Zeebrugge: Wikis


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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The church of Zeebrugge

Zeebrugge (Dutch: Zeebrugge, French: Zeebruges, "Seabruges" in literal translation) is a village on the coast of Belgium and a subdivision of Bruges, for which it is the modern port. Zeebrugge serves as both the international Port of Bruges-Zeebrugge and a seafront resort with hotels, cafés and a beach.



Located on the coast of the North Sea, the busiest sea in the world, its central location on the Belgian coast, short distance to Great Britain and close vicinity to densely populated industrialized cities makes Zeebrugge a crossroads for traffic from all directions. An expressway to Bruges connects Zeebrugge to the European motorway system; one can also get to and from Zeebrugge by train or tram.

The marina is Belgium's most important fishing port and the wholesale fish market located there is one of the largest in Europe.

Aside from being a passenger port with ferries to the United Kingdom, the harbour serves as the central port for Europe's automotive industry and is important for the import, handling and storage of energy products, agriculture products and other general cargo.


The harbour was the site of the Zeebrugge Raid on 23 April 1918, when the British Royal Navy put the German inland naval base at Bruges out of action. Admiral Roger Keyes planned and led the assault that stormed the German batteries and sank the ships in the harbour to block the entrance to the base for the last seven months of World War I.

Later, Zeebrugge's harbour was the scene of disaster when in 1987 the MS Herald of Free Enterprise passenger ferry capsized killing 193 people.

Passenger ferry routes

See also

External links

Coordinates: 51°20′N 3°12′E / 51.333°N 3.2°E / 51.333; 3.2



Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Bruges article)

From Wikitravel

Relatively cosmopolitan and bourgeois given its compact size, Bruges (official name in Dutch: Brugge [1]) is one of the best preserved pre-motorised cities in Europe and offers the kind of charms rarely available elsewhere. Part of Flanders, the Dutch-speaking northern part of Belgium, Brugge is a postcard perfect stop on any tour of Europe.



The language of the region is Flemish (akin to Dutch), but Belgium's other official language, French, is also very widely spoken. English is common as well.


Even by Belgian standards, Bruges has a poor reputation for its weather. Compared to other western European cities like London and Paris, the weather in Bruges is colder and more damp. Even in July, average daily maximum temperatures struggle to exceed 21c (70F) and rainfall averages 8 inches a month. [2] After October, temperatures drop off quite rapidly and winter months are damp and chilly.

Get in

By plane

A large number of carriers offer direct flights to Brussels. Belgium's main airport has its own railway station. Bruges can easily be reached through the airports of Brussels, Charleroi (Brussels South) and Lille, so getting to Bruges by train is by far the easiest way. Only one change at one of the three main stations is needed and the entire connection takes about 1:20.

Brussels South (Charleroi) is primarily served by Ryanair. Getting to Bruges can either be done by train or by a special shuttle bus that makes the round trip Bruges - Brussels South 4 times a day.[3]

By train

Traveling to Brugge on Belgium's excellent rail system is a natural choice. Trains to and from Brussels leave every 30 minutes during the day, and if you are traveling on the Eurostar that same day, there is no cost. Otherwise, buy a ticket when you get to the station. Luggage lockers are available from 6AM to 9:30PM. For more information on schedules, prices, and services visit the website of the NMBS/SNCB [4].

By car

If you are planning a bus-tour: be aware buses and camping vehicles are not allowed intra muros. There is a perfect parking place for them on the south side of the city with a newly designed gangway bringing you directly into the heart of the town. It is in general a bad idea to venture inside with a car, as parking is limited and finding your way difficult. There are multistory car parks a five minute walk from the city centre. Nice city mini-buses cruise the town with high frequency, and in any case, the historical centre must be traversed on foot, by bicycle, by horse-drawn carriage or by boat to enjoy it.

By ferry

P&O Ferries operate a daily sailing every evening from Hull to Zeebrugge taking 12½ hours for the crossing. The fares also include the bus from the ferry terminal to Brugge railway station.

Norfolkline Ferries operates ferries from Dover to Dunkerque every 2 hours, from Dunkerque Brugge is only 75 km away, please consider this can only be done by driving as Norfolkline do not take foot passengers.

Norfolkline Ferries [5] sail 3 times a week from Rosyth, Scotland (near Edinburgh) and Zeebrugge (near Brugge). The journey takes around 19 hours.

Get around

The historical center is not so big and thus quite walkable. The only mode of public transport inside city is bus. Buses are operated by the Flemish public transport company De Lijn [6]. Taxis on the market place and station cost about €10. Bicycles are easy to rent and make getting around the city very speedy, although the cobblestoned paths can make the rides a little bumpy and uncomfortable.


Once over the circling canal and inside the city walls, Bruges closes in around you with street after street of charming historic houses and a canal always nearby. In recent years, the city has turned so much towards tourism the locals sometimes complain they are living in Disney-land. The newly cleaned houses should however not confuse you; they are truly centuries old. And if you can get away from the chocolate-shops, you can visit some more quiet areas s.a. St. Anna, and imagine what life in the late middle ages must have been like.

The Bruges Card [7] provides discounts to most of the major attractions, and can be picked up at any of the hostels around town. The reduced rate cannot be used in conjunction with a student rate (both student and Bruges card rates are identical) and hence is most useful for older travellers.

Several Youth Hostels (Bauhaus), and probably the train station and tourist information, offer a useful map with some very interesting, 'non-tourist' places to see during the day and some unique places to visit at night. It provides a good way of getting an authentic feel for the town whilst avoiding the tourist honey-pots and allows you to find some hidden gems.

Some highlights:

Convent garden
Convent garden
  • Groeninge Museum, Dijver 12, B-8000, [8]. 7 days 9:30AM-5PM. Known as 'The city museum of Fine Arts', it houses a collection of artworks that span several centuries (14th-20th), focusing mainly on works by painters who lived and worked in Bruges. €8 / €6 (audioguide and ticket Arents House and Forum+ included in the entrance). (51.2061,3.22639) edit
  • Basilica of the Holy Blood (Heilige Bloed Basiliek), Burg 10, [9]. Apr-Sep 9:30AM-11:50AM & 2PM-5:50PM, Oct-Mar 10AM-11:50AM & 2PM-3:50PM. A beautiful church on the Burg square. It houses a relic - a vial of blood that is said to be that of Jesus - and was built in the Gothic style. Try and get there early so you can view the chapel when it is quiet and not filled with tourists. And don't forget to visit the chapel underneath, in heavy Romanesque style - a contrast to the lovely light Gothic above. Free.   edit
  • Onze Lieve Vrouwkerk, Mariastraat. A fascinating church with architecture from the Romanesque and Gothic periods. In the east end of the church are very fine tombs of Charles the Bold and his daughter Mary of Burgundy - in contrasting Gothic and Renaissance styles, despite their superficial similarity. The church also houses one of the few Michelangelo sculptures outside of Italy, the "Madonna with child". Free.  edit
  • Jerusalem church, [10]. In a quiet area of the city, a highly unusual church with octagonal tower built by the Adornes brothers, merchants of Italian extraction. It includes a fine black tournai marble tomb, late Gothic stained glass, and a tiny and rather spooky chapel containing an effigy of the dead Christ. The entrance fee also covers the Lace Museum in the former Adornes mansion, where you can see local women and girls learning this traditional craft.  edit
  • The Begijnhof. Also known as the convent, between the centre of the station and the city, with white painted small houses and fine plane trees, is a quiet place to walk - groups are discouraged.  edit
  • The Hospital of St John, [11]. 09:30 - 17:00, Closed Mondays. Sint-Janshospitaal contains a museum of six paintings by Hans Memling, within the early medieval hospital buildings. €6 with Bruges card / €8.  edit
  • Choco-Story Museum, Wijnzakstraat 2 (Sint-Jansplein), 050/61.22.37, [12]. 10AM-5PM. This museum is a must see for chocolate enthusiasts as it describes chocolate's transition from cocoa into chocolate. Its low cost tasty exhibits make it well worth the time (and Belcolade's gently overt marketing). Be sure to stay for the chocolate making exhibition to get some excellent samplers. €5 with Bruges card / €6. (51.2107,3.22625) edit
  • Diamanthuis Museum, Katelijnestraat 43, 050 33 63 26‎, [13]. 10:30AM-5:30PM. Diamond museum has a large range of exhibits ranging from mining all the way to polishing and all the history in between. Everyday at 12:15 there is a live polishing demonstration. Individuals €6, Groups €4.5, Students €3. (51.2027,3.22569) edit
  • The Friet Museum, Vlamingstraat (opposite Academiestraat), [14]. Check out the world's only frites (fries or chips) museum which tells the story of the humble potato from South America and how it has evolved into a fry. Don't forget to try the tastiest fries cooked by the guy who cooked for the Belgian Royal Family.  edit

Bruges is visited by a huge number of tourists and it sometimes becomes quite annoying, especially around the Markt and Burg squares. The important thing to remember, however, is that very few tourists venture far away from the main shopping area, so if you want some peace and quiet you should simply explore the many small cobbled streets away from the main squares.

View of the Grote Markt from top of Belfort
View of the Grote Markt from top of Belfort
  • Grote Markt and Belfry Climb, Grote Markt (the big square). 09:30 - 17:00, Closed Mondays. Climb the 366 steps to the top of the 83-metre high tower. Excellent views of the city, Grote Markt and hear the bells ring up close. €6 with Bruges card / €8.  edit
  • Tour boats. It's essential to take a ride on one of the tour boats around the canals - the multilingual guides provide a potted history of the city in just a few minutes - at only a few Euros, it's the best introduction to Bruges. A boat tour will show you places which are otherwise unreachable, as not every canal runs next to a street. €6.5.  edit
  • Horse drawn carts, Grote Markt. Carriages can be hired for a romantic 30 minute trip around the old city of Bruge. Carts can carry up to 5 passengers €34.  edit
  • Cycle. There are many rental shops near the main square, shop around for the best prices. You can also rent right at the train station and get to the city center quickly; remember to return them by 7:30p. Cycle 5km to Damme, a picturesque village on the river with a windmill and excellent pancackes, and optionally follow on to the coast (another 15km). €7 for an entire day.  edit
  • Snow and Ice sculpture festival, Station Bruges, [15]. Nov. 21 2008 - Jan. 25, 2009.. Every year from the end of November to January you can visit the Snow and Ice sculpture festival on the station-square of Bruges. The festival is built by an international team of 40 professional artists from no less than 300 tons of crystal clear ice and 400,000 kilos of fresh snow in a cooled hall where the temperature remains a constant -6°C. Don't forget to wear warm clothing!  edit
  • Running. If you are a runner, try running the 7km circle around the old center. Walk along the canal and see all of the medieval gates that used to control the traffic in and out of Bruges. Simply stunning!  edit
  • Compare the real Bruges to the one depicted in the movie "In Bruges".
  • Chocolate shops -- These are plentiful and the standard is always high, so too are the boutique-style beer shops. Plenty of arts and crafts too, with some excellent local artists. A fairly cheap option is Stef's on Breidelstraat (betweeen Markt and Burg). If you are willing to spend a little more, Chocolatier Van Oost on Wollestraat is a must for high-quality artisinal chocolate. Word on the street is, that you can get ANYTHING covered in chocolate and moulded.

The lacework is risky: if everything sold was produced locally, the entire town would be working in the lace industry! There is a school for lace though, where you can still get "the real thing".

  • Dumon -- Stephan Dumon Chocolatier[16] Excellent, very high end chocolate creations. They also make chocolate drinks. Three locations in Bruges. 11 Simon Stevinplein; 6 Eiermarkt; 6 Walstraat
  • Supermarket -- For those who do not wish to buy chocolate in the chocolate shops, the local supermarkets also sell a good variety of mass-produced chocolate at fairly low prices. For the frugal, you can buy 100-200 gram gourmet bars of chocolate for about €1 each. Good brands to buy are Côte-d'Or and Jacques, both are Belgian. If you don't want anything more than a sampling of the most famous Belgian beers, supermarkets (not night shops!) are probably your best choice. They even have gift packs with glasses.
  • Times -- Most European tourists come for the weekend, so shops are open Tuesday through Sunday, but many shops and museums are closed on Mondays. Be sure to plan ahead.
Square with restaurants
Square with restaurants

Restaurants are not always cheap or wonderful; sad to say that Belgian cuisine is a long way behind French in terms of variety, although mussels and frites or fricadellen, frites with mayonnaise are outstanding here. Stay away from the central market place ("Grote Markt") and the Burg Square (e.g. the Tom Pouce Restaurant) when eating. Tourists are easy victims here. One tactic used by tourist traps is to present items (e.g. bread) as if they were free with your meal, then charge you exorbitantly for them.

You will, however, find great food if you wander off the beaten track. Find a street with more locals than tourists and ask somebody. The locals will be glad to help.

A lot of places do not open until 1800hrs.

  • Brasserie Forestière, Academiestraat. Nice and calm restaurant, good food, not too expensive. Good menu for vegetarians. Meal of the day (soup, main dish, dessert or coffee/tea) costs € 11 although this is the cheapest menu it has little choice.  edit
  • L'estaminet, at the Astrid Park. Good food, nice terrace, cool bartender. Try the renowned spaghetti for €8 or the delicious croque monsieur.  edit
  • La Romagna, Braambergstraat 8. Excellent family-run Italian restaurant and pizzeria. Inexpensive. Good menu for vegetarians.  edit
  • In't Nieuw Museum, Hooistraat 42, 050331280, [17]. Belgian grill restaurant, well off the tourist track. Excellent steaks, reasonable prices.  edit
  • De Bottelier, Ezelstraat (close to Sint-Jacobsstraat). I live in Bruges and it has always been my favorite restaurant. Very reasonable prices and excellent food. Closed Sunday and Monday nights.  edit
  • Tom's Diner, West Gistelhof 23. Fantastic upscale take on satisfying, home cooked food. Prices are reasonable, as well.  edit
  • Kok au Vin, Ezelstraat 19/21. The Kok au Vin was memorable (both the entre AND the restaurant); the prices are reasonable for the high quality. Family owned and run. Reservations recommended.  edit
  • Restaurant Aneth, [18]. With only 7 tables, we like to keep it small and cosy, with a personal touch.  edit
  • Brasserie Medard, Sint-Amandsstraat 18. Huge deal for low budget: mountain of spaghetti with tomato sauce, cheese, mushrooms and meat for €3. Double it size adding just €2 extra. Unbeatable. Plus the owner looks a bit like Freddie Mercury  edit
  • De Karmelieten. This restaurant belongs to the world's top 50 best restaurants  edit
  • t' Gulden Flies, Mallebergplaats 17, 050-334709. 7PM-3AM. An excellent night restaurant. Small romantic restaurant east of the Burg with excellent food and reasonable prices. Menus from 16 €.  edit
  • Bierbrasserie Cambrinus, Philipstockstraat 19, 050/33 23 28, [19]. Popular place with hearty food and great beer. Try the dark house brew and their €26 prix fixe "Menu van de Brouwer", which features several Trappist beers. Sometimes they also have Westvleteren available.  edit
  • Le Pain Quotidien, 21 Philipstockstraat. A sort of fancy sandwich shop. Most of the food is organic, and the sandwiches (in particular the Tartine Bouef Basilic) are delicious. Somewhat expensive.  edit
  • Maximiliaan van Oosterijk. Midrange restaurant offering plenty to eat including oysters and meat cooked several ways, plus of course frites. There is not much for vegetarians.  edit
  • Grand Cafe Passage, Dweersstraaat 26, [20]. Attached to the Passage hotel/hostel (see below) is the atmospheric Grand Cafe, serving traditional Belgian cuisine and beers. Prices are slightly lower than the tourist traps and well worth it. Try the beef stew (very tender) or the ribs.  edit
  • De Drie Zintuigen, Westmeers 29, 050-34-09-94. Off the beaten track but not far from all the bars, this lovely restaurant does more than moules et frites. Prices are about €30 a head and the atmosphere is nice too.  edit
  • Brewery ‘De Halve Maan’, Walplein 26 8000 Brugge, Belgium, 050 33 26 97, [21]. Apr.-Oct. Mon-Fri, Sat 11-4PM and Sun. 11-5PM. Beer museum which offers a tour of the beer making process as well as tasting and a great view of the city from its tower. The tour lasts for 45 minutes and is a good way to get a feel for Belgian beer making. 5.50 Euro includes beer tasting. (51.2026,3.22416) edit
  • De Garre, 1, De Garre, 32 50 34 10 29‎. Hidden in a backyard, this pub offers a nice atmosphere and about 100 different kinds of beer, including home-brewed ones. The house beer is called 'Triple de Garre' and is 11% strong, a good way to start the night. (51.2085,3.22611) edit
  • 't Brugs Beertje, Kemelstraat. This excellent pub (recommended in the CAMRA guide to the Benelux region) has hundreds of different beers and an authentic beer-cafe atmosphere. Clientele is majority tourists. The front bar is crowded; what looks like the door through to the restrooms opens on another bar area. In 2005 it was closed for most of July - this might be an annual occurrence.  edit
  • Curiosa, (just off the main square), [22]. A good place for a lunch as well as a beer.  edit
  • Art tavern 'De Kogge', Braambergstraat (near the fish market). A wonderful place to stop by for a few drinks. This family-run place is amazingly friendly, and with 6 beers on tap, as well as 20 more on offer, it is a great place to sample some beer along with the local crowd. The building was previously owned by the Guildhouse of the Cereal-Carriers (the owners will be happy to fill you in on the specifics!)  edit
  • Vlissinghe tavern, Blekerstrat (on the way to the Jerusalem church). closed Mondays and Tuesdays. One of the less touristy bars, with a nice selection of draught and bottled beers. It's probably the oldest pub in Bruges dating from 1515.  edit
  • The area just north of the performing arts center has various cafes, most with sufficient beer selections, such as Cafe Leffe.
  • The Druid's Cellar, St Amandsstraat 11/b, 050614144, [23]. A very nice cozy place to drink a beer and listen to some good music. The bar is located underground and actually gives the impression of a cellar. Usually plays rock music. The bar has a wide selection of drinks, from simple beer to 16 year old Bushmills whiskey.  edit
  • Bean around the World, Genthof 5, 050703572. American coffee house in the center of Bruges - offers free American newspapers and WiFi to its customers  edit


Note that during the summer, Bruges is a very popular tourist destination; reservations are probably preferable.

  • Bonifacius [24] exclusive guesthouse in a historical house
  • De wilde Wingerd [25] "as it should be" guesthouse in the quiet part of the historical city
  • Passage [26] Very clean and quiet, centrally located Hotel/Hostel with a great restaurant-bar downstairs. The name "Passage" comes from the little alley-way right next to the building which you have to pass through in order to reach the reception. Prices for the hostel are around €14 and breakfast costs an extra €5.
  • Lybeer Travellers' Hostel [27] Spend a night, not a fortune! Located in the very city center. Member of the I-hostels network [28]
  • Hotel Tuilerieen [29] Famous hotel
  • Hotel Bauhaus [30] Good and cheap hostel/budget hotel with a cosy, popular bar
  • The Pand Hotel [31] is slightly expensive, but absolutely wonderful. Breakfast was great and rooms homey.
  • Hotel de Keiserhof, on a quiet street near the station, has inexpensive basic rooms from €25 per person and is not far from the centre. Basic breakfast is available.
  • NH Hotel Brugge [32], good food and comfortable beds near to parking on the innner ring road, the concert hall and main bus station, it is a gentle walk from the centre in an attractive and completely modernised old building. The staff is obliging and helpful and food is excellent at all meals. Salads, main courses and desserts were all a delight, with the desserts scoring particularly high for attractive presentation. If there was a weak spot, it was the quality of the orange juice at breakfast. Rooms are spacious, perhaps 50m2 or more and the beds have crisp white sheets, duvets and comfortable matresses. Wireless internet in the rooms needs an Orange subscription but this is modestly priced compared to many hotels. However, some rooms did not seem to have good wi-fi reception. NH took over the hotel from Sofitel in 2007.
  • Hotel Salvators, St.-Salvatorskerkhof 17, Bruges, 050 33.19.21 (, fax: 050 33.94.64), [33]. Quirky art hotel in the centre of Bruges, next to St Salvators Church. This traditional Bruges townhouse has been thoughtfully renovated, with each of the rooms decorated in its own style. Some of the rooms have en-suite jacuzzi, and some sleep up to 5 people. The hotel offers internet access and cycle hire for guests. A friendly, relaxed place to stay in the heart of Bruges. From €70 per night for a double room.  edit
  • Ridderspoor Holiday Flats [34] Holiday apartments on a quiet street two blocks from the city center. Flats include a bathroom and small kitchen and can accommodate 2-6 people. €60-100 per night depending on the number of people and length of stay. This is a great option for families, and allows you to eat some of your meals in to save money.
  • Hotel Asiris, a restored patrician residence in the shadow of the 15th century St-Gillis church, with 13 rooms, €EUR a single room, €60 a double room. You can also reserve a parking place for €4 / night. [35]
  • Hotel 't Voermanshuys, Oude Burg 14, +32 50 341396, [36]. checkin: 13:00; checkout: 11:30. Clean, spacious rooms in the centre of town. Very friendly staff and includes a substantial breakfast. €60 for a double with shared toilet/shower.  edit
  • Hotel Prinsenhof, Ontvangersstraat 9, 8000 Bruges, +32 (0)50 342690 (, fax: +32 (0)50 342321), [37]. This elegant and friendly four star hotel is perfectly situated near the Grand Place & historic town centre of Bruges, with secure private parking. €155 upwards.  edit

During the winter (November through March) a number of hotels offer a midweek promotion: 3 nights for the price of 2, if you arrive on Sunday, Monday or Tuesday. Bookings can only be made through Bruges, Warm Winter Cheer [38]

Next to the numerous hotels and hostels that dot the city, there is also the nice option of choosing one of the little bed and breakfast such as:

  • De Wilde Wingerd, Elf julistraat 37 (In the quiet historical part of the city), +32 475 59 51 49, [41]. checkin: 12h00; checkout: 10h00. Opened recently, and gives excellent value for money. They can host up to 11 people, ideal for families, ask to cook you their lobster meal 70-140€.  edit
  • Hotel 't Zand, 't Zand 21, [42]. checkin: 15.00; checkout: 11.00. Hotel 't Zand is a small hotel with 19 rooms, which is situated in the very heart of unique Bruges. It is easily reached via the E40 (exit8) and you will find the hotel right opposite the main exit of the underground car-park "' t Zand". 105.  edit
  • Hotel Floris Karos (Hotel Floris Karos), Hoefijzerlaan 37 B-8000 Bruges, 00 32 50 34 14 48, [43]. The 3 star Floris Karos hotel in Bruges is located a few minutes away from Bruges' ancient market square. 59.  edit
  • Snuffel Backpacker Hostel, Ezelstraat 47-49, 8000 Bruges, Belgium, +32 (0)50 333133, [44]. checkout: 10AM. Snuffel Sleep Inn is friendly, a straight line from the central Markt and cheap. Breakfast is included and cheap internet available, with free wifi. And the bunk beds have ladders. €15.  edit
  • Walwyck Hotel Brugge, Leeuwstraat 8 (next to Leeuwebrug), +32 50 616360, [45]. checkin: 2.00 PM; checkout: 12.00AM. The hotel is situeted whitin the oldest ramparts of the medieval city at 1.30 min walking distance from the market and the belfry, in the heart of the city, but in the middle of a green area. Double: €100, Single: €90 (Breakfast and taxes included).  edit
  • Vrienden op de Fiets, 14 addresses for members making a cycling or walking tour through Belgium, [http://www.vriendenopdefiets.nl
  • Art Hostel Brugge, Low Budget hostel Bruges - group accommodation [46]

Get out

The most popular day trips from Brugge are to Antwerp, Ghent, Ieper, Oostende, and Damme.

  • Damme is a small village near Brugge. Some of the riverboats go there on a half-day cruise. It's a very scenic trip, the landscapes are picturesque, and the village of Damme even more so. One can also go there by bike (special route) and by local bus. It takes about 15 minutes by bus and an hour by boat.
  • Ieper (Ypres) is an important site of Great War battles, cemeteries, monuments and traditions such as the Last Post (every evening). Very popular among old veterans and young boys interested in wars. About one hour by train, and a very scenic ride.
  • Oostende is the monumental beach resort which king Leopold II (1865-1909) built before his attention turned to destroying inner-city Brussels to build his new capital. The quintessential cosmopolitan 19th century beach resort, full of endearing villas that have been classified as official monuments. About 20 minutes by train.
  • Close by, about 10 minutes by tram towards Raversijde, you can find the Atlantic Wall[47], two kilometers of trenches and galleries dating from both World Wars.
  • Antwerp and Ghent are great tourist destinations in their own right.
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

"ZEEBRUGGE. - Among the British naval operations in the World War none created more interest than the attack on the Germans at Zeebrugge and Ostend, on the Belgian coast, in 1918. Ever since the German occupation of the Belgian coast, Zeebrugge had been a source of anxiety to the Dover Patrol. There the German torpedo craft and German submarines lay in a safe base only some 60 m. from the Straits, a danger to the Downs and a constant menace to British transports and trade in the Channel. Vice-Adml. Sir Reginald Bacon had contemplated an attack on it with monitors, but the Admiralty had disapproved, and it was not till the appointment of Rear-Adml. Sir Roger Keyes in Dec. 1917, that preparations were actually begun. The main object of the enterprise was to block the harbours of Zeebrugge and Ostend.

The actual harbour of Zeebrugge is small and is formed by a long curved mole on the western side, whose assault was an important part of the operation. This mole was r2 m. long, connected with the shore by a viaduct built on steel pillars. On the outside the western wall rose 27 ft. 10 in. above high water, with a ledge 2 ft. 9 in. wide running along it about 12 ft. above high water. The parapet on top was some 3 ft. wide with a drop of 4 ft. to a ledge 12 ft. wide which ran 161 ft. above the quay. The quay on the harbour side was 2 7 ft. wide, equipped in the usual way with cranes and three large sheds and shelters. At the outer end was a battery of 3 5.9-in. guns, and a narrower portion ran on to the lighthouse where 6 4-in. guns, were mounted.

The general plan of operations was simple. Three old cruisers," Iphigenia," Thetis "and" Intre p id "(all built about 1891), filled with cement, were to enter the harbour and be sunk at the entrance to the ship canal to Bruges. The" Vindictive,"supported by two auxiliary vessels" Iris II."and" Daffodil,"was to assault the mole on its outer and western side and by creating an impression that this was the main operation, divert the enemy's fire from the blocking ships. As Bruges was accessible by canal from Ostend, Ostend was to be blocked at the same time by the old cruisers" Brilliant "and" Sirius."The main obstacle to th3 enterprise lay in the powerful batteries. On the 40 m. of coast-line there were mounted 153 guns, including 6 15-in., 4 12-in., 33 1r-in., I 9.4-in., 23.8. 2-in., 73 5'9-in., 6 5-in., 11 4 . 7-in., and 52 4-in. The coast positively bristled with guns. Only 3 m. E. of the Zeebrugge canal stood the Kaiser Wilhelm II. battery (known at Dover as the Knocke) armed with 4 12-in. with a range of 41,000 yd. One and a quarter 1n. W. of Ostend was the Tirpitz battery with 4 r r-in: ranging 35, 000 yd., and 3 m. E. of the town was the Deutschland (old Jacobynessen) equipped with 4 15-in. ranging 43,500 yards.

The approach to the entrance of the ship canal at Zeebrugge was under the :fire of the Goeben battery of 4 8.2-in. guns at 1,000 yd., and the chance of success depended largely on an effective smoke screen.

The attack on the mole was to be made by the" Vindictive "(Capt. Alfred B. Carpenter), an old cruiser of 5,750 tons, 320 ft. long, 24 ft. draught specially fitted for the occasion, assisted by the" Iris II. "(Comm. Valentine Gibbs) and" Daffodil "(Lt. Harold G. Campbell), two Liverpool ferry boats of large capacity and light draught. The viaduct of the mole was to be blown up by two submarines, CI (Lt. Aubrey Newbold) and C3 (Lt. Richard D. Sandford). A strong body of 15 destroyers was attached to the Zeebrugge force under Capt. Wilfred Tomkinson (" Phoebe," North Star," Trident," Mansfield," Whirlwind," Myngs," Velox," Morris Moorsom Melpomene, "Tempest" and "Tetrarch" to escort the force and cover it to seaward; "Termagant," "Truculent" and "Manly" to screen the Zeebrugge monitors). A force of 18 coastal motor boats (55 ft. long, 3 ft. draught, 35 knots, 2 18-in. torpedoes) under Lt. Arthur E. Welman accompanied the expedition, of which 8 were allocated for the smoke screen, 5 to support the "Vindictive," and 4 to attack vessels inside the harbour. With them were 33 motor launches under Capt. Ralph Collins for smoke screens, and inshore rescue work. Out to seaward were the two monitors "Erebus" and "Terror" for bombarding the batteries. The Rear Admiral's flag flew in the destroyer "Warwick." The three old cruisers "Thetis" (Comm. R. S. Sneyd), "Intrepid" (Lt. Stuart Bonham-Carter) and "Iphigenia" (Lt. E. W. Billyard-Leake) were to act as blocking ships. The two latter were of 3,600 tons displacement, 300 ft. long x 431 ft. x 182 ft., and the "Thetis" was a little smaller (3,400 tons and 171 ft. draught).

A similar attempt was to be made at Ostend. There the blocking ships were to be the old cruisers "Brilliant" (Comm.

A. E. Godsal) and "Sirius" (Lt.-Comm. H. N. Hardy) of 3,600 tons. They were to be supported by five bombarding monitors ("Marshal Soult," "Lord Clive," "Prince Eugene," "General Crawford," M24 and M26) and covered by five British destroyers ("Swift," "Faulknor," "Matchless," "Mastiff" and "Afridi"), with three British destroyers and six French torpedo boats attending on the monitors ("Mentor," "Lightfoot," "Zubian," "Lestin," "Capitaine Mehl," "Francis Gamier," "Roux," "Bouclier"). Eighteen British motor launches under Comm. Hamilton Benn and four French were attached for smoke screen, inshore and rescue work, and the whole force was under Commodore Hubert Lynes.

The object of the attack on the mole at Zeebrugge was first to seize the battery at the seaward end and prevent it firing at the block ships, and then to demolish the structures on it as far as possible. The battery was 250 yd. from the lighthouse, and to` facilitate its seizure the "Vindictive" was to berth nearly abreast of it on the outer side of the wall. It was then to be stormed by three companies of bluejackets - A company under Lt.-Comm. Bayan Adams ("Princess Royal"), B under Lt. Arth. G. Chamberlain ("Neptune"), D under Lt.-Comm. G. N. Bradford; all under Lt.-Comm. Arthur Harrison ("Lion").

Some 150 yd. to shoreward of the battery and 400 yd. from the lighthouse there was a "fortified zone" of barbed wire and machine-guns. As this commanded the "Vindictive's" berth and would form a rallying point for reinforcements from landward, it was to be seized by four companies of Royal Marines - A (Chatham) under Maj. Chas. Eagles, B (Portsmouth) Capt. Ed. Bamford, C (Plymouth) Maj. Bernard Weller, and machine-guns under Capt. Chas. B. Conybeare.

The storming parties numbered 50 officers and 980 men of the Royal Navy, drawn chiefly from the Grand Fleet and the Nore, and 32 officers and 718 men of the Royal Marines. The seamen were under Capt. Henry C. Halahan and the marines under Lt.-Col. Bertram Elliot. Preparations began early in the year. The force was segregated in the Swin (Thames) and specially trained in all its various tasks. The blocking ships were stripped of all fittings and filled with rubble and concrete. The "Vindictive" in addition to her to 6-in. guns was given a special equipment of 2 7.5-in. howitzers (1 ford. and r aft), 1-in. howitzer (aft), r6 Stokes mortars, flame throwers, 16 Lewis guns, and 4 12-in. pompoms. The success of the attack depended largely on an effective smoke screen, and WingComm. F. A. Brock and 60 ratings were lent to the Dover command, where a small factory was set up to prepare the materials for it.

The lessons of history were not very favourable to the enterprise. Naval Constructor R. P. Hobson had tried to block Santiago in 1898. The Japanese had thrice attempted to block Port Arthur in 1904. None of these attempts had been wholly successful. Let us glance for a moment at the conditions under which the attack was to be made. The distance from Dover to Zeebrugge was 63 miles. This meant that the expedition must start in daylight to be off the port by midnight. The night must be dark and the wind on shore.

Twice the force was assembled and twice unfavourable conditions supervened. On the night of April 11-12, it was within 13 m. of its rallying point. Finally the night of April 22-23 was fixed for the attack. The main force started at 4 53 .M. on Monday, April 22. The bombardment was to begin at 11:20 P.M., simultaneously at Zeebrugge and Ostend. The smoke screen was to start at 11:40 P.M. The "Vindictive" was to reach the mole at midnight. The "Thetis" was to pass the end of the mole 25 minutes later. The last point of departure was at a point called G in lat. 51° 27' N., long. 2° 50' E. This and other points on the route were marked by buoys laid after careful triangulation by Capt. H. P. Douglas and Lt.-Comm. Francis E. Haselfoot. It was here, some 12 m. off Zeebrugge and Ostend, that the vessels took up their formation for attack. The "Vindictive," which had been towing the "Iris II." and "Daffodil," cast them off. The "Sirius" and "Brilliant" shaped course for Ostend, the "Thetis" and her companions eased down. The host of small craft dispersed for their various tasks. The night was overcast, with a light wind from the N.E., and a thick column of smoke soon began to roll down the coast, hiding everything.

Plan A Plan B As they approached the shore about 11:40 P.M. a great star shell soared into the sky, which was soon thick with them shining dimly through the eddies of the smoke. They were close to the harbour when a great disappointment overtook them. The wind, which had died away, shifted to the southward, greatly reducing the efficiency of the screen. The searchlights fastened on the vessels. At 11:56 the "Vindictive" emerged out of the smoke into the full glare of their beams. The mole could be seen 300 yd. on the port bow. Capt. Carpenter increased to full speed and approached it at an angle of 45°. A heavy fire was opened on her and she replied with her port 6-in. battery, the upper deck pompoms and the guns in the fore top. The storming parties drawn up ready to rush ashore lost both their leaders at this point. Col. Bertram Elliot, waiting to lead the Royals just abaft the bridge, was struck down by a shell which did fearful execution forward. Capt. H. C. Halahan at the head of the bluejackets amidships was killed by machine-gun fire.

At one minute past midnight, the ship came alongside the mole. It was intended to do this 300 yd. from the lighthouse abreast of the 4-in. battery, but the starboard anchor was hung up with a strong tide sluicing down the mole, and the ship was carried some 700 yd. from the lighthouse or nearly 400 yd. to landward of the intended spot. The port anchor was dropped and bowsed to with only a shackle (75 ft.) out. A further difficulty now arose. The rush of the 3-knot tide between the ship and mole created a heavy swell which threw the ship off the mole; only two of the 18 brows could reach the parapet, and the ship could not be kept into the mole. Swaying upward with the roll of the ship the two foremost brows came down scraping and grinding along the mole. The naval storming parties led by Lt.-Comm. Bryan Adams ran out along them, followed closely by the Royal Marines led by Capt. and Adj. A. R. Chater. As the seamen got to the wall they leapt down and tried to make the mole grapnels fast (for hauling the ship into the mole), but only one was got in place and a heavy roll broke it up.

This was a critical time, and it was four minutes past midnight when the little "Daffodil" came up and pushed the ship bodily into the mole. Two more brows were got into place and the landing parties got ashore. The "Vindictive's" guns had suffered heavily. The marine crew of the foremost 7.5-in. howitzer had all been killed or wounded. A naval crew from one of the 6-in. guns, which took its place, was almost entirely swept away. In the foretop the Royal Marines under Lt. Chas. Rigby had kept up a continuous fire with their pompoms and Lewis guns till two heavy shells got home on it, killing or disabling everyone there except Sergt. Norman Finch, who though severely wounded continued to fight his gun singlehanded till the top was wrecked by another shell. The "Iris II." with the Chatham company of Royal Marines and D company of seamen had suffered even more severely. She had gone alongside the mole about 150 yd. ahead of the "Vindictive." The swell broke up the scaling ladders. Lt. Claude Hawkings ("Erin"), who led the way, made a grapnel fast and was shot down on the mole. Lt.-Comm. G. N. Bradford ("Orion") got to the top of a derrick with a grapnel, leapt on to the mole, secured it and fell back shot into the water. Comm. Val. Gibbs fell, with both legs shot away. The grapnels tore away, and the "Iris II.," slipping her cable, dropped alongside the "Vindictive" to land her men across her. Here she again suffered heavily.

A big shell went through the upper deck and burst just where 56 marines were waiting to charge up the gangways, killing 49 and wounding seven. Another shell in the wardroom killed 4 officers and 26 men. The heavy swell made it difficult to get alongside the "Vindictive," and only a few men had got across when the siren sounded the retire.

To return to the landing on the mole. The 400 yd. or so by which the "Vindictive" overran her position had a considerable effect on the plan. The seamen, instead of dropping down on the battery, had to go back to it 400 yd. along the mole. The "fortified zone," instead of being between the "Vindictive" and the shore, was now between the "Vindictive" and the battery on the mole, increasing the difficulty of an assault.

The seamen of A and B companies under Lt.-Comm. B. F. Adams, got ashore, and dropping on to the ledge below the parapet made their way toward the lighthouse. They came to Zeebrugge r Ostend kc a lookout station which they captured. Here an iron ladder led down on the quay and three of the party went down it.

A machine-gun in the fortified zone was firing on them, and Lt.-Comm. Adams advanced towards it for some 40 yd. and after taking up a position returned to collect more men. Lieutenant-Commander Harrison, severely wounded in the head, arrived about this time and took charge. Lieutenant-Commander Adams met Maj. Weller who gave him reinforcements, but by the time he got back Lt.-Comm. Harrison had led a rush along the parapet, where he and several of his men were killed by machine-gun fire. Able seaman Mackenzie's courage here gained him a V.C., and able seaman Evans was seriously wounded and taken prisoner in trying to bring in Lt.-Comm. Harrison's body.

D Company was still in the "Iris II.," but the marines were forming up on the mole to make an assault.

They had been busy at first in the other direction. The first platoon to get ashore made to the right toward the shore and silenced a party of snipers near No. 2 shed. Captain Bamford (awarded the V.C.) joined them and they reached and held a point 200 yd. toward the shore. Another party of marines dropping straight to the mole had established a strong point by No. 3 shed close to the "Vindictive." About 12:20 a terrific roar and a great sheet of flame rose high above the din. The viaduct had gone up, and the mole was secure from landward side. Major Weller now received Lt.-Comm. Adams' request for reinforcements and sent a platoon and the remains of another to help him.

They advanced toward the lighthouse and reached the lookout station, where they were held up again by machine-gun fire. Lieutenant-Commander Adams and his men were some 40 or 50 yd. ahead. Nos. 5, 7 and 8 platoons were forming up under Capt. Bamford for an assault on the fortified zone. This was the position when the signal to retire blared out.

The demolition company (C Company of seamen) had got ashore under Lt.-Comm. Dickinson, but the storming parties were too close to permit of the sheds being blown up, and an attempt to blow up the destroyers was beaten back. The danger of the attack from landward had been removed by the destruction of the viaduct. Submarine CI had parted its tow and did not reach the scene in time. Lieutenant R. D. Sandford (awarded the V.C.) in C3 had sighted the viaduct about half a mile off, and running into the iron piers at oi knots had jammed the vessel with its 52 tons of amatol hard and fast. The fuze was lighted and the crew of six were pushing off in their little motor skiff when the propellor was torn off by fouling the submarine, and they had to take to the oars. A rain of bullets fell close to them, and struck down two oarsmen in succession. They were 3 00 yd. away when the viaduct went up, scattering huge pieces of iron and concrete around them.

Another bullet struck Lt. Sandford, but just at that moment the picket boat with his brother (Lieut.-Comm. Francis Sandford) came up and took them off. Meanwhile, in the "Vindictive," Capt. Carpenter had seen the block ships go in. The position of the storming party and of the ship was precarious. None of the mole anchors had grappled. The ship was being held into the mole by the "Daffodil," and if she were disabled it was practically certain that the men in the mole would not get back. He decided it was time to retire. His own siren was riddled through and through, but the order was passed to the "Daffodil," and the shriek of its siren rose above the din.

It was 12:50 A.M. The parties came gradually back, the marines retiring in perfect order, bringing their wounded with them. Capt. T. M. Palmer refused to leave the shore while any of his men were there, and joined the ranks of the missing. Wing-Comm. F. A. Brock, too, never returned. He was last seen fighting on the mole.

A hawser was passed from the "Vindictive," and at r:10 A.M. the "Daffodil" began to pull her bows off the mole. The hawser just held long enough to swing her bows round, and she got clear. The "Iris II." came under a heavy fire as she left the mole. A large shell carried away the port side of the bridge, mortally wounding Comm. V. Gibbs and Maj. Chas. Eagles.

Lieutenant Spencer, though seriously wounded, continued to con the ship and got her clear. Three more shells hit the ship and caused heavy casualties in the crowded decks, but Motor Launch 55 8 (Lt.-Comm. Lionel Chappell, with Capt. Ralph Collins on board) came up, and throwing a smoke screen round her helped her to get away.

To return to the blocking ships. With the "Thetis" leading they had rounded the lighthouse in a storm of shot and shell. The "Thetis" propeller fouled a net laid at the entrance to the harbour and carried it with her. Both engines brought up, and she grounded 300 yd. from the pierhead. She was under heavy fire, and as she appeared to be sinking, the order was given to abandon ship and blow the charges; they detonated and the ship sank. The crew manned the remaining cutter and pulled to ML526 (Lt. Hugh Littleton) which was lying near.

The "Intrepid" astern had come under heavy shrapnel fire from the guns as she approached the mole, but after rounding it escaped their attention. She had 87 officers and men in her instead of 54, as the surplus had contrived to stay on board rather than miss the fight. She ran right into the canal, and Lt. Bonham Carter went full speed ahead with the starboard engine and full speed astern with the port to turn her round. As the ship commenced to make stern way he blew the charges, and the crews got into two cutters which were picked up by the "Whirlwind" and a motor launch. Lt. Bonham Carter with two officers and four petty officers had got on a Carley raft and floated down the canal. ML582 (Lt. Percy T. Dean, awarded the V.C.) had come right into the canal behind the "Iphigenia," and under a heavy fire picked them up and took them off. All the crew except one were saved. In the "Iphigenia," like the "Intrepid," the engine room ratings had avoided being taken off, so as to be present at the fight. She came under shrapnel fire off the mole, and as she rounded it a star shell showed up the "Intrepid" heading for the canal and the "Thetis" aground. Two shells struck the ship on the starboard side. The canal was hidden by smoke. It lifted for a moment, and the captain, seeing he was heading for the western pier, went full speed astern, then ahead with the starboard engine, and with a barge in front of him drove into the canal. There was a gap between the "Intrepid" and the eastern bank; he steered into it, collided with the "Intrepid," rang the gong to signify the imminent blowing of the charges, went astern and then ahead. She grounded on the eastern bank and the charges were fired. The crew left the ship in the only cutter left under fire. ML282 (Lt. Percy T. Dean) was waiting and took the crew on board, and then making the cutter fast to his stem went out of harbour stern first at full speed. Heavy machine-gun fire was concentrated on her; two officers were dangerously wounded and two of the launch's crew of four killed, but she got clear.

The destroyers had been lying off the harbour, and the "Warwick" now picked up four motor launches, including ML282 overloaded and full of wounded with 'or men of the "Iphigenia" and "Intrepid." MLrro (Lt.-Comm. Dawbarn Young) had come under a heavy fire while trying to show the blockships the way in. She was struck by three shells, which killed or wounded half the crew and wrecked the engines. Her captain, hit in three places and mortally wounded, gave orders to the last, but died before reaching Dover. The "Warwick," "Phoebe" and "North Star" had been cruising off the mole to screen the force from torpedo attack. The destroyer "North Star" losing her bearings in the smoke had emerged from the smoke screen and coming under a heavy fire was reduced to a sinking condition. The "Phoebe" (Lt.-Comm. Hubert GoreLangton) attempted to tow her out, but the hawser was shot away once, and parted another time. She was therefore abandoned and sunk. By 1:30 it was all over and the force was on its way back to Dover. The "Vindictive" in terrible disarray arrived there soon after 8 A.M. on April 23. The "Iris II.," limping behind her, reached home at 2:45 P.M. Her commander had died that morning.

Meanwhile things had gone badly at Ostend. The blocking ships "Brilliant" (Comm. Alfred Godsal) and "Sirius" (Lt. Comm. Henry Hardy), escorted by the Harwich destroyers "Tempest" and "Tetrarch," arrived off the coast. The motor launches under Comm. Hamilton Benn were busy laying a smoke screen, supported by the "Faulknor" (flying Commodore Hubert Lyne's broad pendant), "Lightfoot," "Mastiff," "Afridi," "Swift" and "Matchless." The wind was blowing lightly from the N.W., but about 11:50 shifted to the S.W. and blew back the smoke screen. The low clouds and drizzle made visibility difficult, and the Stroom Bank buoy could not be seen at first. Thinking that the ships were perhaps too far to the northward, Comm. Godsal continued on his course for two minutes, when he sighted the Stroom Bank buoy to the N.E. and turned to pass to northward of it. It was not, however, in its normal position (approximately 1 m. W.N.W. of the entrance), but had been shifted about a mile to the eastward. Commander Godsal steered from the buoy for the supposed direction of the harbour. As he looked anxiously out for the pierheads at Ostend, breakers suddenly loomed up on the starboard bow, and before the ship could turn she was ashore. The "Sirius" behind her grounded too. Fire had been opened from shore, and both ships were accordingly blown up where they stranded about a mile east of the piers. ML276 (Lt. Roland Bourke) took off the "Brilliant's" crew, while ML283 (Lt. Keith Hoare) rescued the men from the "Sirius." A second attempt to close Ostend was made on the night of May 9-10 by Comm. Alfred Godsal in the "Vindictive" and Lt.-Comm. Hardy in the "Sappho," an old cruiser of the same class as the "Sirius." This time there was no preliminary bombardment but aircraft were cooperating. Conditions seemed favourable for the attempt. The sea was smooth, the night dark with wind from N.W., but hardly had the ships left Dunkirk when the "Sappho" blew out a manhole joint in her boiler and had to put back.

At I :30 A.M. the small craft went in to lay the smoke screen. News had previously come in that the Stroom Bank buoy had been removed, and Lt. W. R. Slayter went in a coastal motor boat to place a calcium flare in its old position. By :35 the smoke cloud was beginning to come down, and at 1:43 the order was given for the monitors to open fire. A roar of batteries answered from the shore. Two coastal motor boats, CMB24 and 30, dashed ahead and torpedoed the piers. But once again misfortune was to attend the attempt. As the "Vindictive" approached, a thick sea fog rolled up the coast, making it impossible to see anything at over 300 yd. Uncertain as to his position, Comm. Godsal steered to westward and then to eastward, and finally gave orders to CMB23 (Lt. Hon. Cecil Spencer) to light a million-candle flare. Though dimmed by the fog and drizzle, its glare revealed the entrance 200 yd. off. The "Vindictive" steered for it and the guns found her at once. The after control was demolished by a shell which killed everyone in it. The bridge was swept with bullets, and Comm. Godsal ordered everyone inside the conning tower. She was close to the eastern pier when a heavy shell burst close to the conning tower, which must have killed the commander for he was never seen again. Lt. Victor Crutchley took command and tried to turn her up the channel, but she grounded at an angle of about 25° to the pier and lay hard and fast. Engineer Lieutenant Wm. C. Bury blew the charges and she sank. The captain could not be found. ML254 (Lt. Geoff. Drummond, awarded the V.C.) came alongside under a fierce fire. His lieutenant and deck-hand were killed and he himself wounded in three places, but he managed to embark 39 officers and men, and then backing out of the entrance got clear and just managed to reach the "Warwick." Day was breaking and as the boat was badly damaged she was sunk. ML276 (Lt. Roland Bourke, awarded the V.C.) now returned to the "Vindictive," and after searching and shouting found Lt. Sir John Alleyne and two men, all badly wounded, clinging to a skiff. With three of his own crew killed or wounded Lt. Bourke managed to get out and reach the monitor "Prince Eugene" in safety.

This was the end of an enterprise for which no fewer than nine V.C.s were awarded. Its casualties amounted to a total of 637 killed, wounded and missing.

April 22-23

Killed or died

of wounds



Officers.. .




Seamen.. .



Marines.. .




"North Star". .






May 9-10

Officers.. .




Men. .. .




. 1 97



In judging what was achieved it is necessary to remember that at the end of 1917 and early in 1918 the whole efforts of the navy were directed toward one goal - to counter the submarine. The greatest losses were in the Channel where the Flanders flotilla worked, and the blow they would have received by the blocking of Zeebrugge and Ostend was well worth the risk. It was, however, only partially successful. Ostend, though the width of the entrance was reduced probably to 300 ft., was not closed, and though the ships sunk in Zeebrugge must have caused great inconvenience and delay it may be doubted whether they actually stopped the passage of submarines for more than a month. The entrance was 3 00 ft. wide; there was still a space of some 60 ft. between the stern of the "Iphigenia" and the pier, and by dredging along the edge and fixing up warping bollards it was made possible to warp submarines in and out at high water. The enterprise had another aspect. The navy chafed at its inactivity and looked eagerly for some outlet where it could get at grips with its enemy. The blocking of Zeebrugge and Ostend offered a good prospect of success and was within a reasonable distance of it. And if it did not wholly succeed, the work of those who took part in it sent a breath of inspiration through the navy and gave all who took part in it a lasting name. (A. C. D:)

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