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Yulii Borisovich Khariton

Yulii Borisovich Khariton, 1924
Died December 18, 1996 (aged 92)
Citizenship Soviet Union/Russia
Nationality Russian
Fields Physics
Institutions Institute of Chemical Physics
Alma mater Leningrad Polytechnical Institute, Soviet Union
University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
Doctoral advisor Ernest Rutherford
Other academic advisors Abram Ioffe
Known for Soviet atomic bomb project
Notable awards Hero of Socialist Labor
Order of Lenin
Stalin Prize

Yulii Borisovich Khariton (Russian: Ю́лий Бори́сович Харито́н, February 27, 1904 - December 18, 1996) was a Soviet physicist working in the field of nuclear power. He was the chief designer of the Soviet atomic bomb, and stayed with the Soviet nuclear program for many years.



Yulii Khariton was born to a Jewish family of journalist Boris Osipovich Khariton and actress Mirra Yakovlevna Burovskaya[1]. His father worked for newspaper Rech the main organ of the Constitutional Democratic Party. In 1922 by Lenin's decree he was expelled from the Soviet Russia on the so called Philosophers' ships and worked in an emigrant newspaper in Latvia. After annexation of Latvia by the Soviet Union Boris Khariton was arrested by NKVD and died in GULAG[2]. Yulii's mother, Mira Burovskaya was also in emigre and in 1930ies joined Zionist immigration to the British colony of Palestine. Yulii was forbidden to contact his parents after he has started classified work.[3].

He studied in Leningrad Polytechnical Institute (1920-1925) under Abram Ioffe and in University of Cambridge (1926-1928) under Ernest Rutherford and received a doctor's degree. In 1931-1946 he became head of Laboratory of Explosion in Institute of Chemical Physics and received doctor of physical and mathematical sciences (1935). During this period, Yuly Khariton and Yakov Zel'dovich conducted their calculation of chain reaction of uranium. He was elected corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1946, and a member in 1953. He received three awards of Hero of Socialist Labor (1949, 1951, 1954), an Order of Lenin (1956) and three Stalin Prize (1949, 1951, 1953). he also received a Gold Medal of I.V.Kurchatov (1974) and a Great Gold Medal of M.V.Lomonosov (1982).



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