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Yorkshire and the Humber
Yorkshire and the Humber
Yorkshire and the Humber region shown within England
Geography
Status Region
Area
— Total
Ranked 5th
15,420 km²
5,953 sq mi
NUTS 1 UKE
Demographics
Population
— Total
— Density
Ranked 6th
5,142,400 (2006)
328/km²
GDP per capita £16,880 (8th)
Government
HQ Leeds / Sheffield
Leadership Local Government Yorkshire and Humber
Regional development Yorkshire Forward
European parliament Yorkshire and the Humber
Website

Yorkshire and the Humber is one of the nine government office regions of England. It covers most of the historic county of Yorkshire, along with the part of northern Lincolnshire that was, from 1974 to 1996, within the former shire county of Humberside. The population in 2006 was 5,142,400.

Contents

Geographical context

England
Coat of Arms of the UK Government.

This article is part of the series:
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See Topographical areas of Yorkshire and Geology of Yorkshire

In the Yorkshire and the Humber region there is a very close relationship between the major topographical areas and the underlying geology.[1] The Pennine chain of hills in the west is of Carboniferous origin. The central vale is Permo-Triassic. The North York Moors in the north-east of the county are Jurassic in age while the Yorkshire Wolds and Lincolnshire Wolds to the south east are Cretaceous chalk uplands.[1]

The main rivers of Yorkshire.

The region is drained by several rivers. In western and central Yorkshire the many rivers empty their waters into the River Ouse which reaches the North Sea via the Humber Estuary.[2] The most northerly of the rivers in the Ouse system is the River Swale, which drains Swaledale before passing through Richmond and meandering across the Vale of Mowbray. Next, draining Wensleydale, is the River Ure, which joins the Swale east of Boroughbridge. The River Nidd rises on the edge of the Yorkshire Dales National Park and flows along Nidderdale before reaching the Vale of York.[2]

The Ouse is the name given to the river after its confluence with the Ure at Ouse Gill Beck. The River Wharfe, which drains Wharfedale, joins the Ouse upstream of Cawood.[2] The Rivers Aire and Calder are more southerly contributors to the River Ouse and the most southerly Yorkshire tributary is the River Don, which flows northwards to join the main river at Goole. In the far north of the county the River Tees flows eastwards through Teesdale and empties its waters into the North Sea downstream of Middlesbrough. The smaller River Esk flows from west to east at the northern foot of the North York Moors to reach the sea at Whitby.[2]

The River Derwent rises on the North York Moors, flows south then westwards through the Vale of Pickering then turns south again to drain the eastern part of the Vale of York. It empties into the River Ouse at Barmby on the Marsh.[2] To the east of the Yorkshire Wolds the River Hull flows southwards to join the Humber Estuary at Kingston upon Hull. The western Pennines are served by the River Ribble which drains westwards into the Irish Sea close to Lytham St Annes.[2]

The highest point of the region is Whernside, in the Yorkshire Dales, at 737 metres (2,418 ft). The largest freshwater lake is Hornsea Mere in the East Riding of Yorkshire.

The Humber Bridge

This region of England generally has cool summers and relatively mild winters with the upland areas of the North York Moors and the Pennines experiencing the coolest weather and the Vale of York the warmest. Weather conditions vary from day to day as well as from season to season. The latitude of the area means that it is influenced by predominantly westerly winds with depressions and their associated fronts, bringing with them unsettled and windy weather, particularly in winter. Between depressions there are often small mobile anticyclones that bring periods of fair weather. In winter anticyclones bring cold dry weather. In summer the anticyclones tend to bring dry settled conditions which can lead to drought. For its latitude this area is mild in winter and cooler in summer due to the influence of the Gulf Stream in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Air temperature varies on a daily and seasonal basis. The temperature is usually lower at night and January is the coldest time of the year and July is usually the warmest month.[3]

Local government

The official region consists of the following subdivisions:[4]

Map Ceremonial county County/ unitary Districts
EnglandYorkshireHumberNumbered.png South Yorkshire * 1. Sheffield, 2. Rotherham, 3. Barnsley, 4. Doncaster
West Yorkshire * 5. Wakefield, 6. Kirklees, 7. Calderdale, 8. Bradford, 9. Leeds
North Yorkshire
(part only)
10. North Yorkshire † a.) Selby, b.) Harrogate, c.) Craven, d.) Richmondshire, e.) Hambleton, f.) Ryedale, g.) Scarborough
11. York U.A.
East Riding of Yorkshire 12. East Riding of Yorkshire U.A.
13. Kingston upon Hull U.A.
Lincolnshire
(part only)
14. North Lincolnshire U.A.
15. North East Lincolnshire U.A.

Key: shire county = † | metropolitan county = *

It was originally called Yorkshire and Humberside, and defined as North Yorkshire, West Yorkshire, South Yorkshire and Humberside. Since then, Humberside has been abolished, and the councils of West and South Yorkshire abolished. The older form of the name is still occasionally seen.

Regional assembly

The Yorkshire and Humber Assembly was a partnership of all local authorities in the region and representatives of various economic, social and environmental sectors. The full Assembly normally met three times a year, normally in February, June and October.

The full Assembly is responsible for providing regional leadership, agreeing regional strategic priorities, directing the development of the Integrated Regional Framework and endorsing key regional strategies. Membership comprises all 22 local authorities in this region, plus 15 Social, Economic and Environmental partners, and the National Parks for planning purposes.[5]

Yorkshire Forward takes all government funding decisions for the region

On 31 March 2009, the Assembly was abolished and replaced by Local Government Yorkshire and Humber, which continues to be based in the former Assembly premises in King Street in Wakefield.[6][7]

Yorkshire is one of the two regions (along with the North West) that were expected to have a referendum about the establishment of an elected regional assembly. When the North East region of England rejected having an elected regional assembly in a referendum, the then Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott announced that he would not move orders for other referenda before the relevant provisions expired in June, 2005.

European Parliament

The European constituency of Yorkshire and the Humber is coterminous with the English region. After the European Parliament election in June 2009, Yorkshire and the Humber is represented by two Conservative, one Labour, one UKIP, one Liberal Democrat and one BNP MEPs. It is one of only two regions in the UK to have elected an MEP from the BNP.[8]

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Election results 2009

Elected candidates are shown in bold. Brackets indicate the number of votes per seat won.

European Election 2009: Yorkshire and The Humber[9][10]
List Candidates Votes % ±%
Conservative Edward McMillan-Scott, Timothy Kirkhope
Fleur Butler, Matthew Bean, Nick Burrows, Glynis Frew
299,802
(149,901)
24.5 -0.2
Labour Linda McAvan
Richard Corbett, Emma Hoddinott, David Bowe, Melanie Onn, Mahroof Hussain
230,009 18.8 -7.5
UKIP Godfrey Bloom
Jonathan Arnott, Jason Smith, Toby Horton, David Daniel, Lynette Afshar
213,750 17.4 +2.9
Liberal Democrat Diana Wallis
Stewart Arnold, Rebecca Taylor, James Monaghan, Nader Fekri, Neil Poole
161,552 13.2 -2.4
BNP Andrew Brons
Nick Cass, Chris Beverley, Marlene Guest, Paul Harris, Trevor Brown
120,139 9.8 +1.8
Green Martin Hemingway, Shan Oakes, Leslie Rowe, Rick Rolt, Kevin Warnes, Lesley Hedges 104,456 8.5 +2.8
English Democrats Michael Cassidy, Joanne Robinson, Peter Davies, David  Wildgoose, Paul McEnhill, Geoffery Crossman 31,287 2.6 +1.0
Socialist Labour William Capstick, Linda Sheriden, Stephen Yoxall, Holly Jo Yoxall, Terence Robinson, Christopher Butler 19,380 1.6 N/A
Christian Party Sid Cordle, Andrew McClintock, Angela MacDonald, John O'Brien, Samantha Cauldwell, Rebecca Jones 16,742 1.4 N/A
NO2EU Keith Gibson, Celia Foote, Jackie Grunsell, Peter Marsh, Mike Davies, Juliet Marie Boddington 15,614 1.3 N/A
Jury Team Barbara Hibbert, Anthony Hooper, Ben Saxton 7,181 0.6 N/A
Libertas Antony Devoy, Edward Devoy, Stephen Clark, Diana MacLeod, Trevor Bending, Kathleen Harris 6,268 0.5 N/A
Turnout 1,226,180 32.3 -10.3

Demographics

Population, density and settlements

Region/County Population Population Density Largest town/city Largest metropolitan area
Yorkshire and the Humber 5,177,200 328/km² Leeds (761,100) West Yorkshire Urban Area (1,499,465)
West Yorkshire 2,118,600 1,004/km² Leeds (761,100) West Yorkshire Urban Area (1,499,465)
South Yorkshire 1,292,900 833/km² Sheffield (530,300) Sheffield Urban Area (640,720)
East Riding of Yorkshire 587,100 137/km² Kingston upon Hull (257,000) Kingston upon Hull Urban Area (301,416)
North Yorkshire 1,061,300 123/km² York (193,300) York (193,300)
North Lincolnshire 159,000 188/km² Scunthorpe (72,660) Scunthorpe (72,660)
North East Lincolnshire 158,900 828/km² Grimsby (87,574) Grimsby/Cleethorpes (138,842)

[11]

Teenage pregnancy

For top-tier authorities, Kingston upon Hull has the highest teenage pregnancy rate, closely followed by North East Lincolnshire. For top-tier authorities, North Yorkshire has the lowest teenage pregnancy rate. For council districts, Ryedale has the lowest rate, closely followed by Craven. Only North Yorkshire has council districts in the region.

Transport

Transport policy

M62 Ouse Bridge

As part of the national transport planning system, the Regional Assembly is required to produce a Regional Transport Strategy (RTS) to provide long term planning for transport in the region. This involves region wide transport schemes such as those carried out by the Highways Agency and Network Rail.[12] Within the region the local transport authorities plan for the future by producing Local Transport Plans (LTP) which outline their strategies, policies and implementation programmes.[13] The most recent LTP is that for the period 2006–11. In the Yorkshire and The Humber region the following transport authorities have published their LTP online: East Riding of Yorkshire U.A.,[14] Kingston upon Hull,[15] North East Lincolnshire U.A.,[16] North Lincolnshire U.A.,[17] North Yorkshire,[18] South Yorkshire,[19] West Yorkshire[20] and York U.A..[21]

Road

The M62's route in relation to the four major cities it serves: Liverpool, Manchester, Leeds and Hull.

The M62 motorway is Yorkshire's main east-west thoroughfare, and north-south routes are the M1 and the A1, with only the A1 continuing further north. The other main north south road in the region is the A19.[22] The M180 connects the east coast ports via the M18.

Rail

The central hubs of the rail network in the region are Leeds, Sheffield and York. The East Coast Main Line passes through Leeds and York whilst the Midland Main Line finishes at Sheffield, with a less regular service to Leeds, operated by East Midlands Trains. East-west routes are the North TransPennine to Manchester, and South TransPennine through Doncaster.[23]

Air

The Pride of Rotterdam ferry operates from Hull

Airports in the region are Leeds Bradford International Airport at Yeadon, Robin Hood Airport Doncaster Sheffield near Doncaster and Humberside Airport near Brigg in North Lincolnshire. Durham Tees Valley Airport serves the northernmost areas of the region, and there are day and night direct rail connections from the region to Manchester Airport.[24]

Sea

Hull has daily ferries to Zeebrugge and Rotterdam.[25] Immingham carries much freight transport via DFDS Tor Line and the Stena Line.


Economy

Drax

Yorkshire Forward is the Regional Development Agency charged with improving the Yorkshire and Humber economy, where some 270,000 businesses contribute to an economy worth in excess of £80 billion. With over 5 million people living in the region it ranks alongside some small countries including Ireland, Greece, Norway and Singapore.[26]

Yorkshire in the past has been synonymous with mining. Many pits closed in the 1990s, with only two in the Pontefract area left at Kellingley and Sharlston. In South Yorkshire, there is Maltby Main Colliery and Hatfield Colliery at Stainforth. The NUM was very Yorkshire-dominated. Coal still plays a part in the economy - there are three large power stations along the Aire Valley, with Drax being the second largest in Europe with 3,945 MW of capacity. The distribution area once looked after by the regional electricity company Yorkshire Electricity is now looked after by YEDL, owned by CE Electric UK.

East and North

Corus steelworks at Scunthorpe

Scunthorpe is where steel is smelted by Corus, and where Golden Wonder crisps are made. Grimsby is home of Britain's fishing industry, and has many frozen food factories such as Young's Bluecrest. There are two large oil refineries at Immingham, and a BP chemical works at Saltend in Hull. Croda International, the chemical company, is in East Cowick. Nestlé in the UK are based in York, with operations in Halifax, as is Persimmon plc, Portakabin and National Express East Coast. Smith & Nephew and Reckitt Benckiser medical and household products companies originated in Hull, and still have large factories there. Heron Frozen Foods is based there near St Andrew's Quay, and Cranswick plc are a food-processing company based in the north of Hull. Aunt Bessie's is a large food company in the west of Hull near the A63 and Hessle. Comet, who originated there, have some main offices on George Street. Seven Seas, owned by Merck KGaA, make cod liver oil and multivitamins is on the A1033 in Marfleet. Fenner plc is in Hessle and BAE Systems Military Air Solutions (former Blackburn Aircraft) make the Hawk at Brough. There are many RAF bases in North Yorkshire, close to the A1, Catterick Garrison is the largest army base in Europe near Richmond, and the Defence School of Transport Leconfield is near Beverley. The Canadian McCain Ltd has been in Scarborough in 1969; AlphaGraphics UK is based there. Skipton Building Society is in Skipton. Richmond Foods is based in Leeming Bar which owns Dalepak, but has its main ice cream factory in Cross Gates, Leeds (now owned by R&R Ice Cream). John Smith's Brewery is at Tadcaster, which is destined to start brewing Newcastle Brown Ale, and Samuel Smith Brewery. At Masham, there is the Theakston Brewery and the Black Sheep Brewery. Quorn is made in Stokesley by Stokesley by Marlow Foods.

West and South

Asda's Headquarters, Asda House in Leeds

Leeds is now a centre of financial services companies,[27][28] with Direct Line[29] and First Direct[30] based there, as well as Asda,[31] Northern Foods,[32] Arla Foods UK (maker of Lurpak). The Green Flag roadside recovery firm has its main call centre (in Farsley). HSBC opened their first UK call centre in the city, taking advantage of its advanced communications network which also led to the founding of Freeserve in Leeds. The Department of Health has a large administration operation at Quarry House, a local landmark. The Waddingtons board game company was founded in Leeds, as was the Burton tailoring company (the Burton Group became the Arcadia Group) and M & S. The Tetley's Brewery will be moving operations to Northampton (Carlsberg) in 2011. Optare make buses in Cross Gates. Dr. Oetker products are made at Colton near the M1 junction and Sherburn-in-Elmet. Aramark UK is in West Park, Leeds. Unilever have their aerosol division at Whinmoor, in north-east Leeds, administrated by Lever Fabergé. It claims to be the largest aerosol factory in the world, and has their research centre, and makes Impulse, Lynx, Dove and Sure.

Morrisons is based in Bradford, as are Club 18-30, Provident Financial, Hallmark Cards UK, Seabrook Potato Crisps, Safestyle UK, Yorkshire Building Society, Stylo, the Grattan[33] catalogue retailer, and Yorkshire Water. Abbey (soon to be Santander) has its savings division there. The Halifax bank (former Building Society) is based in Halifax, the Yorkshire Bank and Leeds Building Society in Leeds, and the Bradford & Bingley in Bingley. Ciba Specialty Chemicals (former Allied Colloids) is in Low Moor. Fox's Biscuits (part of Northern Foods) and Cattles are in Batley. Poundstretcher is in Deighton near Huddersfield. The British Library is sited at Thorpe Arch near Wetherby, home of Goldenfry. Denso Marston Ltd make car radiators in Shipley. David Brown Ltd. is in Lockwood in Huddersfield; this company owned Aston Martin from 1947–72 and is the company is now part of Textron. Cummins Turbo Technologies (former Holset) and Graham Group are also in Huddersfield. Hickson & Welch (owned by Arch Chemicals) is in Castleford. Clariant UK, the chemical company, is in Yeadon. Pace plc is in Saltaire. WABCO Vehicle Control Systems UK (air brakes) is in Morley. Netto UK is in South Elmsall. Nestle make Toffee Crisp and After Eight in Castleford. Haribo makes liquorice and Pontefract cakes in Pontefract. Ardagh Glass UK is at Knottingley, with sites at Monk Bretton and Wheatley (Doncaster). Coca-Cola UK claim to have the largest soft drinks factory in the world at Outwood, which was built in 1989, and produces 6,000 cans and 1,650 bottles a minute (over 100 cans a second); Card Factory is nearby.

Liquorice allsorts

Sheffield is known for its steel industry, which has declined in recent years. Little Chef are based there, in Carbrook near the Don Valley Stadium. SIG plc and Stanley Tools UK are at the city airport. Cadbury UK (formerly Bassett's) make liquorice allsorts in the north of Sheffield; it is Cadbury's Gum & Liquorice division. Plusnet and Jobcentre Plus are in the city centre. Rosebys were in Rotherham, before 2008, and KP make their nuts in Eastwood, to the north of the town. Mr Kipling is based at Carlton just north of Barnsley, and makes Battenberg cakes there. Galpharm International and Koyo Bearings are at Dodworth near Barnsley. DFS is at Adwick le Street near the A1/A638 junction. Wabtec Rail make railway air brakes near Doncaster railway station. DB Schenker Rail (UK) (former EWS) is on the A6182 in the south of Doncaster. Ronseal is based in Chapeltown in Sheffield. Morphy Richards and Roberts Radio are based between Swinton and Mexborough. Maplin Electronics is based on the former site of Manvers Main Colliery in Wath-upon-Dearne.

Sport

Football

The region is home to numerous Premier League and Football League clubs. Leeds United, Sheffield Wednesday and Huddersfield Town are the most successful clubs in the region in terms of trophies won, each winning 9, 9 and 5 major trophies respectively. Leeds United are the most successful club in terms of European appearances and success, they have also been the UEFA coefficient Top Club on 3 occasions, more than any other English club.

Here is a list of the Premier League and Football League clubs in the region ranked in their final league position in the 2008–09 season

  1. Hull City
  2. Sheffield United
  3. Sheffield Wednesday
  4. Doncaster Rovers
  5. Barnsley
  6. Leeds United
  7. Scunthorpe United
  8. Huddersfield Town
  9. Bradford City
  10. Rotherham United
  11. Grimsby Town

Education

There are 15 Local Education Authorities in the Yorkshire and Humber region.[34] The schools in each authority are listed in the following -

Secondary education

Schools are mostly comprehensive, with some grammar schools in North Yorkshire, Calderdale and Kirklees.[35] The schools in Hull perform the second-worst in England at GCSE[36] after Knowsley in Merseyside. Also at GCSE, schools in Barnsley, Bradford, and Doncaster have low-achieving results with Barnsley the worst of these. All four of these areas coincidentally have an above-average teenage pregnancy problem. For the metropolitan areas, Calderdale and Wakefield consistently perform the best, although slightly under the England average. York and North Yorkshire perform the best at GCSE in the region, and with the East Riding of Yorkshire have results above the UK average. At A-level North Lincolnshire, Kirklees, York and North Yorkshire perform quite well with Kirklees being the best by a large margin, all having results above the England average. The excellent Kirklees result is due to Greenhead College in Huddersfield, and North Lincolnshire's results are due to the John Leggott College, also a sixth form college. The districts of South Yorkshire perform the least in the area at A-level with Rotherham having the best results in this area, and all of these districts achieve similar results, much lower than those in the former districts of Humberside. For both A-level and GCSE, Barnsley and Bradford are very low performing, with Bradford getting the lowest A-level results in the region. Hull and northern Lincolnshire have a wide socio-economic diversity – many under-achieving pupils at 16 but with high performers at A-level.[37]

Top twenty state schools in Yorkshire and the Humber (2008 A-level results)

University of Leeds
Crossley Heath School

[38]

Universities

See List of universities in Yorkshire and the Humber

The Krebs Cycle was discovered at the University of Sheffield in 1937. Liquid crystal displays were developed by the University of Hull in 1972. Low fat spreads were developed at the University of Leeds (in conjunction with [[Unilever) in the 1980s.

Local media

BBC in Queens Gardens, Hull

References

  1. ^ a b "Yorkshire Geology". Genuki.org. http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/YKS/. Retrieved 2007-10-24. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f British Canoe Union, Yorkshire and Humberside Region, Access and Recreation Committees ; prepared by Mike Twiggs and David Taylor. (1992). Yorkshire Rivers: A Canoeists Guide. Menasha Ridge Press. ISBN 978-1871890167. OCLC 27687324. 
  3. ^ "English Climate". Met Office. http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/climate/uk/location/england/. Retrieved 2008-05-03. 
  4. ^ "Local Authorities". Government Office for Yorkshire and the Humber. April 2008. http://www.gos.gov.uk/goyh/ourregion/las/. Retrieved 2008-05-06. 
  5. ^ "What is the Assembly and how does it work?". http://www.yhassembly.gov.uk/About%20Us/What%20is%20the%20Assembly%20and%20how%20does%20it%20work/. Retrieved 2008-05-12. 
  6. ^ Smithard, Tom (2009-03-31). "The short life and changing times of a people's parliament that never was". Yorkshire Post. Johnston Press Digital Publishing. http://www.yorkshirepost.co.uk/features/The-short-life-and-changing.5124376.jp. Retrieved 2010-01-09. 
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  11. ^ Office for National Statistics. (April 2008). "Fact Files: Yorkshire and The Humber > Yorkshire and The Humber". Government Office for Yorkshire and the Humber. http://www.gos.gov.uk/goyh/factgoyh/Yorkshireandthehumber/. Retrieved 2008-05-06. 
  12. ^ "Regional Transport Strategy: the National Picture". Government Office for Yorkshire and The Humber. http://www.gos.gov.uk/goyh/transp/rts/?a=42496. Retrieved 2009-05-07. 
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  20. ^ "West Yorkshire 2006-11 Local Transport Plan". West Yorkshire Local Transport Plan Partnership. http://www.wyltp.com/. Retrieved 2009-05-07. 
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  38. ^ "League Tables - English Secondary Schools 2007". BBC. 26 September 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/league_tables/default.stm. Retrieved 2008-10-01. 
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  41. ^ "arts funding in yorkshire and the humber 2005/06" (PDF). Arts Council England. http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/documents/publications/artsfundingyorkshire0506_phpvgWpu8.pdf. Retrieved 2008-10-05. 

External links


Simple English

[[File:|thumb|Yorkshire and the Humber]] Yorkshire and the Humber is one of the regions of England. It covers most of the historic county of Yorkshire, along with the part of northern Lincolnshire that was previously in the administrative area of Humberside (which existed 1974-1996).

The highest point of the region is Whernside, in the Yorkshire Dales, at 737 metres. The largest freshwater lake is Hornsea Mere in the East Riding of Yorkshire.

The population in 2005 was 5,854,357.

Local government

The official region consists of the following subdivisions:

Map Ceremonial county County/ unitary Districts
[[File:]] South Yorkshire * 1. Sheffield
2. Rotherham
3. Barnsley
4. Doncaster
West Yorkshire * 5. Wakefield
6. Kirklees
7. Calderdale
8. Bradford
9. Leeds
North Yorkshire
(part only)
10. North Yorkshire † Selby
Harrogate
Craven
Richmondshire
Hambleton
Ryedale
Scarborough
11. York
East Riding of Yorkshire 12. East Riding of Yorkshire
13. Kingston upon Hull
Lincolnshire
(part only)
14. North Lincolnshire
15. North East Lincolnshire

Key: shire county = † | metropolitan county = *

It was originally called Yorkshire and Humberside, and defined as North Yorkshire, West Yorkshire, South Yorkshire and Humberside.

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