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Youghal
Eochaill
Location
Location of Youghal
centerMap highlighting Youghal
Irish grid reference
X102781
Statistics
Province: Munster
County: County Cork
Elevation: Sea level
Population (2002)
 - Town:
 - Environs:

  6,203
  394
Website: www.youghal.ie

Youghal is located on the estuary of the River Blackwater, and in the past was militarily and economically important. Being built on the edge of a steep riverbank, the town has a distinctive long and narrow layout. The name of the town derives from the yew woods (Eochaill) which were once plentiful in the area. As of the 2002 census, the population was 6,597, but the population of its catchment area is about 10,000.

Situated on the coastline of East County Cork, the bustling and picturesque town of Youghal is regarded as one of the most popular tourist destinations in Ireland. The historic walled seaport town of Youghal has many historic buildings and monuments within its ancient town walls, has been designated as an Irish Heritage Port by the Irish Tourist Board.

Fishing in the River Blackwater (noted for salmon, trout and excellent coarse fish), golf, sailing, angling, pitch and putt and yachting are just some of the facilities that are located either nearby or in the town.

The town of Youghal continues to experience sustained economic decline and employment in the town itself has seen a marked decrease in 2008. Many of the town's population commute to work in the Cork or Waterford region.

Contents

History and architecture

Clock Gate

Youghal received its charter of incorporation in 1209, but the history of settlement on the site is much longer, with a Norse settlement being present in the 9th century, the Church of Coran in the town's western suburbs dating from the 5th century, and evidence of Neolithic habitation at nearby Newport.

Seal from 1527, depicting a medieval ship

Notable buildings in the town include Myrtle Grove and St Mary's Collegiate Church, thought to have been founded by St Declan around 450. The church was rebuilt in Irish Romanesque style c. 750, and a great Norman nave was erected in c. 1220. It is one of the few remaining medieval churches in Ireland to have remained in continuous use as a place of worship. The Vikings used Youghal as a base for their raids on monastic sites along the south coast of Ireland, and a stone in St Mary's Collegiate Church still bears the etched outline of a longboat. Since the 16th Century it has been the place of worship of the Church of Ireland congregation of Youghal and its surrounding areas.

The town was badly damaged on November 13, 1579, during the Second Desmond Rebellion, when it was sacked by the forces of Gerald FitzGerald, 15th Earl of Desmond. Desmond had the town's garrison massacred, the English officials were hanged and his soldiers looted the townspeople. The down town area of Youghal is among the best preserved in Ireland. The first record of the walls is a charter of 1275, granted by King Edward I, for their repair and extension. In 1777, the town's Clock Gate was built on the site of Trinity Castle, part of the town's fortifications. The Clock Gate served the town as gaol and public gallows until 1837; prisoners were executed by being hanged from the windows. Tynte's Castle is a late 15th-century urban tower house. There are also 17th-century almshouses, constructed by Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork. St Mary's Collegiate Church in the town still contains many monuments, including the tomb of Richard Boyle himself. The Mall House and its promenade were built in 1779, and are now used as Youghal's Town Hall. The town's Water Gate was built in the 13th century to provide access through the town walls to the docks. Also known as Cromwell's Arch, it was from here that Oliver Cromwell left Ireland in 1650, having overwintered in the town after his campaign in Ireland.

During the 17th century Youghal was one of Ireland's main ports, far more important than Cork which was described as 'a port near Youghal.' However, from the 18th century onwards, Youghal suffered much the same fate as nearby Ardmore: as ships became larger, they were unable to get into Youghal Harbour because of a shallow sandbar at its mouth.

In 1840 a large hoard of coins were dug up in a field near Youghal weighing between 'three hundred and four hundred ounces' Coin Hoard Article An interesting aside in Youghal's history is that it was the first town in Ireland or Britain to have a Jewish Mayor when a Mr. William Annyas was elected to that position in 1555.

Photo Gallery

People

  • The Countess of Desmond (1464 - 1604), who lived in nearby Finisk Castle is reputed to have fallen to her death at the age of 140 attempting to pick cherries from a tree.
Walter Raleigh, Mayor of Youghal, by Nicholas Hilliard, c.1585.
  • Sir Walter Raleigh was Mayor of Youghal in 1588 and 1599 and lived at Myrtle Grove, the Warden's Residence of the Collegiate Church. "As part of a group of entrepreneurial soldiers and administrators to form the new English government in Munster. These men were arriving in Ireland at a time when English Royal administration was reasserting its power in Munster following the Desmond Rebellion. A great sea change was taking place with the replacement of the Gaelic lordship economy with a market style English economy."[1] The first potatoes in Europe were planted in the gardens of Myrtle Grove in 1585. Myrtle Grove's South Gable is where Edmund Spencer is reputed to have written part of his poem The Faerie Queen. The house is not open to the public, except during the summer months when tours are organised for the public.
  • Sir Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork, 1st Viscount Dungarvan, 1st Baron Boyle of Youghal, Lord High Treasurer of the Kingdom of Ireland (although simply known as The Great Earl of Cork). "Boyle is closely associated with the history of Youghal, purchasing the town as part of his acquisition of the Munster estate of Sir Walter Raleigh."[2], had a substantial residence at Youghal, known today as "The College", close to St. Mary's Collegiate Church.
  • Sir Robert Tynte (d 1663) b Kilcredan graveyard, near Ladysbridge, Co Cork of Ballycrenane and Tynte's Castle Youghal "Tynte's castle became [his] property when it was indefinitely leased to him by the Corporation and thereby acquired its present name. Tynte occupied the office of Sheriff of Cork from 1625 to 1626. Tynte acquired a permanent lease of Walsh's castle from the corporation of Youghal some time after the forfeiture of the building in 1584. It is not known if and for how long Robert Tynte was in residence in the castle; he also acquired lands in the Barony of Imokilly, amongst these was the rural tower house at Ballycrenane, near Ladysbridge, Co. Cork. Robert Tynte was the fifth son of Edmund Tynte of Tyntesfield Wraxall, Somerset, England. He arrived ... some time in the late 16th century Tynte worked as a soldier and administrator for the Office of the Sheriff of Cork and became acquainted with Richard Boyle, Earl of Cork. In 1612, Tynte married Elizabeth Boyle, widow of the poet Edmund Spenser, author of the Faerie Queene. Tynte's descendants remained active in the political life of the town until the early 18th century, when the Right Hon. Sir James Tynte of Old Bawn, Dublin and Dunlavin, Co. Wicklow was elected parliamentary representative for Youghal."[3]
  • William Cooke Taylor (16th April 1800 - 12th September 1849), Writer, Journalist, Historian and anti-Corn Law propagandist. Born in Youghal, died at 20 Herbert Street, Dublin.
  • Abraham Dowdney (1841-1886), a United States Representative from New York, as well as an officer in the Union army during the American Civil War was born in Youghal.
  • William Spotswood Green (18471919), naturalist.
  • Communist journalist Claud Cockburn and his wife Patricia, artist, conchologist and traveller, lived in the town for many years. He described it, memorably, as "standing at a slight angle to the universe".
  • Novelist William Trevor spent some of his early years in Youghal, and featured the town in his short story "Memories of Youghal".
  • In 1954, John Huston filmed part of Moby-Dick there, with the town standing in for New Bedford. A licensed premises in the town still bears the name of the movie.[1]
  • Eddie O'Sullivan was appointed Ireland rugby coach in December 2001, replacing Warren Gatland. He had earlier coached Connacht, and was involved in the US Eagles coaching set up with George Hook in the early 1990s.

Tourism

Youghal adjoins a number of fine beaches including the famous 5 km beach to the east of the town. In 2008, Youghal lost one of its two blue flags.[4] Untreated sewage continues to flow in to the sea at several points in the town despite attempts by the townsfolk to get Youghal Town Council to act.

In the 1950s and 1960s Youghal was a popular seaside resort, with thousands taking the train to the beach. Many tourists to the town are attracted by its historic buildings and natural surroundings. The town is steeped in history and was once one of the busiest ports in the country, even more important than Cork and Dublin at one time. With the closing of the railway line in the 1970s (see Irish railway history), the town went into a period of decline, reinforced by the difficulties encountered by the town's textile industry. Since the 1990s, aided by favourable property tax concessions, there has been considerable reinvestment and construction to restore Youghal's facilities and popularity.

According to "An A to Z of Youghal: The history and people of Eochaill," Sir Arthur Conan Doyle vacationed in Youghal with his wife and created the character of Inspector Youghal of the C.I.D for The Adventure of the Mazarin Stone.[5]

Transport

  • Cork Airport is the nearest airport in the region and is located about 40 minutes drive away from Youghal.
  • Youghal railway station opened on 1 May 1860, closed for passenger services on 4 February 1963 and for goods services on 30 August 1982.[6]

See also

References

External links

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

YOUGHAL (pronounced Yawl), a seaport, market town and watering-place of county Cork, Ireland, on the W. side of the Blackwater estuary, and on the Cork & Youghal branch of the Great Southern & Western railway, 264 m. E. of Cork. Pop. (1901) 5393. The collegiate church of St Mary, in the later Decorated style, was erected in the 11th century, but rebuilt in the 13th, and since that time frequently restored. It contains a beautiful monument to the 1st earl of Cork. The college was founded by an earl of Desmond in 1464. There are still a few fragments of the Dominican friary founded in 1269. The Clock Gate (1771) is noticeable, and portions of the old walls are to be seen. Myrtle Grove was formerly the residence of Sir Walter Raleigh. He was mayor of Youghal in 1588-89, and is said to have first cultivated the potato here. The harbour is safe and commodious, but has a bar at the mouth. At the N. extremity of the harbour the river is crossed by a bridge on wooden piles. The principal exports are corn and other agricultural produce; the imports are coal, culm, timber and slate. Coarse earthenware and bricks are manufactured. Fine point-lace commanding high prices is made by the Presentation Sisters. The Blackwater is famous for salmon, and sea-fishing is important. The Strand, the modern portion of the town, has all the attributes of a seaside resort.

Youghal (Eschaill, " the Yew wood") was made a settlement of the Northmen in the 9th century, and was incorporated by King John in 1209. The Franciscan monastery, founded at Youghal by FitzGerald in 1224, was the earliest house of that order in Ireland. Sir Roger Mortimer landed at Youghal in 1317. The town was plundered by the earl of Desmond in 1579. In 1641 it was garrisoned and defended by the earl of Cork. In 1649 it declared for the parliament, and was occupied as his headquarters by Cromwell. It sent two members to parliament from 1374 till the Union, after that only one down to 1885.


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