorkshire are Barnsley, Doncaster Rovers, Huddersfield Town, Hull City, Leeds United, Middlesbrough, Sheffield United and Sheffield Wednesday.[123], four of which have been the league champions with Huddersfield being the first club to win three consecutive league titles.[124] Middlesbrough F.C. recently came to prominence by reaching the 2006 UEFA Cup Final[125] and winning the 2004 League Cup[126]. Noted players from Yorkshire who have had an impact on the game include World Cup-winning goalkeeper Gordon Banks[127] and two time European Footballer of the Year award winner Kevin Keegan,[128] as well as prominent managers Herbert Chapman, Brian Clough, Bill Nicholson, George Raynor and Don Revie.[129] The Rugby Football League and with it the sport of rugby league was founded in 1895 at the George Hotel, Huddersfield, after a North-South schism within the Rugby Football Union.[130] The top league is the engage Super League and the most decorated Yorkshire clubs are Huddersfield Giants, Hull FC, Bradford Bulls, Hull KR, Wakefield Trinity Wildcats, Castleford Tigers and Leeds Rhinos.[131] In total six Yorkshiremen have been inducted into the Rugby League Hall of Fame amongst them is Roger Millward, Jonty Parkin and Harold Wagstaff.[132] In the area of boxing "Prince" Naseem Hamed from Sheffield achieved title success and widespread fame,[133] in what the BBC describes as "one of British boxing's most illustrious careers".[133] Yorkshire also has an array of racecourses, in North Yorkshire, there is Thirsk, Ripon, Catterick and York in the East Riding of Yorkshire there is Beverley, in West Yorkshire there is Wetherby and Pontefract, while in South Yorkshire there is Doncaster.

Cuisine

Yorkshire puddings, served as part of a traditional Sunday roast.

The traditional cuisine of Yorkshire, in common with the North of England in general, is known for using rich tasting ingredients, especially with regard to sweet dishes, which were affordable for the majority of people.[134] There are several dishes which originated in Yorkshire or are heavily associated with it.[134] Yorkshire pudding, a savoury batter dish, is by far the best known of Yorkshire foods. It is commonly served with roast beef and vegetables to form part of the Sunday roast.[134]

Other foods associated with the county include: Yorkshire curd tart, a curd tart recipe with rosewater;[135][136] Parkin, a sweet ginger cake which is different from standard ginger cakes in that it includes oatmeal and treacle;[137] and Wensleydale cheese, a cheese associated with Wensleydale and often eaten as an accompaniment to sweet foods.[138] The beverage ginger beer, flavoured with ginger, came from Yorkshire and has existed since the mid 1700s.[citation needed] Liquorice sweet was first created by George Dunhill from Pontefract, who in the 1760s thought to mix the liquorice plant with sugar.[139] Yorkshire and in particular the city of York played a prominent role in the confectionery industry, with chocolate factories owned by companies such as Rowntree's, Terry's and Thorntons inventing many of Britain's most popular sweets.[140][141] Another traditional Yorkshire food is pikelets which are similar to crumpets but much thinner.[142] The Rhubarb Triangle is a location within Yorkshire which supplies most of the rhubarb to locals.

In recent years curries have become popular in the county largely due to the immigration and successful integration of Asian families. There are many famous curry empires with their origins in Yorkshire including the 850-seater Aakash restaurant in Cleckheaton which has been described as "the world's largest curry house".[143]

Beer and brewing

Yorkshire has a number of breweries including Black Sheep, Copper Dragon, Cropton Brewery, John Smith's, Sam Smith's,Tetley's, Kelham Island Brewery, Theakstons and Timothy Taylor.[144] The beer style most associated with the county is bitter.[145] As elsewhere in the North of England, when served through a handpump a sparkler is used giving a tighter, more solid head.[146]

Brewing has taken place on a large scale since at least the twelfth century, for example at the now derelict Fountains Abbey which at its height produced 60 barrels of strong ale every ten days.[147] Most current Yorkshire breweries date from the Industrial Revolution of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century.[144]

Music and film

Kate Rusby on stage 2005

Yorkshire has a rich heritage of folk music and folk dance including particularly Long Sword dance.[148] Yorkshire folk song was chiefly distinguished by the use of dialect, particularly in the West Riding and exemplified by the song 'On Ilkla Moor Baht 'at', probably written in the later nineteenth century and using a Kent folk tune (almost certainly borrowed via a Methodist hymnal), but often seen as an unofficial Yorkshire anthem.[149] The most famous folk performers from the county are the Watersons from Hull, who began recording Yorkshire versions of folk songs from 1965.[150] Other Yorkshire folk musicians include Heather Wood (b. 1945) of the Young Tradition, the short-lived electric folk group Mr Fox (1970–2), The Deighton Family, Julie Matthews, Kathryn Roberts, and Kate Rusby.[150] Yorkshire has a flourishing folk music culture, with over forty folk clubs and thirty annual folk music festivals.[151] In 2007 the Yorkshire Garland Group was formed to make Yorkshire folk songs accessible online and in schools.[152]

During the 1970s David Bowie, himself of a father from Tadcaster in North Yorkshire,[153] hired three musicians from Hull in the form of Mick Ronson, Trevor Bolder and Mick Woodmansey; together they recorded Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars, an album that went on to become widely considered as one of the greatest and most influential of all time.[154] In the following decade, Def Leppard, from Sheffield achieved worldwide fame, particularly in America. Their 1983 album, Pyromania (album) and 1987 album, Hysteria (Def Leppard album) became one of the most successful albums of all time. Yorkshire had a very strong post-punk scene which went on to achieve wide spread acclaim and success, including; The Sisters of Mercy, The Cult, Vardis, Gang of Four, ABC, The Human League, New Model Army, Soft Cell, Chumbawamba, The Wedding Present and The Mission.[155] Pulp from Sheffield had a massive hit in the form of Common People during 1995, the song focuses on working-class northern life.[156] The 2000s saw popularity of indie rock and post-punk revival bands from the area with the Kaiser Chiefs, The Cribs and the Arctic Monkeys, the latter of whom hold the record for the fastest-selling debut album in British music history with Whatever People Say I Am, That's What I'm Not.[157]

The three most prominent British television shows filmed in (and based around) Yorkshire are sitcom Last of the Summer Wine, drama series Heartbeat, and soap opera Emmerdale, the latter two of which are produced by Yorkshire Television. Last of the Summer Wine in particular is noted for holding the record of longest-running comedy series in the world, from 1973 until the present.[158] Other notable television series set in Yorkshire include The Beiderbecke Trilogy, Rising Damp, Fat Friends and The Royal. Several noted films are set in Yorkshire, including Kes, This Sporting Life, Room at the Top, Brassed Off, Mischief Night, Rita, Sue and Bob Too and Calendar Girls. A comedy film set in Sheffield named The Full Monty, won an Academy Award and was voted the second best British movie of all-time by ANI.[159] The county is also referenced in Monty Python's The Meaning of Life during a segment on birth where a title card read, "The Miracle of Birth, Part II—The Third World". The scene opens into a mill town street, subtitled "Yorkshire".[160] Monty Python also performed the Four Yorkshiremen sketch live, which first featured on At Last the 1948 Show.[161]

Governance

Politics

William Wilberforce, slavery abolisher, was the MP for Yorkshire in 1784–1812.

From 1290, Yorkshire was represented by two Members of Parliament of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England. After the union with Scotland two members represented the county in the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1832. In 1832 the county benefited from the disfranchisement of Grampound by taking an additional two members.[162] Yorkshire was represented at this time as one single, large, county constituency.[162] Like other counties, there were also some county boroughs within Yorkshire, the oldest was the City of York which had existed since the ancient De Montfort's Parliament of 1265. After the Reform Act 1832, Yorkshire's political representation in parliament was drawn from its subdivisions, with Members of Parliament representing each of the three historic Ridings of Yorkshire; East Riding, North Riding and West Riding constituencies.[162]

For the 1865 general elections and onwards, the West Riding was further divided into Northern, Eastern and Southern parliamentary constituencies, though these only lasted until the major Redistribution of Seats Act 1885.[163] This act saw more localisation of government in the United Kingdom, with the introduction of 26 new parliamentary constituencies within Yorkshire, while the Local Government Act 1888 introduced some reforms for the county boroughs, of which there were 8 in Yorkshire by the end of the 19th century.[164]

With the Representation of the People Act 1918 there was some reshuffling on a local level for the 1918 general election, revised again during the 1950s.[165] The most controversial reorganisation of local government in Yorkshire was the Local Government Act 1972,[166] put into practice in 1974. Under the act, the Ridings lost their lieutenancies, shrievalties, administrative counties. County boroughs and their councils were abolished, to be replaced by metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties with vastly changed borders.[54] Although some government officials[167] and Prince Charles[168] have asserted such reform is not meant to alter the ancient boundaries or cultural loyalties, there are pressure groups such as the Yorkshire Ridings Society who want greater recognition for the historic boundaries.[169] In 1996 the East Riding of Yorkshire was reformed as a unitary authority area and a ceremonial county. The Yorkshire and the Humber region of government office covers most, but not all of the historic county.Yorkshire and the Humber is a constituency for European elections, returning six MEPs to the European Parliament.

Monarchy and peerage

When the territory of Yorkshire began to take shape as a result of the invasion of the Danish vikings, they instituted a monarchy based at the settlement of Jórvík , York.[170] The reign of the Viking kings came to an end with the last king Eric Bloodaxe dying in battle in 954 after the invasion and conquest by the Kingdom of England from the south. Jórvík was the last of the independent kingdoms to be taken to form part of the Kingdom of England and thus the local monarchal title became defunct.[171]

The White Rose of York remains as the prime symbol of Yorkshire identity.

Though the monarchal title became defunct, it was succeeded by the creation of the Earl of York title of nobility [172] by king of England Edgar the Peaceful in 960.(The earldom covered the general area of Yorkshire and is sometimes referred to as the Earl of Yorkshire)[172] The title passed through the hands of various nobles, decided upon by the current king of England. The last man to hold the title was William le Gros, however the earldom was abolished by Henry II as a result of a troubled period known as The Anarchy.[173]

The peerage was recreated by Edward III in 1385, this time in the form of the prestigious title of Duke of York which he gave to his son Edmund of Langley. Edmund founded the House of York; later the title would be merged with that of the King of England. Much of the modern day symbolism of Yorkshire , such as the White Rose of York, is derived from the Yorkists,[174] giving the house a special affinity within the culture of Yorkshire. Especially celebrated is the Yorkist king Richard III who spent much of his life at Middleham Castle in Yorkshire.[37][175] Since that time the title has passed through the hands of many, being merged with the crown and then recreated several times. The title of Duke of York remains prestigious and is given to the second son of the British monarch.[176]

Notable people

See also

References

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Notes

a Though the Wars of the Roses were fought between royal houses bearing the names of York and Lancaster, the wars took place over a wide area of England. They were a dynastic clash between cadet branches of the House of Plantagenet.The most prominent family in Yorkshire, below the monarchy, the Nevilles of Sheriff Hutton and Middleham fought for the Yorkists, as did the Scropes of Bolton, the Latimers of Danby and Snape, as well as the Mowbrays of Thirsk and Burton in Lonsdale. Yet some fought for the Lancastrians such as the Percies, the Cliffords of Skipton, Ros of Helmsley, Greystock of Henderskelfe, Stafford of Holderness and Talbot of Sheffield.

External links

Coordinates: 54°00′N 1°30′W / 54°N 1.5°W / 54; -1.5


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Yorkshire, a historic county of northern England. It is the largest historic county in Great Britain and has a population of over 5 million people.

Contents

About the County

  • "Several years ago, when I earned my crust as a policeman, I was chasing a gang of deer poachers across the North Yorkshire moors at dawn as the sun rose from the sea. Just as the diamond tip broke over the hill, the old bobby with me stopped and looked down to the valleys that stretched into the distance. "Look," he said, as if he had seen something for the first time. "God's kingdom, Adam's land - no finer place will you ever find.""
  • "I would have died for Yorkshire. I suppose once or twice I nearly did."
  • "If the Scots can have independence, then in terms of being a viable unit Yorkshire can too. It's larger, it has more population, it has every asset you could need. If we are playing that narrow game, Yorkshire is entitled to independence and its own Parliament. But is that what we want today? It's playing into the hands of those people who want to break up the United Kingdom and let Europe rule the various parts."
  • "My living in Yorkshire was so far out of the way, that it was eleven miles away from a lemon"

About Yorkshire people

  • "People from Yorkshire are very proud of their underachievement. You see these old fellas in the pub going: 'I've had a great life, me. Gone nowhere. Done fuck all. Aye."
  • "Being from Yorkshire is as much a state of mind as a geographical fact."
  • "Once bitten twice shy, and several times bitten, then you make a rule about it. People from Yorkshire, we have found, are dour and nurse a grudge. One thing you can't put up with on expeditions are people who search for trouble, then nurse it when they have found it."
  • "the rogues and vagabonds who sought refuge in the moorland that later inspired the Brontë sisters to their several masterpieces."

References

  1. "God's own county", Guardian Unlimited, 24 October 2007.
  2. "Yorkshire Quotes", SaidWhat.co.uk, 24 October 2007.
  3. a b c d "Essence of Yorkshire", TheTelegraphAndArgus.co.uk, 24 October 2007.
  4. "Yorkshire Quotes", ThinkExist.com, 24 October 2007.
  5. "Paul Tonkinson", SaidWhat.co.uk, 24 October 2007.
  6. "What's so special about Yorkshire?", BBC.co.uk, 24 October 2007.

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

This article or section does not match our manual of style or needs other editing. Please plunge forward, give it your attention and help it improve!

Yorkshire [1] [2] is the largest traditional county of England and (with a small part of old Lincolnshire tacked on) is now an entire region (Yorkshire and the Humber) of the United Kingdom and of the European Union.

Yorkshire is one of the most scenic, varied and interesting of the English counties. World famous countryside, bustling cosmopolitan cities, and an important history bring thousands of visitors to Yorkshire every year.

Map of Yorkshire
Map of Yorkshire

Currently divided for administrative purposes into several somewhat confusing modern counties and municipal areas, Yorkshire is still best understood largely along its traditional boundaries. Traditionally, Yorkshire was divided into three "Ridings" and the city of York, which did not belong to any Riding. These boundaries have changed greatly with various administrative changes, especially over recent decades. The following divisions are those that would be reasonably recognised by most Yorkshire people themselves:

North Yorkshire - approximately the former North Riding and northern part of the former West Riding
East Yorkshire - approximately the former East Riding
South Yorkshire - southern part of the former West Riding
West Yorkshire - central part of the former West Riding

It should, however, be recognised that these four are not all in the same position as far as Local Government is concerned. West and South Yorkshire Metropolitan Counties had their councils abolished in the 1980s and local government functions belong to the Metropolitan Boroughs within their area or to ad hoc authorities. North Yorkshire is a true county, meaning that local government functions are divided between it and the smaller units within it. East Yorkshire (and Hull) are separate unitary authorities.

  • Bradford - Has a wealth of museums and fantastic architecture and is a very multi cultural city. The best curry restaurants in Yorkshire can be found here along with the National Media Museum, the Industrial museum, a great cathedral and a city hall to rival any in Britain. The city also is the birth place of the Bronte sisters and composer Frederick Delius along with many other important historical figures.
  • Kingston upon Hull (Hull) - On the banks of the rivers Hull and Humber, Hull is the largest city in the east of Yorkshire. The city can boast of a rich history built upon fishing and shipbuilding, a bustling and attractive city centre, and a fascinating museum district.
  • Leeds - Leeds has a thriving cultural scene, fine historic architecture, and is famous for its myriad shops, restaurants, bars and clubs. Important as a provincial centre for West Yorkshire despite its proximity to Bradford. Recently named Visitor City of the year and UK's favourite city.
  • Sheffield - Yorkshire's largest and most cosmopolitan city, one of many cities said to be "built on seven hills", and with an industrial heritage as the centre of the steel industry which has projected its name throughout the World. The city has grown several pop and rock bands, for example Def Leppard and being the subject of many popular films. Despite bombing during the Second World War it retains much of its interesting Victorian and early 20th century architecture. The suburbs retain much of the 'village'character, the amalgamation of which formed the city boundaries as they stand today. Sheffield chairs the group of the eight largest core cities in England and its planning policy has allowed the city to modernise despite the economic downturn in England.
  • Wakefield - famous for its mystery plays and capital of the Rhubarb Triangle. Administrative centre for West Yorkshire and seat of the Yorkshire & Humber Regional Assembly.
  • York - (unofficial) county town of Yorkshire, rich in medieval heritage, with a beautiful historic centre and breathtaking Minster.

Metropolitan Boroughs

These provide all local government services in West and South Yorkshire sine the Metropolitan County Councils were abolished in the 1980s. In West Yorkshire Bradford, Leeds and Wakefield (all above) are joined by Calderdale (largest town: Halifax) and Kirklees, which is based around Huddersfield and Dewsbury. In South Yorkshire as well as Sheffield (above) there are three whose names correspond to towns: Barnsley, Doncaster and Rotherham.

  • Scarborough - Traditional British seaside town, with its own castle and 2 beaches.
  • Whitby - Pretty fishing town, with bags of history, cobbled streets and its famous Abbey
  • Skipton - Gateway to the Dales and the Yorkshire Dales National Park
  • Peak District on the south-west edge of Yorkshire.
  • North York Moors are a large area in the north-east of the county. The area is sparsely-populated, yet very popular with ramblers.
  • Dewsbury - particularly noted for a great market.
  • Todmorden On the Lancashire border with a Lancashire (Oldham) post code and a history of more cotton than wool.
  • Harrogate - England's first Spa Town and the largest town in North Yorkshire.
  • Pontefract - famous for liquorice and Pontefract Cakes. Excellent nightlife. Interesting Art Deco-style museum. Picturesque racecourse. The town is within the Rhubarb Triangle. Location of the first secret ballot in the Northern Hemisphere.
  • Haworth - Village which was home to the Bronte sisters.

Other destinations

Yorkshire includes all or part of three separate National Parks (see map below):

Bronte Country is a literature-inspiring Yorkshire region of moorland and atmospheric villages, close to Bradford, Keighley and Halifax, in which the Brontë sisters - Charlotte, Emily and Anne - found their literary muse.

Understand

Called 'God's own county' by the fiercely proud locals, and for good reason with wonderous countryside, great cities and warm locals

  • Leeds/Bradford Airport [6] offers flights to Europe, including links to Heathrow and Amsterdam. A member of the Star Alliance [7]
  • Doncaster Sheffield Airport [8] is Sheffield's main airport offering flights to Europe & North America.
  • By train GNER [9] or TransPennine Express [10] offer regular services linking all of the UK to the major cities, with connecting trains to smaller destinations
  • By road use the M1 (from South), A1 (from North/South), M62 (from West/East)
  • Coach [11] connects all of the UK's major towns and cities
  • Rail [13] offers an easy way to travel around Yorkshire
  • Yorkshire is well served by the UK Motorway network. Access from the East/West via the M62 and access from the North/South via the M1 & A1(M). There are also a number of scenic trunk road routes, including the A59 into Lancashire, and the A64 and A170 routes to Scarborough and the coast.
  • Fountains Abbey, best preserved medieval abbey ruin in England.
  • Rievaulx Abbey, near Helmsley
  • Sutton Bank - edge of the Hambleton Hills and a viewpoint for miles around
  • Scarborough's cliffs, bays and castle
  • Malham's fascinating limestone pavements
  • The Yorkshire Three Peaks - the Yorkshire Dales hills of Ingleborough, Whernside, and Pen-y-ghent
  • Wharram Percy - an excavated mediaeval village on the Yorkshire Wolds
  • Salt's Mill, a world heritage site near Bradford
  • The Humber Bridge, a large suspension bridge linking East Yorkshire across the River Humber to Lincolnshire
  • Rosebery Topping - the "mini matterhorn", the last hill of the North York Moors which overlooks industrial Teesside
  • Eden Camp, a wartime base turned into a museum
  • Castle Howard, a stately home famous to many as the setting for the tv series Brideshead Revisited
  • Bolton Abbey
  • The Settle-Carlisle Railway, an historic and scenic railway line which features the Ribblehead Viaduct, a scheduled ancient monument
  • The Leeds-Liverpool Canal, an historic and scenic waterway
National Parks and Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty in Yorkshire
National Parks and Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty in Yorkshire

Yorkshire is a prime region for outdoor activities with a fantastic natural heritage and amazing scenery including three National Parks - one prime site for general information is Walk Yorkshire.com [14], the Yorkshire Tourist Board's Outdoor website, with links and info that extend beyond walking to include all manner of fresh air activities....

  • the National Trail website [15] includes walks on the Cleveland Way, the Pennine Way and the Wolds Way National Trails
  • the Nidderdale Way [16]
  • The Ingleton Waterfalls Walk, named by writer Alfred Wainwright as the "finest walk in England".

Sport

Yorkshire has a wealth of top professional sports teams to watch, and lots of outdoor (& indoor) activities to enjoy.

Athletics

  • Leeds [17] and Sheffield both boast fantastic athletics facilities, which are available for spectators or participants.

Football

  • Bradford City [18], Hull City [19], Barnsley [20], Leeds United [21], Sheffield United [22] and Sheffield Wednesday [23] all play the national sport football (soccer), though ticket prices can be high. It also advisable to book ahead.

Cricket

  • Yorkshire County Cricket [24] play the traditional English sport of Cricket at venues around Yorkshire during the summer, with most of their games in Headingley, Leeds. Headingley also occasionally hosts international matches, though tickets must be booked well in advance.

Rugby League

  • Bradford Bulls [25], Hull FC [26], Hull KR [27] & Leeds Rhinos [28] all play this exciting physical sport in the European Superleague [29]. International matches are regularly played across Yorkshire. Ticket prices are usually reasonable, though top matches often sell out so book ahead.

Rugby Union

  • Leeds Carnegie [30] play at Headingley, tickets are always available as the sport is still 2nd choice to Rugby League for many Yorkshire fans.

Ski

  • Xscape [31] is a real snow indoor snow dome in Castleford near to Leeds.

Swim

There are 50 metre pools in both Leeds and Sheffield. There are 'fun' pools in Barnsley, Bradford, York and Doncaster. Sheffield has Ponds Forge, one of the best leisure complexes in the UK, which was built for the World Students Games in the early nineties, and where the Channel 4 programme The Games holds its swimming and diving trials.

Talk

Generally, Yorkshire folk speak quite understandable English, and even many dialect speakers have a "posh voice" that they can put on to speak to tourists; however, some phrases may catch you out.

  • Owt or nowt - means anything or nothing (both words can be used separately).
  • Love - is used when greeting "Hi love" or "Yes love"
  • Snicket/Ginnell - The former is a covered alley, the latter an uncovered one. E.g. 'I heard him racing down the snicket!'.

There are also words like "hither" "sethee" "thee" "thine" "thy" "duntha" and numerous others and if spoken as dialect is very difficult to understand by people from outside the region.

Some small industrial towns in West and South Yorkshire may be more difficult to understand. However, these are not popular tourist venues.

Eat

A few of the region's specialities include:

  • Yorkshire Pudding - made from a batter and can be eaten as a savoury or sweet meal
  • Yorkshire Parkin - a ginger cake traditionally made around Guy Fawkes' Night
  • Liquorice - a black confection from Pontefract
  • Wensleydale Cheese - crumbly and traditionally eaten with Christmas Cake, as loved by Wallace in the animated series 'Wallace and Gromit'
  • Betty's Cafe [32] is a famous cafe throughout Yorkshire
  • Tetley's Bitter [33] or John Smiths [34] in a traditional British pub
  • Yorkshire Tea [35]
  • Two famous beers are brewed in Masham, North Yorkshire - Theakston's Old Peculiar, and Black Sheep Ale
  • Spring Water is available from several spa towns in Yorkshire including Harrogate
  • Berry Banks Cottage Whitby [36] Luxury Self-Catering Accommodation Riverside View, Whitby. Berry Banks Cottage is in an outstanding and tranquil location in an elevated position above the valley of the River Esk and by the side of a Grade II listed railway viaduct. Watch the steam train pass by from the cottage.

Stay safe

Yorkshire in general is fairly safe. But like many places in the north of England, the collapse of various industries in Yorkshire has had a devastating effect on the economy, thus crime rates have become very high in some areas, mostly due to high unemployment. It's very unlikely that tourists will be victims of crime, but you should keep your wits about you if you decide to venture into areas that aren't tourist oriented.

Out in the countryside there is little risk of crime (other than valuables left on view in cars in isolated places), though if going walking in winter take sensible precautions against the weather [37]. Also make sure you have a map and compass if you decide to go off the beaten track, you can very easily get lost without them.

In towns and cities, keep valuables out of sight, and stick to well-lit busy areas at night as is recommended for all UK towns and cities.

This is a usable article. It gives a good overview of the region, its sights, and how to get in, as well as links to the main destinations, whose articles are similarly well developed. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

YORKSHIRE, a north-eastern county of England, bounded N. by Durham, E. by the North Sea, S.E. by the Humber estuary (separating it from Lincolnshire), S. by Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire, S.W. for a short distance by Cheshire, W. by Lancashire and N.W. by Westmorland. It is the largest county in England, having an area of 6066.1 sq. m., and being more than double the size of Lincolnshire, which ranks next to it. In a description of the county it is constantly necessary to refer to its three great divisions, the North Riding, East Riding and West Riding (see Riding, and map of England, Sections I., II.).

The centre of the county is a plain, which in the S., about the head of the Humber, resembles the Fens in character. The hills W. of the central plain, covering nearly the whole of the W. Riding and the N.W. of the N. Riding, are part of the great Pennine Chain. These hills consist of high-lying moorland, and are not generally remarkable for great beauty of outline. The higher parts are bleak and wild, and the slope towards the central plain is gradual. The chief beauty of the district is to be found in the numerous deeply scored valleys or dales, such as Teesdale, Swaledale, Wensleydale, Nidderdale, Wharfedale and Airedale, in which the course of the streams is often broken by waterfalls, such as High Force in Teesdale and Aysgarth Force in Wensleydale.

The hills E. of the central plain cannot be similarly considered as a unit. In the N., wholly within the N. Riding, a line of heights known as the Cleveland Hills, forming a spur of the N. Yorkshire Moors, ranges from moo to nearly 1500 ft., and overlooks rather abruptly the lowest part of the Tees valley. The line of greatest elevation approaches the central plain, and swings sharply S. in the Hambleton Hills to overlook it, while to the S. of the line long deep dales carry tributary streams S. to the river Derwent, thus draining to the Ouse. Eastward the N. Yorkshire moors give immediately upon the coast. Their higher parts consist of open moorland. The remarkable upper valley of the Derwent (q.v.) marks off the N. Yorkshire moors from the Yorkshire wolds of the E. Riding, the river forming the boundary between the N. and E. Ridings. The wolds superficially resemble the moors, inasmuch as they abut directly on the coast E., run thence W., and swing S. to overlook the central plain. At the S. extremity they sink to the shore of the Humber. Their greatest elevation is found near the W. angle (Howardian Hills), but hardly reaches 800 ft. Eastward they encircle a low-lying fertile tract bounded S. by the Humber and E. by the North Sea. The name of Holderness is broadly applied to this low tract, though the wapentake of that name includes properly only the E. of it.

The diverse character of the coast may be inferred from the foregoing description. In the north, S. of Teesmouth, it is low for a short distance; then the E. abutments of the Cleveland Hills form fine cliffs, reaching at Boulby the highest elevation of seacliffs in England (666 ft.). Picturesque valleys bearing short streams break the line, notably that of the Esk, reaching the sea at Whitby. The trend of the coast is at first S.E. and then S. South of Scarborough it sinks with the near approach of the Derwent valley, begins to rise again round the shallow sweep of Filey Bay, and then springs seaward in the fine promontory of Flamborough Head (see Bridlington). South of this, after the sharp incurve of Bridlington Bay, the low coast-line of Holderness succeeds, long and unbroken, a far as Spurn Point, which encloses the mouth of the Humber. Encroachments of the sea are frequent, but much land has been reclaimed.

There are several watering-places on the coast in high favour with visitors from the manufacturing districts. The principal, from N. to S. are Redcar, Saltburn-by-the-Sea, Whitby, Robin Hood's Bay, Scarborough (the largest of all), Filey, Bridlington and Hornsea. There are numerous mineral springs in Yorkshire, the principal being those at Harrogate. There is also a spa at Scarborough, and others are Askern near Doncaster, Boston Spa near Harrogate, Croft on the Tees near Darlington, Hovingham, near Malton, Guisbrough in Cleveland and Slaithwaite near Huddersfield. The springs are chiefly sulphurous and chalybeate.

By far the greater part of Yorkshire is within the drainage basin of the Ouse, which with the Trent makes the estuary of the Humber (q.v.). It is formed in the central plain by the junction of the Ure and Swale, both rising in the Pennine hills; but whereas the Swale drains the N. of the plain, the Ure, traversing Wensleydale, is enclosed by the hills over the greater part of its course. The Ouse also receives from the Pennine district the Nidd, traversing Nidderdale, the Wharfe, the Aire, with its tributary the Calder, and the Don. The Aire rises in the fine gorge of Malham Cove, from the subterranean waterways in the limestone. None of these tributaries is naturally navigable, but the Aire, Calder and Don are in part canalized. From the E. the principal tributary is the Derwent, which on entering the central plain follows a course roughly parallel to that of the Ouse, and joins it in its lower part, between Selby and Howden. The Foss joins the Ouse at York. In the W. the county contains the headwaters of several streams of the W. slope of the Pennines, draining to the Irish Sea; of these the principal is the Ribble. In the N. the Tees forms most of the boundary with the county of Durham, but receives no large tributary from Yorkshire. In the S. of the W. Riding a few streams drain to the Trent. In Holderness, debarred by the wolds from the general drainage system of the county, the chief stream is the Hull. The only sheets of water of any size are Semmer Water, in a branch of Wensleydale; Malham Tarn, near the head of Airedale, the effluent of which quickly disappears into an underground channel; and Hornsea Mere, near the flat seacoast at Hornsea.

Table of contents

Geology

The great variety in the scenery of Yorkshire is but a reflection of the marked differences in the geological substructure. The stratification is for the most part regular, but owing to a great line of dislocation nearly coincident with the W. boundary of the county the rocks dip towards the E., while the strike of the strata is from N. to S. The bold and picturesque scenery of the western hills and dales is due to the effects of denudation among the harder rocks, which here come to the surface. The strata in the Pennines consist of (1) older Palaeozoic rocks, viz. a faulted inlier of Silurian and Ordovician at Horton in Ribblesdale, and a small patch of Silurian at Sedbergh with inliers of Coniston limestone; (2) the Carboniferous or Mountain Limestone, which has been subjected to great dislocations, the. more important of which are known as the N. and S. Craven faults; (3) the Yoredale series, consisting of shales, flagstones, limestones and thin seams of coal; and (4) the Millstone Grit, forming part of the hilly moorlands, and capping many of the loftier eminences. In the W. Riding the Pennine range forms part of the elevated country of Craven and Dent. The scenery in the W. of the N. Riding is somewhat similar to that in Craven, except that the lower hills are of sharper outline owing to the perpendicular limestone scars. To the intermingling of the limestone with the softer rocks are due the numerous "forces" or waterfalls, which are one of the special features of the scenery of this district. The action of water on the limestone rocks assisted by joints and faults has given rise to extensive caverns, of which the best examples are those of Clapham and Ingleton in the W. Riding, as well as to subterranean watercourses. At Brimham, Plum p ton and elsewhere there are fantastic masses of rocks due to irregular weathering of the Millstone Grit. The Pennine region is bounded on the S.E. by the Coal Measures, forming the N. of the Derbyshire, Nottingham and Yorkshire coal-field, which in Yorkshire extends from Sheffield N. to Leeds. The noted fireclays of the Leeds district are obtained from this formation. To the E. the Coal Measures dip beneath the unconformable Permian beds, with magnesian limestone and marl slate, of which a narrow band crops up from Masham southwards. The Permian strata are overlain to the E. by the Trias or New Red Sandstone, scarcely ever exposed, but having been partly worn away is covered with Glacial deposits of clay and gravel, forming the low-lying Vale of York, extending from the Tees S. to Tadcaster and E. beyond York to Market Weighton. Near Middlesbrough red rock with gypsum and rock-salt (loo ft.) have been proved. Farther E. the Triassic beds are overlain by Lias and Oolite; Rhaetic beds have been recorded from near Northallerton. The Lias crops to the surface in a curve extending from Redcar to the Humber. In the Middle Lias there is a seam of valuable iron ore, the source of the prosperity of the Cleveland region. The moorlands extending from Scarborough and Whitby are formed of Liassic strata, topped with the estuarine beds of Lower Oolite, rising gradually to the N.E. and attaining at Burton Head a height of 1489 ft., the greatest elevation of the Oolite formation in England. In the Oolitic "Dogger" series the magnetic iron ore of Rosedale is worked. Corallian rocks form the scarp of the Hambleton hills and extend E. on the N. of the Vale of Pickering through Hackness to the coast, and S.W. of the vale to the neighbourhood of Malton. The Vale of Pickering is underlaid by faulted Kimeridge Clay. Lias and Oolites fringe the E. of the Vale of York to Ferriby on the Humber. In the S.E. of the county, Cretaceous rocks cover up the older strata, N. to the Vale of Pickering and W. to the Vale of York. The Chalk forms the Yorkshire wolds and the country S. through Driffield, Beverley and Holderness.

The Yorkshire coast between Redcar and Flamborough presents a continuous series of magnificent exposures of the strata from the Lower Lias to the Chalk. The Upper Lias fossils and jet of Whitby and alum shale of Saltwick are well known. At Scarborough the Corallian, Oxford Clay, Kellaways Rock, Cornbrash and Upper Estuarine beds are well exposed in the cliffs. In Filey Bay the Kimeridge Clay appears on the coast, but it is covered farther S. by the historic beds of Speeton, representing the marine equivalents of Portland, Purbeck, Wealden, and Lower Greensand of S. England. Over the Speeton beds lies the Red Chalk, the Yorkshire equivalent of the Upper Greensand and Gault. The evidences of glacial action are of unusual interest and variety; the great thickness of boulder clay on the coast is familiar to all, but inland also great deposits of glacial clay, sand and gravel obscure the older geology. The Vale of Pickering and many of the smaller northern valleys were at one period the sites of Glacial lakes, and the "warp" which covers much of the Vale of York is a fluvio-glacial deposit. The Cleveland Dike is an intrusive igneous dike of augite-andesite of Tertiary age which can be traced across the country in a N.W. direction from the neighbourhood of Fylingdales Moor.

Minerals

The 'coal-field in the W. Riding is one of the chief sources of mineral wealth in Yorkshire, the most valuable seams being the Silkstone, which is bituminous and of the highest reputation as a house coal, and the Barnsley Thick Coal, the great seam of the Yorkshire coal-field, which is of special value, on account of its semi-anthracitic quality, for use in iron-smelting and in engine furnaces. Associated with the Upper Coal Measures there is a valuable iron ore, occurring in the form of nodules. Large quantities of fireclay are also raised, as well as of gannister and oil-shale. Middlesbrough is the most important centre of pig-iron manufacture in the kingdom. Lead ore is obtained in the Yoredale beds of the .Pennine range in Wharfedale, Airedale, Nidderdale, Swaledale, Arkendale and Wensleydale. Slates and flagstones are quarried in the Yoredale rocks. In the Millstone Grit there are several beds of good building stone, but that most largely quarried is the magnesian limestone of the Permian series, which, however, is of somewhat variable quality.

Agriculture

Nearly nine-tenths of the E. Riding is under cultivation, but of the N. and W. Ridings only from threefifths to seven-tenths - proportions explained by the different physical conditions. The till or boulder clay of Holderness is the richest soil in Yorkshire, and the chalk wolds, by careful cultivation, form one of the best soils for grain crops. The central plain bears all kinds of crops excellently. Wheat is grown in the E. and W. Ridings, but oats are the principal grain crop in these ridings, and barley exceeds wheat in all three. The bulk of the acreage under green crops is devoted to turnips and swedes. A little flax is grown, and liquorice is cultivated near Pontefract. The proportion of hill pasture is greatest in the N. Riding and least in the E., and the N. and W. Ridings are among the principal sheep-farming districts in England. Cattle, for the rearing of which the W. Riding is most noted, do not receive great attention. The Teeswater breed, however, is increasing in Yorkshire, and in Holderness there is a short-horned breed, chiefly valuable for its milking qualities. Cheese-making is largely carried on in some districts. Of sheep perhaps the most common breeds are the Leicester, Lincoln and South Down, and crosses between the Cheviot and the Leicester. Large numbers of pigs are kept at the dairy farms and fed mainly on whey. The small breed is that chiefly in favour. Yorkshire bacon is famous. Draught horses are generally of a somewhat mixed breed, but the county is famed for its hunters and carriage and saddle horses. The breed of Cleveland bays is much used for carriages.

Manufactures

The industrial district of south Yorkshire occupies the S. of the W. Riding, and may be taken as marked off approximately by the watershed from the similar district in S. Lancashire. The W. Riding is now the chief seat of the woollen manufacture of the United Kingdom, and has almost a monopoly in the production of worsted cloths. The early development of the industry was in part due to the abundance of water-power, while later the presence of coal helped to maintain it on the introduction of steam-power. In this industry nearly all the most important towns are engaged, while the names of several of the largest are connected with various specialities. Thus, while almost every variety of woollen and worsted cloth is produced at Leeds, Bradford is especially concerned with yarns and mixed worsted goods, Dewsbury and Batley with shoddy, Huddersfield with fancy goods and Halifax with carpets. The cotton industry of Lancashire has also penetrated to the neighbourhood of Halifax. Among the characteristics of the industrial population, the love of music should be mentioned. Choral societies are numerous, and the work of some of those in the larger towns, such as Sheffield, Leeds and Bradford, has attracted wide notice. Next to the woollen industry comes the manufacture of iron and steel machinery and implements of every variety, which is common to most of the larger centres in the district. Sheffield is especially famous for iron-work, fine metal-work and cutlery. The development of the iron ore deposits of Cleveland dates only from the middle of the 19th century. About two and a half million tons of pig-iron are produced in this district annually, and there are considerable attendant industries, such as the production of steel, and shipbuilding. The chemical manufacture is important both here and in the W. Riding, where also a great variety of minor industries have sprung up. Such are leather working (at Leeds), the manufacture of clothing, printing and bleaching, and paper-making. Besides coal and iron ore, great quantities of clay, limestone and sandstone are raised. Excellent building-stone is obtained at several places in the W. Riding. The sea-fisheries are of some importance, chiefly at Hull, Scarborough, Whitby and Filey.

Communications

N. and E. of Leeds communications are provided almost wholly by the North-Eastern railway, the main line of which runs from Leeds and from Doncaster N. by York, Thirsk and Northallerton. The main junction with the Great Northern line is effected immediately N. of Doncaster, at which town are the Great Northern works. This company serves the chief centres of the W. Riding, as do also the Midland, Great Central, London & North-Western, Lancashire & Yorkshire, and North Eastern companies, the trains working over a close network of lines, while the system of running-powers held by one or more companies over the lines of another assists intercommunication. The Midland main line to Carlisle runs by Leeds, Skipton and Settle through the hilly country of the W. The Hull & Barnsley line runs from Hull to Barnsley. A complete system of canals links the centres of the southern W. Riding with the sea both E. and W., the Aire & Calder Navigation communicating with the Ouse at Goole; the Huddersfield canal runs S.W. into Lancashire, crossing the watershed by the long Stanedge tunnel, and other canals are the Leeds & Liverpool, Calder & Nebble Navigation, and the Sheffield & South Yorkshire Navigation, which gives access from Sheffield to the Trent. The Aire & Calder Navigation, the most important of these canals, which has branches from Castleford to Leeds and Wakefield, and other branches to Barnsley, Bradford and Selby, has a total length of 85 m., and has been much improved since its construction. It was projected by John Rennie and opened in 1826, with a depth of 7 ft. and locks measuring 72 by 18 ft. Its depth now varies from 8 ft. 6 in. to 10 ft., and over a distance of 28 m., between Goole and the collieries, the locks have been enlarged to 460 by 25 ft., and the width of the canal to 90 ft. The chief ports are Middlesbrough on the Tees, Hull on the Humber, and Goole on the Ouse.

Population and Administration

The area of the ancient county is 3,882,328 acres. Its population in 1891 was 3,208,521, and in 1901, 3,584,762. The population increased over fivefold between 180r and 190r;, the increase in the W. Riding exceeding sevenfold. The manner in which the population is distributed may be inferred from the following statement of the parliamentary divisions, parliamentary, county and municipal boroughs, and urban districts in the three ridings. It should be premised that each of the three ridings is a distinct administrative county; though there is one high sheriff for the whole county. The city of York (pop. 77,914) is situated partly in each of the three ridings.

The West Riding has an area of 1,771,562 acres, with a population in 1891 of 2,445,033, and in 1901 of 2,750,493. Of this area the S. industrial district, considered in the broadest application of the term as extending between Sheffield and Skipton, Sheffield and Doncaster, and Leeds and the county boundary, covers rather less than one-half. The area thus defined includes the parliamentary divisions of Barnsley, Colne Valley, Elland, Hallamshire, Holmfirth, Keighley, Morley, Normanton, Pudsey, Rotherham, Shipley, Sowerby, Spen Valley. It also includes parts of the divisions of Barkston Ash, Doncaster, Osgoldcross, Otley and Skipton (a small part). The remaining parts of these last divisions, with that of Ripon, cover the rest of the riding. Each division returns one member. The following are parliamentary boroughs: Bradford, returning 3 members, Dewsbury 1, Halifax I, Huddersfield 1, Leeds 5, Pontefract 1, Sheffield 5, Wakefield 1. All these are within the industrial district. Within this district are the following municipal boroughs (pops. in 1901): Barnsley (41,086), Batley (30,321), Bradford, city and county borough (279,767), Brighouse (21,735), Dewsbury (28,060), Doncaster (28,932), Halifax, county borough (104,936), Huddersfield, county borough (95,047), Keighley (41,564), Leeds, city and county borough (428,968), Morley (23,636), Ossett (12,903), Pontefract (13,427), Pudsey (14,907), Rotherham (54,349), Sheffield, city and county borough (409,070), Todmorden (partly in Lancashire, 25,418), Wakefield, city (41,413). The only municipal boroughs elsewhere in the riding are Harrogate (28,423) and Ripon (cathedral city, 8230). Within the industrial region there are 113 other urban districts, those with populations exceeding 10,000 being Bingley (18,449), Castleford (17,386), Cleckheaton (12,524), Elland (10,412), Featherstone (12,093), Handsworth (13,404), Hoyland Nether (12,464), Liversedge (13,980), Mexborough (10,430), Mirfield (11,341), Normanton (12,352), Rawmarsh (14,587), Rothwell (11,702), Saddleworth (12,320), Shipley (25,573), Skipton (11,986), Sowerby Bridge (11 ,477), Stanley (12,290),(12,290), Swinton (12,127), Thornhill (10,290),(10,290), Wombwell (13,252), Worsborough (10,336). The only urban districts in the West Riding not falling within the industrial region are - Goole (16,576), Ilkley (7455), Knaresborough (4979) and Selby (7786).

The North Riding has an area of 1,362,378 acres, with a population in 1891 of 359,547 and in 1901 of 377,338. It comprises the parliamentary divisions of Richmond, Cleveland, Whitby, and Thirsk and Malton, each returning one member; and the parliamentary boroughs of Middlesbrough (one member), Scarborough (one member), and parts of Stockton-on-Tees and York. The municipal boroughs are Middlesbrough, county borough (91,302), Richmond (3837), Scarborough (38,161) and Thornaby-on-Tees (16,0 4). The urban districts are Eston (11,199), Guisborough ((5645), Hinderwell (1937), Kirklington-cum-Upsland (255), Loftus 6508), Malton (4758), Masham (1955), Northallerton (4009), Ormesby (9482), Pickering (3491), Redcar (7695), Saltburn-by-theSea (2578), Scalby (1350), Skelton and Brotton (13,240), South Bank in Normanby (9645), Whitby (11,755). Of these, all ex26 petty sessional divisions. The boroughs of Bradford, Doncaster, cept Kirklington, Malton, Masham, Northallerton, Pickering and ILeeds, Pontefract, Rotherham and Sheffield, and the liberty of Whitby are in the populous Cleveland district. Besides Pickering, Ripon, have separate courts of quarter sessions and commissions there lie at the S. of the Cleveland hills the small towns of Kirkby of the peace; and Barnsley, Batley, Brighouse, Dewsbury, Hali - Moorside (1550) and Helmsley (1363). South of the last-named fax, Harrogate, Huddersfield, Keighley, Morley, Ossett and Wake - is the village of Ampleforth, with its large Roman Catholic college, field have commissions of the peace. The liberty and borough of founded in 1802, and accommodating, in fine modern buildings, Ripon are rated separately from the West Riding for the purposes about 120 students. of the county rate.

The East Riding has an area of 750,039 acres, with a population The North Riding comprises II wapentakes, and the liberties in 1891 of 341,560 and in 1901 of 385,007. It comprises the of E. and W. Langbaurgh and of Whitby Strand. It has one parliamentary divisions of Buckrose, Howdenshire and Holderness, court of quarter sessions and is divided into 19 petty sessional each returning one member; and contains the parliamentary divisions. The boroughs of Richmond and Scarborough have borough of Hull, returning three members, and part of that of separate courts of quarter sessions and commissions of the peace, York. The municipal boroughs are Beverley (13,183), Bridlington and the borough of Middlesbrough has a commission of the peace. (12,482), Hedon (Imo), and Hull, or Kingston-upon-Hull, a city The East Riding comprises 6 wapentakes and has one court of and county of a city and county borough (240,259). The urban quarter sessions, and is divided into 12 petty sessional divisions, districts are Cottingham, near Hull (3751), Filey (3003), Driffield while Hull has a separate court of quarter sessions and commis - (5766), Hessle, near Hull (3754), Hornsea (2381), Norton, near sion of the peace, and Beverley has a separate commission of the Malton (3842), Pocklington (2463) and Withernsea (1426). peace. The city of York has a separate court of quarter sessions The West Riding comprises 9 wapentakes and the liberty of, and commission of the peace. Yorkshire is in the N.E. circuit. Ripon. It has one court of quarter sessions and is divided into I The total number of civil parishes is 1586. The county contains 1178 ecclesiastical parishes and districts wholly or in part. It is divided between the dioceses of York, Ripon and Wakefield, with small parts in those of Manchester, Southwell, Durham and Lincoln. York is the seat of the northern archdiocese.

History

The kingdom of Deira, which was afterwards to include the whole of the modern Yorkshire, is first known to us in the 6th century, an Anglian tribe having seized the promontory at the mouth of the Humber, named by the invaders Holderness, followed by the gradual subjugation of the whole district now known as the East Riding. The wolds between Weighton and Flamborough Head were then mere sheep-walks, and the earliest settlements were chiefly confined to the rich valley of the lower Derwent, but the district around Weighton became the Deiran sacred ground, and Goodmanham is said to mark the site of a temple. The area computed in the modern West Riding constituted the British kingdom of Elmet, and at this date presented a desolate and unbroken tract of moorland in the N.; in the central parts about (Leeds stretched a forest region where the last wolf seen in Yorkshire is said to have been slain by John of Gaunt; while in the S. the forest and fen of Hatfield Chase presented a barrier to invasion broken only by the line of Watling Street, which crossed the Don at Doncaster, the Aire at Castleford and the Wharfe at Tadcaster. The N. continuation of the road from York through Catterick to the Tees opened the way to the fertile plain in the heart of the modern North Riding, the S.E. of which offered an unbroken forest area, later known as the forest of Galtres, which in the middle ages stretched from York N. to Easingwold and Craike and E. to Castle Howard, and as late as the 16th century lay a waste and unfrequented region abounding only in deer. Ella, the first king of Deira, extended his territory N. to the Wear, and his son Edwin completed the conquest of the district which was to become Yorkshire by the subjugation of Elmet, prompted thereto by vengeance on its king, Cerdic, for the murder of his uncle Hereric. Traces of the "burhs" by which Edwin secured his conquests are perhaps visible in the group of earthworks at Barwick and on the site of Cambodunum, but the district long remained scantily populated, and as late as the 17th century deer were said to be as plentiful in Hatfield Chase as "sheep upon a hill," for Prince Henry in 1609 was asserted to have killed soo in one day's hunting. The defeat of Edwin at Hatfield in 633 was followed by a succession of struggles between Mercia and Northumbria for the supremacy over Deira, during which the boundaries underwent constant changes. After the Danish conquest of Deira, Guthrum in 875 portioned the district among his followers, under whose lordship the English population were for the most part allowed to retain their lands. Cleveland came under Scandinavian influence, and the division into tithings probably originated about this date, the boundaries being arranged to meet at York, which, as the administrative and commercial centre of the district, rapidly increased in importance, and it has been estimated that in A.D. moo it had a population of over 30,000. At the battle of Stamford Bridge in 1066 Harold Hardrada, who had seized York, and Earl Tosti were both defeated and slain by Harold of England. The merciless harrying with which the Conqueror punished resistance to his claims is proved by the reiterated entries of waste land in the Domesday Survey, and for many years all the towns between York and Durham lay uninhabited. In 1138 the forces of David of Scotland were defeated near Northallerton in the Battle of the Standard. In the barons' wars of the reign of Henry II. Thirsk and Malgeard Castles, which had been garrisoned against the king by Roger de Mowbray, were captured and demolished. In the harrying of the northern counties by the forces of Robert Bruce in 1318, Northallerton, Boroughbridge, Scarborough and Skipton were reduced to ashes. In 1322, at the battle of Boroughbridge, the rebel barons were defeated by the forces of Edward II. In 1399 Richard II. was murdered in Pontefract Castle. In 1405 Archbishop Scrope and Thomas Mowbray joined in the insurrection against Henry IV., and led the citizens of York to Skipton Moor, where, after a defeat by the earl of Westmorland, the leaders were beheaded under the walls of York. In 1 4 08 the rebel forces of the earl of Northumberland were defeated by Sir Thomas Rokesby, high sheriff of Yorkshire, at Bramham Moor near Tadcaster. In 1453 a skirmish between the Percies and the Nevilles at Stamford Bridge was the opening event in the struggle between the houses of York and Lancaster; in 1460 the duke of York was defeated and slain at Wakefield; in 1461 the Lancastrians were defeated at Towton. The suppression of the monasteries roused deep resentment in Yorkshire, and the inhabitants flocked to join the Pilgrimage of Grace, Skipton Castle being the only place immediately N. of the Humber which remained loyal to the king. On the outbreak of the Civil War of the 17th century, opinion was divided in Yorkshire, the chief parliamentary families being the Fairfaxes and the Hothams, while the Puritan clothing-towns of the West Riding also sided with the parliament. Sir William Savile captured Leeds and Wakefield for the king in 1642, and in 1643 Newcastle, having defeated the Fairfaxes at Adwalton Moor, held all Yorkshire except Hull, which the Hothams, moved by jealousy of the Fairfaxes, had already designed to give up. In 1644, however, the Fairf axes secured the East and West Ridings, while Cromwell's victory at Marston Moor was followed by the capture of York, and in the next year of Pontefract and Scarborough.

On the redistribution of estates after the Norman Conquest, Alan of Brittany, founder of Richmond Castle, received a vast fief which became the honour of Richmond; Ilbert de Laci was rewarded with lands which afterwards constituted the honour of Pontefract. Earl Harold's estate at Coningsburgh passed to William de Warenne, earl of Surrey, together with Sandal Castle, which on the expiration of the Warenne line in the 14th century was bestowed on Edmund Langley, duke of York. Other great Domesday landholders were William de Percy, founder of the abbey of Whitby; Robert de Bruce, ancestor of the royal line of Scotland, the head of whose fief in Cleveland was transferred in the 12th century from Danby Castle to Skelton; Roger de Bush owned a large tract in S. Yorkshire, of which Tickhill was the head; the archbishop of York enjoyed the great lordship of Sherburn, and Howdenshire was a liberty of the bishop of Durham. Among the great lordships of the middle ages for which Yorkshire was distinguished were: Topcliffe, the honour of the Percies; Thirsk, of the Mowbrays; Tanfield, of the Marmions; Skipton, of the Cliffords; Middleham, of the FitzHughes and Nevilles; Helmsley, of the de Roos; Masham and Bolton, of the Scropes; Sheffield, of the Furnivalls and Talbots; Wakefield, of the duke of York. The Fairfaxes were settled in Yorkshire in the r3th century, and in the 16th century Denton became their chief seat.

The shire court for Yorkshire was held at York, but extensive privileges were enjoyed by the great landholders. In the 13th century Henry de Lacy, earl of Lincoln, claimed to hold the sheriff's tourn at Bradford and Leeds; his bailiff administered the wapentake of Stainclif in his court at Bacskalf and Slaidburn; and his steward judged cases of felony in his court at Almondbury. The archbishop of York held the sheriff's tourn at Otley, and had his own coroners at York, Hull, Beverley and Ripon. Eudo la Zouche held the sheriff's tourn at Bingley, and Thomas de Furnivall in Hallamshire. The bailiffs of Tickhill Castle also held tourns in place of the sheriff. The bishop of Durham had a court at Hoveden, and the king's bailiffs were excluded from executing their office in his estates of Howdenshire and Allertonshire. The abbot of St Mary's York had his own coroners in the wapentake of Ryedale, and the abbot of Bella Landa in Sutton. The prior of Bradenstoke held a court in his manor of Wales. The archbishop of York, Robert de Ros, and the abbot of St Mary's York judged felonies at their courts in Holderness. The liberty of Ripon (q.v.), city of Ripon, still constitutes a franchise of the archbishops of York.

In the 13th century the diocese of York included in this county the archdeaconry of York, comprising the deaneries of York, Pontefract, Doncaster and Craven; the archdeaconry of Cleveland, comprising the deaneries of Bulmer, Cleveland and Ryedale; the archdeaconry of East Riding, comprising the deaneries of Harthill (Hull), Buckrose, Dickering and Holderness; and the archdeaconry of Richmond, comprising the deaneries of Richmond, Catterick, Boroughbridge and Lonsdale. In 1541 the deaneries of Richmond were transferred to Henry VIII.'s new diocese of Chester. Ripon was created an episcopal see by act of parliament in 1836, and the deaneries of Craven and Pontefract were formed into the archdeaconry of Craven within its jurisdiction, together with the archdeaconry of Richmond. The archdeaconry of Sheffield was created in 1884 to include the deaneries of Sheffield, Rotherham, Ecclesfield and Wath. In 1888 the area of the diocese of Ripon was reduced by the creation of the see of Wakefield, including the archdeaconry of Halifax with the deaneries of Birstall, Dewsbury, Halifax, Silkstone and Wakefield, and the archdeaconry and deanery of Huddersfield. The diocese of Ripon now includes in this county the archdeaconries of Craven with three deaneries, Richmond with three deaneries and Ripon with seven deaneries. The diocese of York includes the archdeaconries of York with six deaneries, Sheffield with four deaneries, East Riding with thirteen deaneries and Cleveland with nine deaneries.

The great woollen industry of Yorkshire originated soon after the Conquest, and the further development of this and other characteristic industries may be traced in the articles on the various industrial centres. The time of the American War marked the gradual absorption by Yorkshire of the clothing trade from the E. counties. Coal appears to have been used in Yorkshire by the Romans, and was dug at Leeds in the 13th century. The early fame of Sheffield as the centre of the cutlery and iron trade is demonstrated by the line in Chaucer, "a Sheffield whitel bore he in his hose." In the 13th century a forge is mentioned at Rosedale, and the canons of Gisburn had four "fabricae" in blast in Glaisdale in Cleveland. In the 16th century limestone was dug in many parts of Elmet, and Huddlestone, Hesselwood and Tadcaster had famous quarries; Pontefract was famous for its liquorice, Aberford for its pins, Whitby for its jet. Alum was dug at Guisborough, Sandsend, Dunsley and Whitby in the 17th century, and a statute of 1659 forbade the importation of alum from abroad, in order to encourage its cultivation in this country. Bolton market was an important distributive centre for cotton materials in the 17th century, and in 1787 there were eleven cotton mills in the county.

Parliamentary Representation

The county of York was represented by two knights in the parliament of 1295, and the boroughs of Beverley, Hedon, Malton, Pickering, Pontefract, Ripon, Scarborough, Thirsk, Tickhill, Yarm and York each by two burgesses. Northallerton acquired representation in 1298, Boroughbridge in 1300, Kingston-on-Hull and Ravensburgh in 1304. In most of the boroughs the privilege of representation was allowed to lapse, and from 1328 until 1547 only York, Scarborough and Kingston-on-Hull returned members. Hedon, Thirsk, Ripon and Beverley regained the franchise in the 16th century, and Boroughbridge, Knaresborough, Aldborough and Richmond also returned members. Pontefract was represented in 1623, New Malton and Northallerton in 1640. In 1826 two additional knights were returned for the shire of York, and 14 boroughs were represented. Under the Reform Act of 1832 the county returned 6 members in 3 divisions -2 for each riding; Aldborough, Boroughbridge and Hedon were disfranchised; Northallerton and Thirsk lost I member each; Bradford, Halifax, Leeds and Sheffield acquired representation by 2 members each, and Wakefield and Whitby by I member each. Under the act of 1868 the representation of the West Riding division was increased to 6 members in 3 divisions; Dewsbury and Middlesbrough were enfranchised, returning I - member each; Leeds now returned 3 members; Knaresborough, Malton, Richmond and Ripon lost I member each. Beverley was disfranchised in 1870. (For arrangements under the act of 1885 see § Administration.) Antiquities. - Of ancient castles Yorkshire retains many interesting examples. The fine ruins at Knaresborough, Pickering, Pontefract, Richmond, Scarborough and Skipton are described under their respective headings. Barden Tower, picturesquely situated in upper Wharfedale, was built by Henry de Clifford (d. 1523), called the "shepherd lord" from the story that he was brought up as a shepherd. He was a student of astronomy and astrology. Bolton Castle, which rises majestically above Wensleydale, was pronounced by Leland "the fairest in Richmondshire." It is a square building with towers at the corners, erected in the reign of Richard II. by Richard Scrope, chancellor of England. It was occupied by Queen Mary while under the charge of Lord Scrope, was besieged during the civil wars, and rendered untenable in 1647. Of Bowes Castle, in the North Riding near Barnard Castle, there remains only the square keep, supposed to have been built by Alan Niger, 1st earl of Richmond, in the 12th century, but the site was occupied by the Romans. Cawood Castle, on the Ouse near Selby, retains its gate way tower erected in the reign of Henry VI. The castle, said to have been founded by fEthelstan in 620, was the palace of the archbishops of York, and Wolsey resided in it. Conisborough Castle stands by the Don between Rotherham and Doncaster. Its origin is uncertain, but dates probably from Saxon times. The keep and portions of the walls remain; and the ruin possesses additional interest from its treatment in Scott's Ivanhoe. The ruins of Danby Castle, which is supposed to have been built shortly after the Conquest by Robert de Bruce or Brus, are of various dates. Harewood Castle in lower Wharfedale was founded soon after the Conquest, but contains no portions earlier than the reign of Edward III. The keep of Helmsley Castle was built late in the 12th century probably by Robert de Ros, surnamed Fursan; the earthworks are apparently of much earlier date. There are picturesque remains of the quadrangular fortress of Middleham in Wensleydale, built in the 12th century by Robert FitzRanulph, afterwards possessed by the Nevilles, and rendered untenable by order of parliament in 1647. Mulgrave Castle, near the modern residence of the same name in the Whitby district, is said to have been founded two centuries before the Conquest by a Saxon giant named Wade or Wadda. Parts are clearly Norman, but some of the masonry suggests an earlier date. The castle was dismantled after the civil wars. There are slight remain, of the 15th century, of Ravensworth Castle, near Richmond. This was probably an early foundation of the family of Fitz Hugh. Sheriff Hutton Castle, between York and Malton, was the foundation of Bertram de Bulmer in the reign of Stephen; the remains are of the early part of the 15th century, when the property passed to the Nevilles. Spofforth Castle, near Harrogate, was erected by Henry de Percy in 1309. Its ruins range from the period of foundation to the 15th century. Of Tickhill Castle, near Doncaster, built or enlarged by Roger de Busli in the I ith century, there are foundations of the keep and fragments of the walls. Of Whorlton Castle in Cleveland, the Perpendicular gatehouse is very fine. One side remains of the great quadrangular fortress of Wressell, E. of Selby, built by Thomas Percy, earl of Worcester, in the reign of Richard II. Some of the mansions in the county incorporate remains of ancient strongholds, such as those at Gilling, under the Hambleton Hills in the North Riding, Ripley near Harrogate, and Skelton in Cleveland. Medieval mansions are numerous, a noteworthy example being the Elizabethan hall of Burton Agnes, in the N. of Holderness.

In ecclesiastical architecture Yorkshire is extraordinaril y rich. At the time of the Dissolution there were 28 abbeys, 26 priories, 23 nunneries, 30 friaries, 13 cells, 4 commanderies of Knights Hospitallers and 4 preceptories of Knights Templars. The principal monastic ruins are described under separate headings and elsewhere. These are Bolton Abbey (properly Priory), a foundation of Augustinian canons; Fountains Abbey, a Cistercian foundation, the finest and most complete of the ruined abbeys in England; the Cistercian abbey of Kirkstall near Leeds (q.v.); the Cistercian abbey of Rievaulx, and the Benedictine abbey of St Mary, at York. For the plans and buildings of Fountains, Kirkstall and St Mary's, York, see Abbey. Separate reference is also made to the ruins of Jervaulx (Cistercian) and Coverham (Premonstratensian) in Wensleydale, and to the remains at Bridlington, Guisborough, Malton, Whitby, Easby near Richmond, Kirkham near Malton,. Monk Bretton near Barnsley, and Mount Grace near Northallerton. There are fine though scanty remains of Byland Abbey, of Early English date, between Thirsk and 1lalton; the abbey was founded for Cistercian monks in the 12th century, and was previously established at Old Byland near Rievaulx. There was a house of Premonstratensians at Egglestone above the Tees near Barnard Castle. Other ruins are the Cistercian foundations of the 12th century at Meaux in Holderness, Roche, E. of Rotherham, and Sawley in Ribblesdale; the Benedictine nunneries of Marrick in upper Swaledale, and Rosedale under the high moors of the N.E.; and the Gilbertine house of Watton in Holderness, of the 12th century, converted into a dwelling.

Descriptions are given in the articles on the respective cities and towns of the cathedral or minster at York, and of the numerous churches in that city; of the cathedral churches at Ripon and Wakefield; of the minster and the church of St Mary at Beverley; and of the fine parish churches at Bradford, Bridlington (the old priory church), Hedon, Hull, Rotherham, Selby (abbey church), Sheffield and Thirsk. In Holderness are the splendid churches of Howden and Patrington, both in the main Decorated; and the fine late Norman building at Kirkburn. A very perfect though small example of a Norman church is seen at Birkin on the Aire below Pontefract. At Nun Monkton near York is a beautiful Early English church, formerly belonging to a Benedictine nunnery. Goodmanham in the S. Wolds is the scene, in all probability, of the conversion by Paulinus of Edwin of -Northumbria in 625, who was afterwards baptized at York. At Kirkdale near Kirkby Moorside in the N. Riding is a singular example of an inscribed sundial of pre-Conquest date. At Lastingham in the same district is a very fine and early Norman crypt.

See Victoria County History, Yorkshire: T. Allen, History of the County of York (3 vols., London, 1828-31); T. Baines, Yorkshire Past and Present, including an account of the woollen trade of Yorkshire by E. Baines (2 vols., London, 1871-77); John Burton, Monasticon Eboracense (London, 1758-59); W. Smith, Old Yorkshire (London, 1881); G. Frank, Ryedale and North Yorkshire Antiquities (York, 1888); G. R. Park, Parliamentary Representation of Yorkshire (Hull, 1886); A. D. H. Leadman, Proelia Eboracensia, Battles fought in Yorkshire (London, 1891); T. D. Whitaker, History of Richmondshire (London, 1823), History of Craven (London, 1878), History of Leeds and Elmet (2 vols., Leeds, 1816); J. Wainwright, Yorkshire; Wapentake of Strafford and Tickhill, vol. i. (Sheffield, 1826); W. Grainge, Castles and Abbeys of Yorkshire (York, 1855); J. Hunter, South Yorkshire (2 vols., London, 1828-31); J. J. Sheahan and T. Whellan, History of the City of York, the Ainsty Wapentake, and the East Riding of Yorkshire (3 vols., Beverley, 18 55-57); T. Langdale, Topographical Dictionary of Yorkshire (Northallerton, 1809); G. H. de S. N. Plantagenet Harrison, History of Yorkshire (London, 1879, &c.); see also publications of the Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical Society. .


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia

Etymology

From York + shire.

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /ˈjɔːkʃə/

Proper noun

Singular
Yorkshire

Plural
-

Yorkshire

  1. A former large county of north-east England; originally divided into three ridings, since 1974 divided into four administrative counties.

Derived terms

See also

Noun

Singular
Yorkshire

Plural
Yorkshires

Yorkshire (plural Yorkshires)

  1. (informal) Shorter name for Yorkshire pudding.

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

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This article is about the historic English county. For other uses, see Yorkshire.
Yorkshire

<tr><td colspan="2" style="text-align: center; background: white;">File:Flag of Yorkshire.jpg</td></tr>

File:EnglandYorkshireTrad.png
Geography
Status Historic
Proceeded by Yorkshire and the Humber
Sedbergh Rural District (Cumbria)
Bowland Rural District (Lancashire)
Startforth Rural District (Durham)
Saddleworth (Greater Manchester)
County town York
Chapman code YKS
Area
Area 3,669,510 acres (14,850 km2)
Rank Ranked 1st (1831)
Divisions
File:Yorkshire Ridings.png
Historic Ridings
  1. North Riding
  2. West Riding
  3. East Riding
Ceremonial counties North Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
East Riding of Yorkshire
South Yorkshire

Yorkshire is a historic county of northern England. It is the largest historic county of Great Britain. Although Yorkshire is a historic county, with no current official standing (except as part of the name of the English region of Yorkshire and the Humber), the name is completely familiar and well-understood across the United Kingdom and is in common use.

Yorkshire is widely considered to be the greenest area in England, due to both the vast rural countryside of the Yorkshire Dales, North York Moors and some of the major cities,[1][2] this has led to Yorkshire being nicknamed God's Own County.[3]

Throughout its history Yorkshire has played a prominent role. The Romans held the City of York (which the county derives its name from) as one of the two capitals of all Roman Britain.[4] Under the Vikings the area was proclaimed as the Kingdom of York for around century, while most of the modern day large cities were founded during the Norman period.[5]

Yorkshire covers just under 6,000 square miles (15,000 km²),[6] under the current name it has a population of around five million.[7] The emblem of Yorkshire is the White Rose of the House of York, most commonly the flag representative is the White Rose on a dark blue background.[8] Yorkshire Day is held on 1 August.

Contents

History

Main article: History of Yorkshire

Celtic tribes

The original inhabitants of Yorkshire were the Celts, coming from two separate tribes. The Brigantes, who probably came over from the Alps or Gallaecia, controlled territory which included all of the North Riding of Yorkshire and the West Riding of Yorkshire, the tribe controlled most of Northern England and more territory than any other Celtic tribe in England.[9]

The Brigantes made the area of Yorkshire their heartland, this is evident in that Isurium Brigantum (now known as Aldborough) was made the capital town of their entire territory; in fact six of the nine Brigantian poleis described by Claudius Ptolemaeus in the Geographia fall within the historic county.[10][11] The second tribe were the Parisii who controlled the exact area of the East Riding of Yorkshire, they were thought to have been related to the Parisii of Lutetia Parisiorum, Gaul (known today as Paris, France).[12]

The Roman conquest of Britain began in 43 AD, however the Brigantes continued control of their kingdom as a client state of Rome for an extended period, accepted under the reign of Brigantian monarchs Cartimandua and Venutius. The situation suited both the Romans and the Brigantes initially, who themselves were known as the most militant tribe in Britain.[13]

Roman Yorkshire

Queen Cartimandua left her husband for Vellocatus, setting off a chain of events which would change the ownership of the Yorkshire area. Cartimandua, due to her good relationship with the Romans was able to keep control of the kingdom, however her former husband staged rebellions against her and her Roman allies.[14] At the second attempt Venutius took back his kingdom, but the Romans under general Petillius Cerialis conquered the Brigantes in 71 AD.[15]

File:Yorkconstantine.jpg Under Roman rule, the high profile of the area continued; the fortified city of Eboracum (now known as York) was named as capital of Britannia Inferior and joint-capital of all Roman Britain.[16] For the two years before the death of Emperor Septimus Severus, the enitre Roman Empire was run from Eboracum by him.[17] A second Emperor Constantius Chlorus died in Yorkshire during a visit in 306 AD, this saw his son Constantine the Great proclaimed Emperor in the city; he would become renowned due to his contributions to Christianity.[18]

In the early 400s the Roman rule ceased with the withdrawal of the last active Roman troops, by this stage the Empire was in heavy decline.[17] However, during the three and a half centuries of Roman rule in Yorkshire they had introduced much to help forward civilisation there, such as; sanitation, irrigation, education, roads, public libraries, cement, bricks, heated baths, coins, art, literature, law, wine, the calendar, glass, shops, public order, cats, various fruits and vegetables (carrots, turnips, apples, peas, cabbage, pears, grapes) and more.[19]

Second Celtic period and Angles

After the Romans left, small Celtic kingdoms built up in Yorkshire; the Kingdom of Ebrauc around York and more notably the Kingdom of Elmet around West Yorkshire.[20][21] The Elmet in particular managed to hold out with their Celtic kingdom against the invading Angles for a century and a half, ensuring that the Anglian kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria on either side developed separately. Eventually the Elmet succumbed and became part of the Anglian kingdom of Deira.[22]

It should be noted that, although this period is called the Anglo-Saxon period, it was the Angles (from Angeln) who conquered the North, while the Saxons (from Nordalbingia) conquered the South.[23] Under Aethelfrith Deira merged with another Anglian kingdom of Bernicia in the early 600s, to form the Kingdom of Northumbria. At its greatest extent, Northumbria stretched from the Irish Sea to the North Sea and from Edinburgh down to Hallamshire in South Yorkshire.[24]

Kingdom of Jorvik

Main article: Kingdom of York

An army of Danish Vikings invaved Northumbrian territory in 886 AD, with what was named by their enemies as the "Great Heathen Army".[25] The Danes took what is modern day York and renamed it as Jorvik, making it their new capital city of a kingdom under the same name; the area which they took as their kingdom was Southern Northumbria (Yorkshire).[5]

File:EricBloodaxeCoin.png The Danes went on to conquer a large area of England which afterwards became known as the Danelaw, but whereas most of the Danelaw was still English land, albeit in submission to Viking overlords, it was in the Kingdom of York founded by Halfdan Ragnarsson,[26] that the only truly Viking territory on mainland Britain was established. Although it was founded by Danes, the kingdom was passed onto Norwegian kings.[26] Through the Vikings evolving trade, Jorvik was able to trade with the British Isles, North-West Europe, the Mediterranean and the Middle East.[27]

Eric Bloodaxe, who was the last independent Viking king of Jorvik is a particularly noted figure in history.[28] After around 100 years of a Norse-Yorkshire kingdom, the Kingdom of Wessex gained control of Yorkshire and the North in general, placing Yorkshire within Northumbria again - which was now an almost-independent earldom, rather than a separate kingdom. The Wessex Kings of England were reputed to have respected the Norse customs in Yorkshire and left law-making in the hands of the local aristocracy.[29]

Norman conquest

In the weeks immediately leading up the Battle of Hastings in 1066 AD, Harold II of England was distracted by events in Yorkshire; his brother Tostig and Harold Hardrada King of Norway were attempting a take over bid in the North, they had already won the Battle of Fulford. The King of England marched North and the two armies met at the Battle of Stamford Bridge, Tostig and Hardrada were both killed and their army was defeated decisively. However, Harold Godwinson was forced to immediately march his army back down to the South where William the Conqueror was landing. The King was defeated at Hastings and this led to the Norman conquest of England.

The people of the North rebelled again in September 1069 AD, this time against the Normans, enlisting Sweyn I of Denmark; they tried to take back York but the Normans burnt it before they could.[30] What followed was the Harrying of the North ordered by William, from York to Durham all crops, domestic animals and farming tools were scorched. Many villages between the towns were burnt and many local Northerners were indiscriminantly murdered.[31] During the winter that followed, whole families starved to death, thousands of peasants died of cold and hunger; Orderic Vitalis put the estimation at "more than 100,000" people from the North dead from hunger.[32] File:RievaulxAbbey Yorkshire 04.jpg In the centuries following, many abbeys and priories were built in Yorkshire. The Norman landowners were keen to increase their revenues and established new towns such as Leeds, Hull, Sheffield, Barnsley, Doncaster, Scarborough and others. Of the towns founded before the conquest only York, Bridlington and Pocklington carried on at a prominent level.[33]

The population of Yorkshire was booming, until it like the rest of Britain was hit by the Great Famine in the years between 1315 and 1322.[33] In the early 1300s the people of Yorkshire also had to contest with the Battle of the Standard at Northallerton with the Scots, representing the Kingdom of England led by Archbishop Thurstan of York soldiers from Yorkshire defeated the more numerous Scots.[34] The Black Death reached Yorkshire by 1349, killing around a third of the entire population.[33]

Wars of the Roses

For more information: House of York, Wars of the Roses

When King Richard II was overthrown, antagonism between the House of York and the House of Lancaster, both branches of the House of Plantagenet, began to emerge. Eventually the two houses fought in a series of civil wars (including ones at Wakefield and Towton) for the throne of England, the wars are commonly known as the Wars of the Roses. After a long violent struggle, King Henry VI of the House of Lancaster was deposed and imprisoned on 4 March 1461 by his Yorkist cousin and new King of England, Edward IV.[35] Eight years later hostilities resumed, Edward was forced into exile to Burgundy by Richard Neville and turncoat John Neville as Lancaster's Henry VI was reinstated. File:Edward4.jpg

The Tudor Rose.

Edward would return though, landing in Ravenspurn he eventually went onto defeat the House of Lancaster, as Henry VI had no heirs, he was killed to strengthen Yorkist grip on the throne as Edward was restored as King of England. This was generally considered an end to the most significant hostilities, the rest of Edward's reign was peaceful. After Edward IV suddenly died and his 12 year old son Edward V was proclaimed as heir, a political storm erupted; a family named the Woodvilles had found themselves high up the political hierarchy and were in a position to influence the young Yorkist king.

Frictions had developed between Edward IV and the Woodvilles (the family of his wife Elizabeth Woodville) before his death and so Edward IV's brother Richard III, put the young king in the Tower of London along with his younger brother, they became known as the Princes in the Tower.[35] Richard III argued that Elizabeth Woodville's marriage to Edward IV was illegal and thus the two boys were illegitimate, Parliament agreed and Richard was crowned King of England; he would prove to be the last Yorkist king.[35] Henry Tudor of the House of Lancaster, then defeated and killed Richard at the Battle of Bosworth Field, he then became King Henry VII and married Elizabeth of York daughter of Yorkist Edward IV, ending the wars.[36] The two roses were combined to form the Tudor Rose.

Saints, Civil War and textile industry

The wool industry being centred in West Yorkshire helped a revival in the 16th century. The textile industry in general helped Wakefield and Halifax grow. Changes were afoot outside of employment after Henry VIII closed some monasteries and so 1536 saw the Pilgrimage of Grace rebellion. Due to the Protestant Reformation wider England became a Protestant country, however some of the Catholic contingent in Yorkshire continued to practice their religion and those caught were executed during the reign of Elizabeth I, such as York woman Margaret Clitherow who was later canonised. File:Marston Moor JBarker.jpg Yorkshire was on divided sides during the English Civil War, which started in 1642 between king and parliament; Hull famously shut the gates of the city on the king when he came to enter the city a few months before fighting began. York was the base for royalist supporters, from there the royals captured Leeds and Wakefield only to have them recaptured a few months later. The royalists won the Battle of Adwalton Moor meaning they controlled Yorkshire (with the exception of Hull). From their base in Hull the parliamentarians fought back, town by town re-taking Yorkshire until they had won the Battle of Marston Moor and with it control of all North of England.

Leeds and other wool industry centred towns continued to grow, along with Sheffield, Huddersfield and Hull, while coal mining first came into prominence in the West Riding of Yorkshire. Canals and turnpike roads were introduced in the late 1700s. In the following century the spa towns of Harrogate and Scarborough also flourished, due to people believing mineral water had curing properties.

Modern Yorkshire

Main article: Administrative reforms in Yorkshire

The 19th century saw Yorkshire's continued growth, with the population growing and the Industrial Revolution continuing with prominent industries in coal, textile and steel (especially in Sheffield). However, despite the booming industry, living conditions declined in the industrial towns due to overcrowding, this saw bouts of cholera in both 1832 and 1848. Fortunately for the county, advances were made by the end of the century with the introduction of modern sewers and water supplies. Several Yorkshire railway networks were introduced as railways spread across the country to reach remote areas.

During the Second World War, Yorkshire became an important base for RAF Bomber Command and brought the county into the cutting edge of the war.[37] Elvington Airfield and Museum is the largest remaining. It is also an Allied Forces Memorial, visited by people from around the world.

Physical geography

Main articles: Geological history of Yorkshire and list of places in Yorkshire

File:Yorksgeology.jpg Historically, the northern boundary of Yorkshire was the River Tees, the eastern boundary was the North Sea coast and the southern boundary was the Humber Estuary and River Don and River Sheaf. The western boundary meandered along the western slopes of the Pennine Hills to again meet the River Tees.[38] It is bordered by several other historic counties in the form of County Durham, Lincolnshire, Derbyshire, Lancashire and Westmorland.[39]

In Yorkshire there is a very close relationship between the major topographical areas and the geological period in which they were formed.[38] The Pennine chain of Hills in the west is of Carboniferous origin. The central vale is Permo-Triassic. The North York Moors in the north-east of the county are Jurassic in age while the Yorkshire Wolds to the south east are Cretaceous chalk uplands.[38]

File:Yorkshire-Drainage.jpg The era of Yorkshire is drained by several rivers. In Western and central Yorkshire the many rivers empty their waters into the River Ouse which in turn reaches the North Sea via the Humber Estuary.[40] The most northerly of the rivers in the Ouse system is the Swale, which drains Swaledale before passing through Richmond and meandering across the Vale of Mowbray. Next, draining Wensleydale, is the River Ure, which joins the Swale east of Boroughbridge. The River Nidd rises on the edge of the Yorkshire Dales National Park and flows along Nidderdale before reaching the Vale of York.[40]

The Ouse is the name given to the river after its confluence with the Ure at Ouse Gill Beck. The River Wharfe, which drains Wharfedale, joins the Ouse upstream of Cawood.[40] The Rivers Aire and Calder are more southerly contributors to the River Ouse and the most southerly Yorkshire tributary is the River Don, which flows northwards to join the main river at Goole. In the far north of the county the River Tees flows easteards through Teesdale and empties its waters into the North Sea downstream of Middlesbrough. The smaller River Esk flows from west to east at the northern foot of the North York Moors to reach the sea at Whitby.[40]

The River Derwent rises on the North York Moors, flows south then westwards through the Vale of Pickering then turns south again to drain the eastern part of the Vale of York. It empties into the River Ouse at Barmby on the Marsh.[40] To the east of the Yorkshire Wolds the River Hull flows southwards to join the Humber Estuary at Kingston upon Hull. The western Pennines are served by the River Ribble which drains westwards into the Irish Sea close to Lytham St Anne's.[40]

Nature

Main article: Natural history of Yorkshire

File:Upper Nidderdale.JPG File:Spurn 8.jpg The countryside of Yorkshire is so renowned that it has earned the common nickname of God's Own County.[3] In recent times, North Yorkshire has displaced Kent to take the title Garden of England.[41]

Yorkshire has three national parks, in the form of the Peak District, North York Moors and the Yorkshire Dales. The coastal areas of Yorkshire are also renowned for their beauty, there are several nature reserves ran by the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds on the coast, offering a chance to see the likes of the Northern Gannet and Atlantic Puffin.

Spurn Point a narrow, three mile (5 km) long sand spit featuring an abandoned lighthouse is also considered highly interesting from geomorphological perspective due to the cyclical nature of the feature.[42] Whitby in North Yorkshire has been voted as the United Kingdom's best beach, due to its "postcard-perfect harbour".[43]

Transport

File:A1&M62.jpg The most prominent road in Yorkshire, historically known as the Great North Road, is in contemporary times known as the A1(M).[44] The motorway passes through the centre of the county and is the prime route from London to Edinburgh. Other important roads include the east serving A19 road which is also prominent for travelling up and down England. The M62 motorway crosses the county from east to west linking from Hull all towards Greater Manchester and Merseyside.[45] The East Coast Main Line rail link between Scotland and London runs roughly parallel with the A1(M) through Yorkshire and the Trans Pennine rail link runs east to west joining Hull and Liverpool via Leeds.[46]

Before the advent of rail transport, seaports of Hull and Whitby played an important role in transporting goods. Historically canals were used, including the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, which is the longest canal in England. In the modern day mainland Europe (Holland and Belgium) can be reached from Hull via regular ferry services from P&O Ferries.[47] Yorkshire also has air transport services in the form of the Leeds Bradford International Airport. The airport has experienced significant and rapid growth in both terminal size and passenger facilities since 1996 when improvements began until the present day.[48] South Yorkshire is served by the Robin Hood Airport Doncaster Sheffield, based in Finningley.

Culture

Main article: Culture of Yorkshire

Journalist and broadcaster Sir Bernard Ingham recently wrote a book Yorkshire Greats: The County's Fifty Finest, in which he proposed a list of the greatest ever Yorkshiremen and women. The list included the likes of James Cook, William Wilberforce and George Cayley.

See also

Look up Yorkshire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

References

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  40. ^ a b c d e f (1992) Yorkshire Rivers: A Canoeists Guide. Menasha Ridge Press. ISBN 978-1871890167. 
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  43. ^ "Report rates the best UK beaches", BBC.co.uk, 24 October 2007. 
  44. ^ "Region: North East - Trunk Road A1 in the North Riding of Yorkshire", IHT.org, 24 October 2007. 
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External links

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Yorkshire. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
Facts about YorkshireRDF feed

This article uses material from the "Yorkshire" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

Yorkshire is a historic county in Northern England. It covers a large area of the Pennines. The main towns in Yorkshire are Leeds, York, Sheffield and Hull. It covers just under 6,000 square miles (16,000 km2) with a population of around five million. Yorkshire was historically split up into three parts known as the East, North, and West Ridings. It is now split up into four divisions, the East Riding of Yorkshire, North Yorkshire, South Yorkshire and West Yorkshire.








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