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Yusuf al-Qaradawi
Full name Yusuf al-Qaradawi
Born September 9, 1926 (1926-09-09) (age 83)
Gharbia Egypt
Era Modern era
Region Muslim scholar
School Sunni Islam

Yusuf al-Qaradawi (Arabic: يوسف القرضاوي Yūsuf al-Qaraḍāwiy‎; born September 9, 1926) is an Egyptian Muslim scholar and Islamist preacher. He is best known for his program, ash-Shariah wal-Hayat ("Shariah and Life") on Al Jazeera that has an estimated audience of 40 million worldwide,[1] and for IslamOnline, a popular website[2] that he helped found in 1997. He has also published more than 80 books, including The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam and Islam: The Future Civilization. He is the winner of eight international prizes for his scholarly contributions[3] and is considered one of the most influential Islamic scholars living today.[1][4][5]

He has long had one of the more prominent roles within the thought leadership of the Muslim Brotherhood,[6] but twice turned down offers for the official directorship role of the organization, in 1976 and 2004.[7][8] He is a trustee of the Oxford University Center for Islamic Studies [9] and has been named as the technical consultant for a multi-million dollar epic movie in English on Muhammad produced by Barrie Osborne.[10][11]

A 2008 Foreign Policy poll put him at No.3 in the list of the Top 20 Public Intellectuals worldwide.[12] Some of his views have been controversial in the West.[13]

Contents

Biography

Qaradawi, during his days at Azhari Institute at Tanta

Al-Qaradawi was born in Safat Turab village in the Nile Delta, Egypt, in a poor family of devout Muslim peasants. He became an orphan at the age of two when he lost his father. Following his father's death, he was raised by his uncle. He read and memorized the entire Qur'an by the time he was nine years old.[14]

He then joined the Institute of Religious Studies at Tanta, and graduated after nine years of study. He moved on to study Islamic Theology at the Al-Azhar University in Cairo, from which he graduated in 1953. He earned his Graduate Diploma, from The Higher Institution of Arabic and Literature in 1958, topping the 500 students in the Faculty of Arabic Language.[citation needed] Parallel to his study of Arabic Language he enrolled in the graduate program in the Department of Quran and Sunna Sciences of the Faculty of Religion's Fundamentals (Usul al-Din), and graduated in 1960. In 1962, he was sent by Al-Azhar University to Qatar to head the Qatari Secondary Institute of Religious Studies. He completed his PhD thesis titled Zakah and its effect on solving social problems in 1973 with First Merit, and was awarded his PhD degree from Al Azhar. In 1977, he laid the foundation for the Faculty of Shari`ah and Islamic Studies in the University of Qatar and became the faculty's dean. In the same year he founded the Centre of Seerah and Sunna Research.[15][16][17][18]

He also served at the Institute of Imams, Egypt under the Egyptian Ministry of Religious Endowments as supervisor before moving back to Doha as Dean of the Islamic Department at the Faculties of Shariah and Education in Qatar, where he continued until 1990.[19] His next appointment was in Algeria as Chairman of the Scientific Council of Islamic University and Higher Institutions in 1990-91. He returned to Qatar once more as Director of the Seerah and Sunnah Center at Qatar University, a post he still occupies today.[17] Qaradawi is the head of the European Council for Fatwa and Research,an Islamic scholarly entity based in Ireland.[20] He also serves as the chairman of International Union for Muslim Scholars (IUMS).[21]

He was imprisoned under King Farouq in 1949, then three times during the reign of former President Gamal Abdul Nasser, until he left Egypt for Qatar in 1961.[22]

He has three sons and four daughters,[23] three of whom hold doctorates from British Universities.[24][25] His daughter Ilham Yousef Al-Qaradawi is an internationally recognized nuclear scientist.[26][27]

Views

Status of Jews and Christians

In his book titled The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam, Qaradawi wrote:

Islam does not prohibit Muslims to be kind and generous to peoples of other religions, even if they are idolaters and polytheists, ... it looks upon the People of the Book, that is, Jews and Christians, with special regard, whether they reside in a Muslim society or outside it. The Qur'an never addresses them without saying, "O People of the Book" or "O You who have been given the Book," indicating that they were originally people of a revealed religion. For this reason there exists a relationship of mercy and spiritual kinship between them and the Muslims, all having in common the principles of the one true religion sent by Allah through his prophets ...: He has ordained for (the Muslims) the same religion which He enjoined on Noah, and that which We have revealed to thee (Muhammad) and that which We enjoined on Abraham, Moses, and Jesus: that you should establish the faith and make no division in it. (Qur'an 42:13) [28]

Non-Muslims living in an Islamic State

Qaradawi has advocated for the importance of non-Muslim minorities:

those people who live under the protection of an Islamic government enjoy special privileges. They are referred to as "the Protected People" (ahl al-dhimmah or dhimmies), meaning that Allah, His Messenger ... and the community of Muslims have made a covenant with them that they may live in safety and security under the Islamic government. In modern terminology, dhimmies are "citizens" of the Islamic state. From the earliest period of Islam to the present day, Muslims are in unanimous agreement that they enjoy the same rights and carry the same responsibilities as Muslims themselves, while being free to practice their own faiths.[29]

Stance on Dialogue with Non-Muslims

Qaradawi has strongly pressed for dialogue with Non-Muslims. He also puts emphasis on conversations with the West, including Jews, Christians, and secularists. He writes that this effort should differentiate itself from a debate, for the latter does not often result in mutual cooperation. In his book titled Priorities of The Islamic Movement in The Coming Phase, he recounts his experience:

I will never forget what one of the participants, a nationalist Christian, said to me at the lunch table. He said, "We have changed our opinion about you completely". I asked, "And what was your opinion?" He replied, "that you are a hard-liner and a fanatic". I said, "Where did you get this idea about me? He answered, "I don't know, but, frankly, that was our impression about you". I asked "And now?" He said, "Now we have learned through seeing, hearing, discussion and direct contact what has changed this unfair idea about you completely. We now see you as a man who respects logic, refers to reason and knows how to listen to the other opinion as a man who is not stubborn or adamant, but extremely flexible and tolerant". What I want to convey by telling this story is that direct contact and reasonable, quiet dialogue that is held on equal footing is in the interest of the Islamic Movement, which stands to gain from it and will lose nothing at all in it.[30]

Stance on Religious Extremism and Fanaticism

Qaradawi has written about the danger of extreme adaptation of ideas, especially when done through blind obedience. He released a dissertation on the subject. He listed indications of extremism:

  1. The 1st indication of extremism include bigotry & intolerance, which make a person adamantly devoted to his own opinions and prejudices, as well as rigidity, which deprives him of clarity of vision regarding the interests of other human beings, or the purposes of Shariah, or the circumstances of age. Such a person does not allow any opportunity for dialogue with others so that he may compare his opinion with theirs, and chooses to follow what appears to him most sound.[31]
  2. The 2nd indication of extremism manifests in a continuous commitment to excessiveness, and in attempts to force others to do likewise, despite the fact that Allah has not commanded it, and the existence of good reasons to make things easy. A person motivated by piety and caution may however, if he so wishes, choose a hard-line opinion in some matters and on certain occasions. But this should not become so habitual that he rejects advice when he needs it.[31]
  3. The 3rd indication of extremism is the out-of-time and out-of-place religious excessiveness and overburdening of others, i.e. when applying Islamic principles to people in non-Muslim countries or to people who have only recently converted to Islam, as well as to newly committed Muslims. With all these, emphasis should not be put on either minor or controversial issues, but on fundamentals. Endeavours should be made to correct their concepts and understanding of Islam before anything else.[31]
  4. The 4th indication of extremism manifests itself in harshness in the treatment of people, roughness in the manner of approach, & crudeness in calling people to Islam, all which are contrary to the teachings of the Qur'an and Sunnah.[31]
Views on Terrorism

After the September 11 attacks, Qaradawi, urging Muslims to donate blood for the victims of the attacks, stated,[32]

"Islam, the religion of tolerance, holds the human soul in high esteem, and considers the attack against innocent human beings a grave sin, this is backed by the Qur'anic verse which reads:
Who so ever kills a human being for other than manslaughter or corruption in the earth, it shall be as if he has killed all mankind, and who so ever saves the life of one, it shall be as if he had saved the life of all mankind," (Al-Ma'dah:32).
"The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, is reported to have said, 'A believer remains within the scope of his religion as long as he doesn't kill another person illegally'"
"Islam never allows a Muslim to kill the innocent and the helpless." He denies that Palestinian suicide bombing attacks constitute terrorism, claiming that "when Palestinians face such unjust aggression, they tend to stem bloodletting and destruction and not to claim the lives of innocent civilians", but qualifies that with "I do agree with those who do not allow such martyr operations to be carried out outside the Palestinian territories."

Qaradawi has suggested the legitimate use of suicide bombings against enemy combatants in modern times if the defending combatants had no other means of self-defense.[33]

Some Western governments, have met him personally to request release of European civilians kidnapped in Iraq and have thanked him officially, praising his cooperation. The French Foreign Minister Michel Barnier wrote to Qaradawi: "With such a clear condemnation of the abduction of the French hostages you have sent a clear-cut message demonstrating respect for the tenets of Islam."[34]

Views on Women's Activism

Commenting on the role women played in social active issues:

Although over sixty year have passed since the Movement emerged into existence, no women leaders have appeared that can confront secular and Marxist trends single-handedly and efficiently. This has come about as a result of men's unrelenting attempts to control women's movement, as men have never allowed women a real chance to express themselves and show special leadership talents and abilities that demonstrate their capability of taking command of their work without men's dominance. I believe that women's Islamic work will succeed and prove itself in the arena of the Islamic Movement only when it gives birth to female Islamic leaders in the fields of Call, thought, science, literature and education. I do not think that this is impossible or even difficult. There are genius women just as there are genius men. Ingenuity is not a monopoly for men. It is not in vain that the Holy Quran tells us the story of a woman who led men wisely and bravely and made her people fare the best end: it is the Queen of Sheba, whose story with Solomon is told in Surat Al­Naml. I have observed in the University of Qatar that girls make better students than boys.[35]

Views on rape

In July 2004, the IslamOnline website, founded and chaired by Qaradawi, was asked: "Are raped women punished in Islam?". Kamal Badr, editor-in-chief, replied: "To be absolved from guilt, the raped woman must have shown some sort of good conduct... Islam addresses women to maintain their modesty, as not to open the door for evil... The Koran calls upon Muslim women in general to preserve their dignity and modesty, just to save themselves from any harassment... So for a rape victim to be absolved from guilt, she must not be the one that opens... her dignity for deflowering...If, after trying her best to resist the attack, she gets overcome by the assailants, she is totally absolved from punishment... any woman, who, despite doing her utmost to resist these thugs and their ilk, is raped, is not guilty of any sin."[36] [37]

Views on Wife Beating

In his book The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam, Qaradawi allows wife beating, when all other means of persuasion have failed. A husband may beat his wife "lightly with his hands, avoiding her face and other sensitive areas.[38][39][40][41]

He told The Guardian that wife-beating was neither "obligatory nor desirable" but "accepts it as a method of last resort - though only lightly".[42] He stated on Channel 4 News that it was justifiable in certain circumstances[40] but "The ideal was for Muslim men never to beat their wives, and if husbands wrongly beat their wives, they have the right to fight back." [43]

On Female Circumcision

While stating that female circumcision (FGM) is "not required" in his book, Modern Fatwas", he adds: "whoever finds it serving the interest of his daughters should do it, and I personally support this under the current circumstances in the modern world."[44][45]

Statements on Jews

Qaradawi said the following to journalists: "Jews who believe in the authentic Torah are very close to Muslims, followers of the two religions agree on many rituals and religious practices such as male circumcision, halal slaughtering, banning pork and prohibiting any statues inside mosques and synagogues." During the same interview, he said that relations between Muslims and Jews only became strained with the emergence of Zionism and the establishment of Israel. He further said that "Muslims are against the expansionist, oppressive Zionist movement, not the Jews." He also said that Muslims and Jews were subjected to the same persecution following the fall of Islamic rule in Andalusia, now Spain.[46]

However, Qaradawi has also made statements that critics charge are explicitly anti-Semitic. In a January 9, 2009, sermon during the Gaza War, shown on Al-Jazeera, Qaradawi prayed (as translated by MEMRI):

Oh Allah, take your enemies, the enemies of Islam. Oh Allah, take the Jews, the treacherous aggressors. Oh Allah, take this profligate, cunning, arrogant band of people. Oh Allah, they have spread much tyranny and corruption in the land. Pour Your wrath upon them, oh our God. Lie in wait for them. Oh Allah, You annihilated the people of Thamoud at the hand of a tyrant, and You annihilated the people of 'Aad with a fierce, icy gale, and You destroyed the Pharaoh and his soldiers — oh Allah, take this oppressive, tyrannical band of people. Oh Allah, take this oppressive, Jewish Zionist band of people. Oh Allah, do not spare a single one of them. Oh Allah, count their numbers, and kill them, down to the very last one.[47]

This was not the first time that Qaradawi has been accused of Antisemitism. In August 2005, the Wall Street Journal reported that the Dublin-based European Council for Fatwa and Research, of which Qaradhawi is president, had used the infamous Protocols of the Elders of Zion in its theological deliberations.[48]

Statement on the Holocaust

In a statement on Al-Jazeera on January 30, 2009, Qaradawi said (as translated by MEMRI):

Throughout history, Allah has imposed upon the [Jews] people who would punish them for their corruption. The last punishment was carried out by Hitler. By means of all the things he did to them – even though they exaggerated this issue – he managed to put them in their place. This was divine punishment for them. Allah willing, the next time will be at the hand of the believers.[49]

Statement that the Torah "constitutes a call for war"

In a sermon which aired on Qatar TV on June 5, 2009 (as translated by MEMRI):

"Never have I seen a single verse, paragraph, or sentence in the Torah which calls for peace. Everything in the Torah constitutes a call for war. They even call God "Lord of Hosts" – they don't call Him "Lord of the Universe" or "the Compassionate, the Merciful...[The Torah contains] the notion of annihilation. We saw it when the Europeans went to America – they tried to annihilate the Indians. When they went to Australia, they tried to annihilate the aboriginal people. Indeed, they annihilated them. This is a biblical notion – annihilate them totally, do not leave a living soul among them."[50]

Sectarian views

Qaradawi has been an avid caller to what he calls "Islamic Sufism", praising those who practice it as pious.[51]. He has also been a staunch defender of the Ashari school of belief within Islam, going so far as to claim that the whole Muslim world follows this school as well as all Muslim religious schools in the world.[52]

Qaradawi has also described Shi'ites as heretics "mubtadi'oun" [53]. In response, the Iranian Press Agency has described Qaradawi as "a spokesman for “international Freemasonry and rabbis".[54]

Suicide bombings

Qaradawi strongly supports Palestinian attacks on Israeli targets. A resolution issued by The Islamic Fiqh Council affiliated to the Muslim World League in its 14th session, held in Doha(Qatar) on 11–16 January 2003 has upheld his views on the matter.

Defending bombings against off duty soldiers Qaradawi told BBC Newsnight that:

  • "An Israeli woman is not like women in our societies, because she is a soldier."
  • "I consider this type of martyrdom operation as an evidence of God's justice."
  • "Allah Almighty is just; through his infinite wisdom he has given the weak a weapon the strong do not have and that is their ability to turn their bodies into bombs as Palestinians do".[55]

At the press conference held by the organizations sponsoring Qaradawi's visit to London, Qaradawi reiterated his view that Suicide attacks are a justified from of resistance to Israeli occupation. In the past, Qaradawi has justified those actions on the basis that all Israel civilians are potential soldiers since Israel is a "militarized society.Due to this, Qaradawi has been accused by many Western countries and Israel of supporting terrorism.

However, he is opposed to attacks outside of the Palestinian territories and on other than Israeli targets. For example, on March 20, 2005, Qaradawi issued a condemnation of a car-bombing that had occurred in Doha, Qatar the day before. One Briton, Jon Adams was killed. Qaradawi issued a statement[56] that said

"Such crimes are committed by insane persons who have no religious affiliation and play well into the hands of the enemies." and "I urge all Qataris to stand united in facing such an epidemic and uproot it to nip the infection in the bud, otherwise it will spread like wildfire. I, in the name of all scholars in Qatar, denounce such a horrendous crime and pray that it would be the last and implore God to protect this secure country.".

See also his comments here:[57].

Opinion on the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict

In response to Muslim scholar 'Abdullaah ibn Jibreen's fatwa declaring that it was forbidden for Muslims to support or pray for Hezbollah because they are Shia, Qaradawi issued a contrary fatwa, stating that it was mandatory for all Muslims to support Hezbollah in its fight against Israel, claiming that "Shias agree with the Sunnis in the main principles of Islam while the differences are only over the branches." In this fatwa, he also called upon the Sunnis and Shia of Iraq to end the civil war.[58]

Opinion on Saddam

In an address aired on Qatar TV on January 5, 2007, Qaradawi questioned the trial of Saddam Hussein under American supervision in Iraq, but agreed to it if it were conducted by the Iraqi people "after liberating Iraq from American colonialism".He also suggested that the trial was "an act of vengeance by the Americans" for his missile attacks on Israel. He strongly criticized the way Saddam was hanged :[59]

"A human soul must be respected. These people did not respect the human soul. The man was calm and kept his cool. He refused to be blindfolded, and insisted upon facing death with open eyes.. and said the two parts of the shahada.....The man died saying: 'There is no God but Allah.'..Anybody whose last words are 'There is no God but Allah' goes to Paradise." "The thing that improves [the record] of Saddam Hussein is that in his final years - as the brothers in Iraq tell us - he was a changed man. He began to strictly observe the prayers, to read the Koran, and to do charitable work. He would hasten to do anything that may help people. He would help build mosques, and would say that if anybody wants to build a mosque, the government should pay half the cost of the building materials. When they entered his secret hideout and caught him, they found a prayer carpet and an open Koran."

Boycott fatwa

According to IslamOnline, Qaradawi released a fatwa on April 14, 2004 stating boycott of American and Israeli products was an obligation for all who are able.[60][61] The fatwa reads in part :

"If people ask in the name of religion we must help them. The vehicle of this support is a complete boycott of the enemies' goods. Each riyal, dirham …etc. used to buy their goods eventually becomes bullets to be fired at the hearts of brothers and children in Palestine. For this reason, it is an obligation not to help them (the enemies of Islam) by buying their goods. To buy their goods is to support tyranny, oppression and aggression. Buying goods from them will strengthen them; our duty is to make them as weak as we can. Our obligation is to strengthen our resisting brothers in the Sacred Land as much as we can. If we cannot strengthen the brothers, we have a duty to make the enemy weak. If their weakness cannot be achieved except by boycott, we must boycott them.... American goods, exactly like "Israeli" goods, are forbidden. It is also forbidden to advertise these goods. America today is a second Israel. It totally supports the Zionist entity. The usurper could not do this without the support of America. "Israel's" unjustified destruction and vandalism of everything has been using American money, American weapons, and the American veto. America has done this for decades without suffering the consequences of any punishment or protests about their oppressive and prejudiced position from the Islamic world."

Mecca Time

In April 2008, at a conference in Qatar titled "Mecca: the Center of the Earth, Theory and Practice", Qaradawi advocated the implementation of Mecca Time to replace the Greenwich Meridian as the basis of the world time zone system.[62].

Democratic perspective

Qaradawi has at times spoken in favor of democracy in the Muslim world,[63] speaking of a need for reform of political climates in the Middle East specifically.[64]

However, his true preferences on democracy, and for the government of the state and the public area are not always as clear, as following quote illustrates: "the Shari`ah cannot be amended to conform to changing human values and standards, rather, it is the absolute norm to which all human values and conduct must conform ...". However in a democracy a majority vote might differ from the commandments in the Qur'an and Sunnah, so this quote can be taken to mean that Qaradawi would not allow Muslims to vote against the word of Allah.

On religious rights

The same goes for his views on the religious liberties. Those effectively include the right for anyone to change religion, in case, for a Muslim to become a non-Muslim.

However, Qaradawi appears to see this differently, hiding between the assumed consensus in Islamic world[citation needed]: "All Muslim jurists agree that the apostate is to be punished. However, they differ regarding the punishment itself. The majority of them go for killing; meaning that an apostate is to be sentenced to death."[65]

Danish cartoon controversy

Qaradawi called for a "Day of Anger" over the cartoons,[66] but condemned violent actions in response to them.[67]

Homosexuality

On June 5, 2006, on the Al Jazeera "Sharia and Life" programme he regularly features on, Qaradawi reiterated orthodox views on homosexuality.[68] When asked about the punishment for people who "practise liwaat (sodomy) or sihaaq (lesbian activity)", Qaradawi replied: "The same punishment as any sexual pervert - the same as the fornicator." (MEMRI translation) [69]

Relation with the Muslim Brotherhood

Qaradawi was a follower of Hasan al-Banna during his youth and a longtime member of the Muslim Brotherhood[16]. He has twice turned down offers to be the Brotherhood's leader at various times.[70] In an interview with the Dream channel, Qaradawi is quoted as saying about this relation with the MB (Muslim Brotherhood)[71]

"I joined the Muslim Brotherhood Group and worked with Imam al- Banna. I was influenced by al- Banna’s moderate thoughts and principles ...(Later)MB asked me to be a chairman, but I preferred to be a spiritual guide for the entire nation... MB consider me their Mufti, but I don’t have a relation with the organization, because being an MB chairman is something difficult requiring a highly sophisticated wisdom, and I prefer to be devoted to the entire nation, and I feel comfortable with this decision. I like MB and consider them the nearest group to be righteous" "when I joined the MB, I benefited from them; I became a Da’ia instead of being just a sermonizer, and cared for the entire nation instead of just caring for myself. MB has a variety of members, who have different professions, that is why I became extrovert and open- minded Da’ia."

Criticism

Criticism from Muslim scholars

Qaradawi urged the Taliban to reconsider its decision to tear down the Buddha statues in Afghanistan in 2001. He was quickly criticized for supporting "idol worship". Upon meeting with leaders from the Taliban, Qaradawi reversed his position and praised the destruction of the statues.[72]

Petition against Qaradawi

In October 2004, 2,500 leading Muslim intellectuals from around the world, mostly from Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states, Iraq, Jordan, and Palestine signed a petition condemning Islamic theologians who promote fundamentalism, intolerance, and violence, including Qaradawi. Listing him as one of the "sheikhs of death", the petition signatories accused him of "providing a religious cover for terrorism".[73][74]

Controversy

Disagreement with Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy

"But, the Sheikh [Tantawi] entered, or was pushed to enter, the area of Fiqh [Islamic jurisprudence]. He did not prepare himself for the task. He did not study, practise, or write in Fiqh. He did not train himself in navigating through the deep waters of Fiqh. Therefore, he was not successful in many of his hard-hitting opinions. This was the reason of my disagreement with him despite the old friendship between us."[75]

Entry into western countries

Qaradawi has been banned from entering the United States of America since 1999 and the United Kingdom since 2008,[76] though he visited London in 2004.[77] In July 2003 he visited Stockholm, Sweden, for a conference at the Stockholm Mosque arranged by the Muslim Association of Sweden. During the conference Qaradawi expressed his support for suicide attacks against Israeli civilians which he called a "necessary Jihad".[78]

Refused as witness in Wilders trial

In February 2010, the Amsterdam court refused to hear Qaradawi as one of the proposed witnesses in the case of the prosecution of Wilders [79][80].

Fatwa controversy with MEMRI

The Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI), citing Asharq Al-Awsat, alleges that Qaradawi issued a Fatwa following the Iraqi insurgency, saying,

"...all of the Americans in Iraq are combatants, there is no difference between civilians and soldiers, and one should fight them, since the American civilians came to Iraq in order to serve the occupation. The abduction and killing of Americans in Iraq is a [religious] obligation so as to cause them to leave Iraq immediately. The mutilation of corpses [however] is forbidden in Islam." [81]

Qaradawi, however, denies this allegation:

I have not published a Fatwa on this issue. At the Egyptian Journalists' Union a few days ago I was asked about the permissibility of fighting against the occupation in Iraq, and I answered that it is permitted. Afterwards I was asked concerning the American civilians in Iraq and I merely responded with the question – are there American civilians in Iraq? It is a matter of common knowledge that in Fatwas such as these I do not use the word "killing" but rather I say "struggle," which is a more comprehensive word than the word "killing" and whose meaning is not necessarily to kill. In addition, I have condemned the taking of hostages on a number of occasions in the past and have demanded that they be released and that their lives not be threatened."[82]

Shaker Al-Nabulsi, a former Muslim [83] who writes for the liberal site Ethal, called for the creation of a petition to the UN calling to put Qaradawi and his like on trial for incitement and support of terrorism.[84]

Alcohol fatwa controversy

Qaradawi issued a fatwa in recent months stating that the consumption of small amounts of alcohol (<0.5% concentration or 5/1000) was acceptable for Muslims.[85] The statement was made regarding energy drinks, where fermentation occurs naturally as part of the production process. This does not contradict with the widespread view that consuming alcohol is totally forbidden to Muslims. (chapter 5: verses 90-91). The fermentation in this process is natural and unavoidable, similarly it is an extremely small proportion.[86] This opinion held by Imam Abu Hanifa, ibn Uthaymeen, the Supreme Council of Saudi Arabia, etc.[citation needed]

Awards and Recognition

The Global Mufti: The Phenomenon of Yusuf al-Qaradawi,a book on Qaradawi published by Columbia Press

Qaradawi has been awarded by various countries and institutions for his contributions to Islamic society. Amongst them are

The Qatar Faculty of Islamic Studies, part of the Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development instituted the SHEIKH YUSUF AL QARADAWI SCHOLARSHIPS to five students each year for post graduate studies.[93].It also named its newly established research centre The Qaradawi Center for Islamic Moderation and Renewal after him.[94][95]

He is a trustee of the Oxford University Center for Islamic Studies [9] and has been named as the technical consultant for a multi-million dollar epic movie in English on Prophet Muhammed produced by Barrie Osborne producer.[10][96] A 2008 Foreign Policy poll put him at No.3 in the list of the Top 20 Public Intellectuals worldwide.[12]

Books

Qaradawi has authored more than 80 books and his academic style and objective thought are considered to be some of the main characteristics of his works[97] . His most famous work is The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam. Professor Mustafa al-Zarqa declared that owning a copy of it was "the duty of every Muslim family." His book "Fiqh al-Zakah" is considered by some as the most comprehensive work in the area of Zakat. Abu al-A'la al-Mawdudi commented on it as "the book of this century in Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh)" [97][98] Some of his major works are:

He has also published some excerpts of his poetry in the book Nafahat wa Lafahat.

Qaradawi has also been the subject of the book The Global Mufti: The Phenomenon of Yusuf al-Qaradawi published by Columbia University Press.[99] He is also profiled as one of the leading liberal voices in contemporary Islam in Charles Kurzman's book Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook, published by Oxford University Press.[100]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b [No.9 Sheikh Dr Yusuf al Qaradawi, Head of the International Union of Muslim Scholars - "The 500 most influential muslims in the world 2009" ,Prof John Esposito and Prof Ibrahim Kalin - Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University]
  2. ^ Alexa site info IslamOnline.net Ranking#3880 Mar 1 2010
  3. ^ "Qaradawi Wins Hijra Award" ION, December 15, 2009
  4. ^ Product Description: The Global Mufti: The Phenomenon of Yusuf Al-Qaradawi (Paperback)by Bettina Graf (Author, Editor), Jakob Skovgaard-Petersen (Editor) C Hurst & Co Publishers Ltd (20 July 2009)
  5. ^ [Raymond William Baker, Islam Without Fear: Egypt and the New Islamists (2003), p.4 ]
  6. ^ Olivier Guitta (February 20, 2006). "The Cartoon Jihad: The Muslim Brotherhood's project for dominating the West". The Weekly Standard. pp. Volume 11, Issue 22. http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/006/704xewyj.asp. 
  7. ^ "Al-Qaradawi Turns Down Offer to Assume Leadership of the Muslim Brotherhood". al-Jazeera. January 12, 2004. http://www.cesnur.org/2004/qaradawi.htm. 
  8. ^ [No.9 Sheikh Dr Yusuf al Qaradawi, Head of the International Union of Muslim Scholars -"The 500 most influential muslims in the world 2009" ,Prof John Esposito and Prof Ibrahim Kalin - Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University]
  9. ^ a b Scholar with a streetwise touch defies expectations and stereotypes
  10. ^ a b [1]
  11. ^ Matrix producer plans Muhammad biopic
  12. ^ a b The World’s Top 20 Public Intellectuals
  13. ^ Qaradawi Not Welcome
  14. ^ Home > English > DIHQA Programs > The Islamic Personality > Fourth Session
  15. ^ Home > English > DIHQA Programs > The Islamic Personality > Fourth Session
  16. ^ a b BBC World News Profile of Sheikh Yusuf Qaradawi
  17. ^ a b Al Qaradawi in Al Azhar
  18. ^ a b Dr. Yousef Al Qaradhawi winner Cultural & Scientific Achievments Sixth Circle 1998-1999
  19. ^ Profile of Qaradawi
  20. ^ The European Council for Fatwa and Research
  21. ^ IUMS About us
  22. ^ Al Qaradawi in Al Azhar
  23. ^ [2]
  24. ^ [ http://www.islamonline.net/English/News/2005-01/11/article05.shtml Livingstone Demands UK Media Apology for Qaradawi ]
  25. ^ [SHAYKH YUSUF AL-QARADAWI: PORTRAIT OF A LEADING ISLAMIC CLERIC Ana Belén Soage* Middle East Review of International Affairs, Vol. 12, No. 1 (March 2008) Page 59]
  26. ^ Advisory Committee to the WNU RI School Al-QARADAWI Ilham
  27. ^ Curriculum Vitae Ilham AlQaradawi
  28. ^ "Special Consideration for the People of the Book"
  29. ^ "Non-Muslim Residents of an Islamic State"
  30. ^ "Qaradawi's on Dialogue with Others" www.witness-pioneer.org
  31. ^ a b c d "Islamic Awakening between Rejection and Extremism" www.witness-pioneer.org
  32. ^ Qaradawi Condemns Attacks Against Civilians: Forbidden in Islam
  33. ^ Abdelhadi, Magdi (July 7, 2004). "Controversial preacher with 'star status'". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3874893.stm. Retrieved 2007-05-13. 
  34. ^ Qaradawi Is Welcome Peter Roberts Labour Left Briefing, December 2004
  35. ^ 'When Will Women's Islamic Work Succeed?'
  36. ^ For her to be absolved from guilt, a raped woman must have shown good conduct
  37. ^ Ask about Islam, "Are Raped Women Punished in Islam?"
  38. ^ Livingstone lauds the man who defends the killing of gays
  39. ^ 'For her to be absolved from guilt, a raped woman must have shown good conduct'
  40. ^ a b Red Ken and the Conservative Cleric
  41. ^ Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf. The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam, Chapter 3:The Halal And The Haram In Marriage And Family Life -> Divorce -> Rebelliousness and Strife
  42. ^ Friendly fire Madeleine Bunting meets Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi in Qatar
  43. ^ Why the Mayor of London will maintain dialogues with all of London’s faiths and communities - Page 14 - Women's rights
  44. ^ The Odd Couple: Red Ken and the Conservative Cleric
  45. ^ Ruling on Female Circumcision
  46. ^ "Qaradawi: Muslims Anti Zionists Not Jews" ION News
  47. ^ Sheikh Yousef Al-Qaradhawi On Al-Jazeera Incites Against Jews, Arab Regimes, and the U.S.; Calls on Muslims to Boycott Starbucks and Others; Says 'Oh Allah, Take This Oppressive, Jewish, Zionist Band of People... And Kill Them, Down to the Very Last One', MEMRI - Special Dispatch No. 2183 January 12, 2009.
  48. ^ http://www.zmo.de/pressekit/material/Wall_Street_BG.pdf
  49. ^ "Sheikh Yousuf Qaradhawi: Allah Imposed Hitler On the Jews to Punish Them – 'Allah Willing, the Next Time Will Be at the Hand of the Believers'". Middle East Media Research Institute. 3 February 2009. http://www.memri.org/bin/latestnews.cgi?ID=SD222409. Retrieved 7 September 2009. 
  50. ^ Sunni Scholar Sheik Yousuf Qaradhawi Protests: Obama Drew a Parallel between the Koran and the Bible, MEMRI, Clip #2138, June 5, 2009.
  51. ^ On Tassawuf Shaykh Yusuf al-Qaradawi
  52. ^ Al Ghazaly Man of Da'wah
  53. ^ The politics of sects
  54. ^ "Try to be nice about each other, A Sunni preacher upsets the Shias, Sep 25th 2008, CAIRO, From The Economist print edition [3]
  55. ^ "news.bbc.co.uk". http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3874893.stm. Retrieved 2007-06-18. 
  56. ^ "Islam-online.net". http://www.islam-online.net/English/News/2005-03/20/article04.shtml. Retrieved 2007-06-18. 
  57. ^ Interview with Britain's Guardian newspaper
  58. ^ Qaradawi urges Muslims to support Hezbollah. Gulf Times
  59. ^ http://www.memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?Page=countries&Area=iraq&ID=SP142707
  60. ^ "islamonline.net". http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?cid=1119503545220&pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar/FatwaE/FatwaEAskTheScholar. Retrieved 2007-06-18. 
  61. ^ "islamonline.net". http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar/FatwaE/FatwaE&cid=1119503543874. Retrieved 2007-06-18. 
  62. ^ BBC:Muslim call to adopt Mecca time
  63. ^ Muslim world needs democracy, says Qaradawi - The Muslim News - Saturday, July 8, 2006
  64. ^ Reform according to Islam. Al Jazeera English
  65. ^ Source of the Punishment for Apostasy
  66. ^ Daily Telegraph
  67. ^ Qaradawi Condemns Violent Cartoon Protests. IslamOnline.net
  68. ^ "aljazeera.net". http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/E3A7EEFB-4016-485A-8D6A-7AA9FD75CBD9.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-18. 
  69. ^ "memritv.org". http://www.memritv.org/search.asp?ACT=S9&P1=1170#. Retrieved 2007-06-18. 
  70. ^ "Al-Qaradawi Turns Down Offer to Assume Leadership of the Muslim Brotherhood"(al-Jazeera, January 12, 2004)
  71. ^ [ http://www.ikhwanweb.com/article.php?id=3537 Qaradawi: "MB asked me to be a chairman" - Ikhwanweb.com]
  72. ^ "themodernreligion.com". http://www.themodernreligion.com/jihad/afghan/qaradawi-latest.html. Retrieved 2007-06-18. 
  73. ^ Stop Terror Sheikhs, Muslim Academics Demand
  74. ^ Be merciful to Qaradawi
  75. ^ http://english.aljazeera.net/focus/2010/03/201031763554123901.html
  76. ^ "Muslim cleric not allowed into UK". BBC News. 2008-02-07. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/7232398.stm. Retrieved 2008-02-08. 
  77. ^ Militant Ideology Atlas, Combating Terrorism Center, West Point
  78. ^ Malm, Fredrik (August 21, 2003). "Massmordspredikan i svensk moské" (in Swedish). Dagens Nyheter. http://web.archive.org/web/20041104021932/http://www.dn.se/DNet/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=572&a=172705. 
  79. ^ "The trial of Geert Wilders: why we won't be hearing about camel urine"
  80. ^ "Court rejects Wilders’ extremist witnesses"
  81. ^ "memri.org". http://www.memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?Page=subjects&Area=jihad&ID=SP79404#_edn1. Retrieved 2007-06-18. 
  82. ^ MEMRI as above, citing al-Hayat
  83. ^ "memri.org". http://www.memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?Page=subjects&Area=jihad&ID=SP79404#_edn20. Retrieved 2008-10-13. 
  84. ^ "memri.org". http://www.memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?Page=subjects&Area=jihad&ID=SP79404. Retrieved 2007-06-18. 
  85. ^ Alcohol fatwa sparks controversy
  86. ^ Qur'an Chapter 50: Al Maeda, verse 90
  87. ^ King Faisal International prize winners over the years.
  88. ^ The IDB Prize in Islamic Economics and Islamic Banking
  89. ^ Fourth Session Dubai International Quran Awards
  90. ^ Home > English > DIHQA Programs > The Islamic Personality > Fourth Session
  91. ^ Work together to enhance cooperation, Sultan Abdul Halim tells Muslims
  92. ^ H.H. The Amir presents the State Acknowledgement Award to Dr. Sheikh Yusuf Al Qaradawi for his contributions in the field of Islamic Studies.
  93. ^ [4]
  94. ^ Qatar centre spreads moderate Islam, dialogue
  95. ^ Qaradawi centre vows to fight extremism
  96. ^ Matrix producer plans Muhammad biopic
  97. ^ a b [5]
  98. ^ Home > English > DIHQA Programs > The Islamic Personality > Fourth Session
  99. ^ The Global Mufti: The Phenomenon of Yusuf al-Qaradawi (Columbia/Hurst)
  100. ^ Liberal Islam, 1998 Edition, Chapter 22 Yusuf Al-Qaradawi

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Yusuf Qaradawi article)

From Wikiquote

Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi (born 1926) is an Egyptian Islamic cleric who is also a television personality and author of many books on Islam. He is the president of the International Union for Muslim Scholars.

Contents

Sourced

2004 Indian Ocean earthquake

Democracy

Diaglogue among religions with Jews

  • The Jews caused us a great injustice, the greatest injustice. They have expelled our people, stolen our land, shed our brothers' blood, and are still shedding blood, and there should be no contact between them and us....we will not agree to meet with them until our problem with the Zionist entity and those Westerners and Christians who support them, is solved.

Jihad

  • Millions marched in countries that participated in the war in Iraq, in Britain, Spain, and Italy. Their governments went to war, but the peoples protested against this in the millions. Am I allowed to kill theses people?!...We want [the attackers] to understand the religion and to know what is forbidden. They have a flaw in their understanding of Jihad. They believe that Jihad means fighting the entire world. Who has said such a thing?

Knowledge & industry

"We still haven't manufactured an engine in our Arab countries."
  • We use trains and planes, but they are not our trains or planes. The (Westerners) manufacture them and export them to us....We own them, but we don't manufacture them. We don't even produce a single nail in any of these cars....Islam teaches us to do things professionally. Doing things professionally is a religious duty....The Prophet said that Allah ordered to excel in everyhting....Even when killing, you must do well....We import everything from needles to missiles. This is our nation. We still haven't manufactured an engine in our Arab countries. We assemble parts, but have no manufacturing industries.

Martyrdom operations

  • There are clerics who oppose martyrdom operations in Palestine. By these operations Allah has compensated the Palestinians for their lack of strength. They do not, as the Zionists do, have Apache helicopters, warplanes, tanks, missiles. Allah has compensated them for this with these human bombs. This is divine justice.
  • (God) gives the weak a weapon for self-defense that the strong, despite his military and nuclear arsenals, can do nothing against. There are clerics who condemn this and even say that these are suicide operations that are not allowed in Islam.

Murder of Nick Berg

Preaching terrorism

  • Who said that I preach terrorism and killing?! This is astonishing! Astonishing that a man faces false accusations while he is still alive and people know him and can serve as witnesses....I don't claim things that are not in Islam and I don't invent an Islam of my own, but people invent lies about me... I don't believe in secret activities or organizations. I operate in full view of the public eye. People read my books and hear my sermons on the TV channels, my lectures are published for everyone to read, on my Internet website, and on the Islam Online website.

Violence in Judaism

  • Judaism is the No. 1 propagator of violence....the Torah itself states that when you enter a certain country, you must offer peace, and if they agree, all their residents are your slaves. In other countries, you should not offer peace or conversion. You must destroy them all, do not leave a living soul. In the first country you must slay all males and leave only the women, but in the second country, you must not leave… you must uproot them. This is in Judaism, in the Torah.

See also

External links

Video clips

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