Yorkshire dialect: Wikis

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Location of Yorkshire within England.

The Yorkshire dialect refers to the varieties of English used in the Northern England historic county of Yorkshire. Those varieties are often referred to as Broad Yorkshire or Tyke.[1] The dialect has roots in older languages such as Old English and Old Norse; it should not be confused with modern slang. The Yorkshire Dialect Society exists to promote use of the dialect in both humour and in serious linguistics; there is also an East Riding Dialect Society.

In 2007, Ian McMillan published a book named Collins Chelp and Chunter: a Guide to the Tyke Tongue, a compilation of words that are used in the Yorkshire dialect as well as examples of Yorkshire humour and illustrations. Many words are pinned down to specific areas of Yorkshire or specific towns or villages; one word, lenerky, that "means soft or floppy", is even ascribed to Grange Moor, a very small village in Kirklees, West Yorkshire near Wakefield between the towns of Barnsley and Huddersfield.[2]

There is also The Yorkshire Dictionary, edited by Arnold Kellett, which is more comprehensive and contains several words that have fallen out of everyday use in Yorkshire.

Yorkshire is generally not as stigmatised as other dialects, and has been used in classic works of literature such as Wuthering Heights. An April 2008 survey found that Yorkshire accents are now ranked above Received Pronunciation for inspiring confidence in the speaker.[3]

Contents

Geographic distribution

There is much variation in this region, some very local; the Survey of English Dialects identified many different accents in Yorkshire. On a large scale, there are differences between a Dales dialect and a Scarborough dialect – both of which can be, in turn, very hard for outsiders to understand. Even relatively close places, for example, Leeds and Harrogate, a mere 13 miles apart, have distinct accents and even dialects, with Leeds accents tending to be very deep and gruff, compared to the generally posh RP Harrogate accent. Natives will usually have little difficulty in identifying that a speaker is from a different, though close, town (for example, "dee" ("thee") and "da" ("thou"); see below). Another example is the accent differences across Yorkshire over the pronunciation of the same dialect word for the narrow passage between terraced houses ("Jennel", "Jinnel", "Ginnel") and the pronunciation of over (ovva, o'er). One source of confusion is how a floo-er would be a flower and a term of affection in the North and East Ridings but a floor in the West Riding. When it is used as a term of affection, people from the West Riding are often confused at how someone is being called a floor.

One of the closest differences in dialect in the area is between the West of the City of Wakefield (such as Ossett, Wakefield and Horbury) compared with the East (eg. Castleford, Pontefract and Featherstone), areas less than 3 miles apart; in this city, the most notable difference is the enunciation of vowels and higher pitched voice of those from Pontefract and Castleford, compared to those from Wakefield itself who have a much lower pitch and longer, drawn out vowels.[citation needed] The easiest and most common example of this is the pronunciation of the word "No" which in Pontefract would sound like "Noh" whereas in Wakefield often is pronounced like "Nerr", another example would be the names "Tony" and "Rachel", in Pontefract "Toh-nee" and "Ray-chel" whereas in Wakefield "Tour-nih" and "Ray-chul".[citation needed]

The Yorkshire Dialect Society draws a border roughly at the River Wharfe between two main zones. The area to the southwest of the river is more influenced by Mercian dialect whilst that to the northeast is more influenced by Northumbrian dialect. The distinction was first made by A.J. Ellis in On Early English Pronunciation. It was approved of by Joseph Wright, the founder of the Yorkshire Dialect Society and the author of the English Dialect Dictionary. In the S.E.D., the dialect analysts Rohrer, Sheard and Stead mapped a precise boundary by visiting several villages.[4]

The East Riding dialect has many similarities with the Danish language [3]. The West Riding is less pure in its influence, also containing elements of Icelandic, Norman and Saxon. However, many of the characteristics that have sharply divided the two areas have now passed out of use. For example, it would be very rare to hear someone from the East Riding say "down south" as doon sooth anymore, just as it would be rare for someone from the West Riding to say "eat meat" as eit meit anymore.

Also, in certain respects, the Middlesbrough and South Tees accent is a form of Yorkshire accent that hinters on a cross between North Yorkshire and Durham (alongside various Welsh and Irish accents imported by migrants to the area in the late 19th century); however, much to the amusement and sometimes frustration of locals, it is often confused for Geordie, usually by people in the South of England.

Studies have shown that accents in the West Riding (that is, mostly, modern West and South Yorkshire) are well-liked by the country and are associated with common sense, loyalty and reliability. In response to this, call centres have been increasingly located in this area.[5]

Other northern English dialects include

Pronunciation

Some features of Yorkshire pronunciation are general features of northern English accents. Many of them are listed in the northern English accents section on the English English page. For example, Yorkshire speakers have short [a] in words like bath, grass, and chance as opposed to the long [ɑː] of Received Pronunciation (RP). Yorkshire speakers tend have no contrast between /ʊ/ /ʌ/, making pairs of words like put and putt homophones, both pronounced as the former is in other dialects.

Most Yorkshire accents are non-rhotic, but rhotic accents do exist in some areas that border with Lancashire. Much of the East Riding is partially rhotic: a final r on a word, as in letter, hour, and quarter would be pronounced in a rhotic manner, but an r mid-way through a word, as in start, yard, and 'burn' would be pronounced in a non-rhotic manner.[6]

Other features of pronunciation include the following:

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Vowel table

The table below shows the main vowels used in phonological key words in the Yorkshire cities of Hull and Sheffield.[7]

RP English Hull Sheffield
/ɑː/ as in 'bath' [a] [a]
/ɑː/ as in 'palm' [aː] [aː]
/eɪ/ as in 'face' [ɛː] [eː]
/eə/ as in 'square' [ɛː] [ɛə]
/ɜː/ as in 'nurse' [ɛː] [əː]
/ɪə/ as in 'near' [eɛ] [ɪə]
/aɪ/ as in 'price' [aɪ] or [aː] [ɑɪ]
/əʊ/ as in 'goat' [ɔː] or [əː] [ɔː]
/aʊ/ as in 'mouth' [aʊ] or [ɑʊ] [aː]
/ʌ/ as in 'strut' [ʊ] [ʊ]
/ʊə/ as in 'cure' [jʊɛ] [jʊəː]
/ə/ as in 'comma' [ɛ] [ə]
/ɪ/ as in 'horses' [ɪ] [ə]

Vowels

  • Words like city and many are pronounced with a final [ɪ] although in the Sheffield area, it is more likely to be [ɛ].
  • It is increasingly common for the words none, one, once, nothing and a few other STRUT words with an o in the spelling to be pronounced with /ɒ/ rather than the traditional /ʊ/.[8]
  • In some areas, especially in the southern half of Yorkshire, there is a tendency to pronounce the phoneme /aʊ/ (as in mouth) as a monophthong [aː], often represented as "ah", hence "dahn" for down, "sahth" for south. In these areas, the words out and art may be indistinguishable.[9] In the northern fringes of Yorkshire, such as Whitby, there is an older pronunciation, /uː/, which is also still used in Scotland.[10]
  • Words such as car, far, art, park, etc. have an [aː] sound, except in the few rhotic areas of Yorkshire.
  • The phoneme /aɪ/ (as in prize) may become a monophthong, [ɑː] or [aː]. For example, five becomes [fɑːv], prize becomes [prɑːz]. This does not occur before voiceless conconants, so "prize" takes [ɑː] whereas "price" takes /aɪ/. This is largely confined to East Yorkshire.[11]
  • Many Yorkshire accents have an extra vowel phoneme compared with other accents such as RP, pronounced as a diphthong [ɛɪ], used in words with eigh in the spelling, such as eight and weight, which is then pronounced differently from wait. See wait-weight merger vowels. Some words with igh in the spelling, like night, can be pronounced with /iː/ (as in fleece) instead of /aɪ/ (as in price).
  • In West Riding dialect, the word right can also be pronounced with the same [ɛɪ] as weight, similar to an RP pronunciation of rate.[12] The word write is usually pronounced as in RP, however. Fight can also be pronounced to rhyme with weight.
  • Another group of words where [ɛɪ] may turn up in some accents is in words with ea in the spelling derived from a Middle English /ɛ/ lengthened by Middle English open syllable lengthening, such as eat, meat and speak. In some accents, the three words meet, meat and team, which all have the same vowel /ɪi/ in RP, may have three different vowels, [iː], [ɛɪ] and [ɪə] respectively.[13]
  • The vowel in words like face, space, and taste (in RP a diphthong [eɪ]) is usually pronounced either as a diphthong /eə/ or as a monophthong /eː/. Words with ake at the end may be pronounced with /ɛ/ (as in dress), as in tek, mek, and sek for take, make, and sake. The traditional Yorkshire pronunciations are tak, mak, and sak but are now considered archaic.
  • Words with the RP vowel /oʊ/, as in goat, may have a variety of different sounds. In traditional accents, diphthongs including [oi], [ɔu], [ɔə], and [uə] are used, and, in south Yorkshire particularly, words such as coal and hole may rhyme with coil[14]. Other common sounds include a long back monophthong [ɔː] and, in a recent trend, a fronted monophthong [ɵː] (which can sound close to the vowel of RP nurse). The latter is said to originate amongst females in Hull[15]; it has developed only in the last decade, yet it has now spread as far as Bradford. (Watt and Tillotson 2001)
  • In the "broadest" speech, the old long /uː/ in words such as book, cook, and look can still be heard. This is more likely to be heard the farther west in Yorkshire, and it is fairly widespread in Lancashire.
  • In both the West Riding and in the city of York, the vowel /uː/, as in goose, can be realised as a diphthong [ʊu].[16]
  • The West Riding, to the south of Leeds and Bradford shares one feature with much of the east of England. Plural and past participle endings that are pronounced /ɪz/ and /ɪd/ (with the vowel of kit) in RP may be pronounced with a schwa, /ə/ (with the vowel of fur). As those accents are mostly non-rhotic, that means that badges can sound like of badgers and the boxes can sound like boxers.
  • In Hull, Middlesbrough, and other parts of the east coast, the sound in word, heard, nurse, etc. is pronounced in the same way as in square, dare, etc., with an extended /eə/ sound (e.g imagine elongating the vowel part of wed to sound word).[17]
  • In the Barnsley area, there are some words where an /a/ becomes an /e/. For example, have is pronounced 'ev and master and is pronounced mester. Note that in the former example, h-dropping occurs, as is usual here.
  • In some areas of South Yorkshire "won't" may be pronounced [wɛint], wain't. A more traditional Yorkshire pronunciation is [wiənt], wian't.
  • Where and there often become a diphthong [iə] leading to pronunciation as whia and thia with the a representing a schwa. This sound was once used in any mid-word ea—for example, team, head, and deaf—but this is now found only with the very oldest speakers.

Consonants

  • In some areas, an originally voiced consonant followed by a voiceless one can be pronounced as voiceless, as is done in Dutch and German. For example, Bradford may be pronounced as if it were Bratford, with [t] (although more likely with a glottal stop, [ʔ]) instead of the expected [d] or [t]. Absolute is often pronounced as if it were apsolute, with a [p] in place of the [b].[18]
  • As with most dialects of English, middle and final [ŋ] sound in, for example, thing, sing, singer, and finger are often reduced to [n]. However, the Sheffield accent avoids all ng-coalescence, so [ng] is used in place of RP [ŋ]. Sheffield agrees here with the speech of Liverpool, Manchester and the West Midlands, but is at odds with the rest of Yorkshire.[19]
  • As in most of England, the younger generation presents an increasing tendency to use a glottal stop for all non-initial [t] sounds, excepting those in consonant clusters. e.g. [bɒʔl] for bottle, [saʔ] for sat. This originates in London and parts of East Anglia, but has now spread across England so that it is common in people under 30.[20] However, older residents of Yorkshire are more likely to replace a /t/ before a vowel with an /r/ so that "getting better" becomes "gerring berrer", "get off" becomes "gerroff", "put it down" becomes "purrit down", etc.
  • Sheffield pronunication of "th" (especially where it represents /ð/) tends somewhat towards [d]. This pronunciation, particularly in the second person pronouns dee and da (for thee and thou/thy), has led to Sheffielders being given the nickname "dee das" (cf. "thee tha") by people from nearby Rotherham and Barnsley. However, the pronunciation is now very rare and had already begun to die out by the time of the 1950s Survey of English Dialects[21].
  • The swallowing of k, p, and t is associated more with the northeast of England, but it can be heard in the Barnsley area also.[22]

Further information

These features can be found in the English Accents and Dialects collection on the British Library Archival Sound Recordings website. This website features samples of Yorkshire (and elsewhere in England) speech in wma format, with annotations on phonology with X-SAMPA phonetic transcriptions, lexis and grammar.

See also Wells (1982), section 4.4.

Vocabulary and grammar

Yorkshire dialect shares many features with other English dialects used in northern England or in Scotland (for example, aye for yes).

Examples of vocabulary and grammar more specific to Yorkshire dialects include the following:

  • Definite article reduction: shortening of the to a form without a vowel, often written t'. Down the pub is pronounced downt pub, where the t represents a sound more like a glottal stop than a true t sound. That is, the phrase sounds like downt pub, where the t of downt is very nearly absent, the two words having in between them a very brief pause. Giving the t a full t sound is a mistake commonly, and often deliberately, made by someone affecting a Yorkshire accent or, more usually, a "comedy generic northern" accent. "Down to the pub" uses two t's, each pronounced as above ("downt tut pub"). In South Yorkshire, particularly in the Dearne Valley, the word the is often omitted entirely, down pub would be widely understood as a complete sentence. That is particularly true around the town of Wath-upon-Dearne. See this overview and a more detailed page on the Yorkshire Dialect website, and also Jones (2002).
  • The use of owt and nowt, derived from Middle English aught and naught and mean anything and nothing. They are pronounced /aʊt/ (as out) and /naʊt/ (like nout) in North Yorkshire, but as /oʊt/ (like oat)—/noʊt/ (like note) in most of the rest of Yorkshire. There is also summat (meaning something) /səmət/ (as summit), derived from Middle English some-aught; it is heard also in rural parts of the USA such as in the Appalachians.
  • The weak form of with is pronounced wi'.
  • Many contractions ending with n't are shortened to single-syllable words, for example: dun't (doesn't), cun't (couldn't), shun't (shouldn't), wun't (wouldn't), mun't (mustn't), 'an't (hasn't), in't (isn't).
  • Nouns describing units of value, weight, distance, height and sometimes volumes of liquid have no plural marker. For example, ten pounds becomes ten pound; five miles becomes five mile.
  • Location descriptions gain an extra of. For example, off the streets becomes off of the streets; alongside the table becomes alongside of the table.
  • The word us is often used in place of me or in the place of our (e.g. we should put us names on us property), also common is to use the sound ahs in place of us, ah in place of our, and me in place of my (for example, we should put ahs name on ah property). (Compare the German "uns" or "unsere" meaning "us" or "our".)
  • Use of the singular second-person pronoun thou (often written tha) and thee.
  • In the West Riding, all cases of the past tense of to be is were instead of was in normal English: I were wearing t'red coat, but he were wearing t'green one. In some areas, was is rather pronounced aswuh. The East Riding does the opposite and makes all cases into was, with forms I was and he was.
  • In the North and West Ridings, there are often becomes there is, often said thuz in the West.
  • Some areas abbreviate I am not to I aren't rather than the usual I'm not. This is common around York and is found also in and around Bradford; Examples of the latter being in the film Rita, Sue and Bob Too. Often the n is completely elided making it sound like I are't, which despite identical pronunciation, is never confused with art (as in thou art).
  • While is often used in the sense of until (e.g. unless we go at a fair lick, we'll not be home while seven.) Stay here while it shuts might cause a non-local to think that they should stay there during its shutting, when the order really means that they should stay only until it shuts. "Wait while lights flash" is seen on British road signs at railway level crossings (railroad grade crossings); the potential for misunderstanding is thus obvious.
  • In common with many other dialects, aye (pronounced aah) is frequently used for yes.
  • Generally in cities, such as Leeds and Sheffield, love is a term used by anyone, although duck is also used in Sheffield.
  • The word daft has a slightly different connotation in parts of Yorkshire. In most of Britain, its usage corresponds to silly but it is often used to mean unintelligent in Yorkshire.
  • The word self may become sen, e.g. yourself becomes thy sen. The northwest of Yorkshire is more likely to use sel, e.g. thysel.
  • In some parts, the word nobbit (short for nothing but) is used to mean only, as in nobbit a young lad.
  • Remnants from the Vikings include the verb laik, to play. The younger generation tend to abbreviate this to lek, however.
  • The use of now then (sometimes written as nowthen) as a greeting.
  • The use of hey up (often pronounced and written ayup) as a greeting or an expression of interest or surprise.
  • There is a Yorkshire dialect word which seems to have no equivalent in Standard English, nesh, which means overly sensitive to cold.

Yorkshire dialect and accent in popular culture

Many films demonstrate Yorkshire accents, although this source needs to be used with care: the film industry is notorious for using "generic Northern" accents or confusing Lancashire and Yorkshire. In the best examples, characters will even use Yorkshire dialect—often as a somewhat simplistic device to establish their (lower) social class. Good films for hearing Yorkshire accents are Kes, filmed around Barnsley with local actors; the 1997 film The Full Monty, featuring Sheffield, which is a mix of Derbyshire and mild Yorkshire accents (lead actor Robert Carlyle is not from Sheffield (he is from Maryhill, Glasgow) but is well known for working hard at getting his accent right, but even he slips up occasionally in this film); and the 1998 film Little Voice, featuring a Scarborough accent (though Jane Horrocks is well known for her Lancashire accent).

In television, the sitcom Last of the Summer Wine, filmed in Holmfirth, has the many characters using local language forms (although it should be noted that most of the cast have distinctly fake Yorkshire accents that are a far cry from the real Holmfirth accent). All Creatures Great and Small was set entirely in the Yorkshire Dales and many of the characters, especially the local farmers, speak with this accent. The Chuckle Brothers speak with an accent that southerners find much easier to understand and that can be found around Rotherham. Similarly, some programmes misrepresent it (or at least do not claim to be very local). The 1996 film Brassed Off was filmed in Grimethorpe, yet the accents are not representative. The soap Emmerdale is set around Otley ("Hotten"), but the accent heard in the soap does not reflect local trends accurately.

Within the British Isles, the accent tends to have strong associations with common sense, so exaggerated Dales accents are occasionally heard in British comedy when plain speaking is called for. In the third season episode of Blackadder, Amy and Amiability, the eponymous heroine Amy Hardwood's father (played by Lancastrian Warren Clarke) plays a stereotypical Eighteenth Century Yorkshire mill owner complete with Dales accent. In the fourth season episode of Red Dwarf DNA, the android Kryten's third spare head develops a broad Dales accent and stereotypical demeanor after it succumbs to 'droid rot'. As the episode's plot concerns the android being transmogrified into a human, Spare Head 3 is the straight-talking voice of hard reality, reminding Kryten that he "came into this world as a Mechanoid, and a Mechanoid you'll always be" as a mild parody of typically British drama concerning class mobility and the common perception of a Dales accent being a solidly working-class one. In the Monty Python's Flying Circus sketch "The Four Yorkshiremen", the four men attempt to outdo one another with tales of their hellish childhood, insisting in broad Yorkshire accents: "You were lucky ... There were 150 of us living in t' shoebox in t' middle o' road." etc.[23] (although this originates with At Last the 1948 Show); "Trouble at t' Mill. One of t' crossbeam's gone out of skew on t' treadle."). In reality, however, the only Python from Yorkshire is Michael Palin, who comes from Sheffield in South Yorkshire.

A number of popular bands hail from Yorkshire and have distinctive Yorkshire accents. Alex Turner, vocalist of Arctic Monkeys,[24] Jon McClure, of Reverend and The Makers,[25] Jon Windle, of Little Man Tate (band)[26], and Joe Carnall, of Milburn (band)[27] are all known for their Sheffield accents, whilst The Cribs, who are from Netherton, sing in a Wakefield accent.[28]

The late British Poet Laureate, Ted Hughes originated from Mytholmroyd, close to the border with Lancashire, and spent much of his childhood in Mexborough, South Yorkshire.[29] His own readings of his work were noted for his "flinty" or "granite" voice and "distinctive accent"[30][31] and some said that his Yorkshire accent affected the rhythm of his poetry.[32]

References

  1. ^ Keane, Peter. "Tyke: It's all the Vikings' fault (sort of)". BBC Bradford and West Yorkshire. BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/bradford/voices2005/pete_2.shtml. Retrieved 2008-04-16. 
  2. ^ McMillan, Ian (June 2007). Chelp and Chunter: How to Talk Tyke. HarperCollins. pp. 59. ISBN 0007247818. http://books.google.com/books?id=S7odAQAAIAAJ&q=lenerky&dq=lenerky&cd=1. Retrieved 9 December 2009. 
  3. ^ Yorkshire named top twang as Brummie brogue comes bottom | UK news | guardian.co.uk
  4. ^ Yorshire Dialect
  5. ^ BBC Bradford and West Yorkshire (2006-10-05). ""Can I help you!"". http://www.bbc.co.uk/bradford/content/articles/2006/10/05/call_centre_feature.shtml. Retrieved 2007-01-05. 
  6. ^ See the Welwick and Nafferton accents on the S.E.D.[1] [2]
  7. ^ The data is taken from the book Urban Voices: Accent Studies in the British Isles, Arnold, London, 1999. The Hull vowels are found on page 143 and the Sheffield vowels are found on page 73. Note that the lesser-used variants have been excluded from the table
  8. ^ Urban Voices, Arnold, London, 1999, page 74
  9. ^ Several recordings in the English Accents and Dialects collection show this feature, for example this Sheffield speaker.
  10. ^ http://www.whitby-town.com/learn.php
  11. ^ Urban Voices, Arnold, London, 1999, pages 146, 156–7
  12. ^ For Sheffield, Alexander (2001) uses the spellings "leet" and "neet" for light and night, but "reight" and "feight" for right and fight.
  13. ^ See Wakelin (1977), p90, for details. For Sheffield, Alexander (2001) uses the spellings "eight" and "meight" for eat and meat, but "creeam" and "teeam" for cream and team. See also Meet-meat merger.
  14. ^ These phonetic transcriptions are from Watt and Tillotson (2001). For Sheffield, Alexander (2001) uses the spellings "nooase" for nose and "rooad" for road, but "coyal" and "oyal" for coal and hole. See Wakelin (1977), p89, for some information on the origin of the different vowels.
  15. ^ BBC - Voices - The Voices Recordings
  16. ^ Several recordings in the English Accents and Dialects collection show this feature, for example this Ossett speaker.
  17. ^ Handbook of Varieties of English, page 125, Walter de Gruyter, 2004
  18. ^ In the English Accents and Dialects collection, this is referred to as Yorkshire assimilation. Several of the recordings in the collection show this feature: for example, this Bradford speaker.
  19. ^ See section on "Conservative Northernisms" in Our Changing Pronunciation by John C Wells
  20. ^ Peter Trudgill, The Dialects of England, Blackwell, Oxford pp.77–78
  21. ^ Sheffield, Yorkshire
  22. ^ The Title
  23. ^ Byrne, Ciar (14 November 2007). "Wallace and Gromit help US actors speak the Yorkshire way". The Guardian (Guardian News and Media Ltd.). http://www.independent.co.uk/news/media/wallace-and-gromit-help-us-actors-speak-the-yorkshire-way-400262.html. Retrieved 26 November 2009. 
  24. ^ Petridis, Alex (15 April 2006). "Made in Sheffield". The Guardian (Guardian News and Media Ltd.). http://www.guardian.co.uk/music/2006/apr/15/popandrock.arcticmonkeys. Retrieved 26 November 2009. 
  25. ^ McCudden, Louise (13 Jul 2009). "Reverend and the Makers, Koko, July 8th". In the news. www.inthenews.co.uk.. http://www.inthenews.co.uk/news/entertainment/music/live-review/reverend-and-the-makers-koko-july-8th-$1310886.htm. Retrieved 26 November 2009. 
  26. ^ Dean, Will (31 January 2007). "Little man tate about what you know". Drowned in Sound. http://drownedinsound.com/releases/9164/reviews/1555624-. Retrieved 26 November 2009. 
  27. ^ Webb, Rob ("7 March 2006). [Sheff "Milburn: Send in the boys"]. Drowned in Sound. DrownedinSound.com. Sheff. Retrieved 26 November 2009. 
  28. ^ Campling, Katie (28 January 2008). "Interview: Cribs' Ryan Jarman". Huddersfield Daily Examiner. http://www.examiner.co.uk/leisure-and-entertainment/entertainment-west-yorkshire/2008/01/28/interview-cribs-ryan-jarman-86081-20400828/. Retrieved 26 November 2009. 
  29. ^ Ford, Mark (6 November 2008). "The Myths of Ted Hughes". The New York Review of Books. NYREV Inc.. http://www.nybooks.com/articles/article-preview?article_id=22018. Retrieved 26 November 2009. 
  30. ^ Anon. "Ted Hughes (1930-1998)". Faber and Faber. http://www.poetryarchive.org/poetryarchive/singlePoet.do?poetId=7078. Retrieved 26 November 2009. 
  31. ^ Armitage, Richard. "The Ted Hughes Letters". Richard Armitage Online. RichardArmitageOnline.com. http://www.richardarmitageonline.com/ted-hughes/ted-hughes-introduction.html. Retrieved 26 November 2009. 
  32. ^ Anon. "Ted Hughes: Biography". ExampleEssays.com. http://www.exampleessays.com/viewpaper/5523.html. Retrieved 26 November 2009. 
  • Alexander, D. (2001). Orreight mi ol'. Sheffield: ALD. ISBN 1-901587-18-5. A book about the traditional Sheffield dialect.
  • Jones, M. J. (2002). The origin of Definite Article Reduction in northern English dialects: evidence from dialect allomorphy. English Language and Linguistics 6.2: 325–345.
  • Wakelin, M. F. (1977). English Dialects: An Introduction, , Revised Edition, London: The Athlone Press.
  • Watt, D. and Tillotson, J. (2001). A spectrographic analysis of vowel fronting in Bradford English. English World-Wide 22:2, pp 269–302. Available at [4]
  • Wells, J. C. (1982). Accents of English 2: The British Isles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-28540-2.

Books written in Yorkshire Dialect

Studies

  • K.M. Petyt, Emily Brontë and the Haworth Dialect
  • Joseph Wright, A Grammar of the Dialect of Windhill
  • Hans Tidholm, The Dialect of Egton in North Yorkshire
  • David Battye, Sheffield Dialect

Several nineteenth century books are kept in specialist libraries.

Further reading

  • All Creatures Great And Small by James Herriot
  • Up And Down In The Dales, In the Heart Of The Dales, Head Over Heels In The Dales, by Gervase Phinn

External links


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