Zeeland: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Provincie Zeeland
Province of Zeeland
Flag of Zeeland.svg Coat of arms of Zeeland
Flag Coat of arms
Map: Province of Zeelandin the Netherlands South Holland North Holland Friesland Groningen Drenthe Flevoland Overijssel Gelderland Utrecht Limburg North Brabant Zeeland
About this image
Capital Middelburg
Queen's Commissioner Karla Peijs
Religion (1999) Protestant 35%
Catholic 23%
Area
 • Land
 • Water
 
1,788 km² (10th)
1,146 km²
Population (2006)
 • Total
 • Density

380,186 (11th)
213/km² (10th)
Anthem Zeeuws volkslied
ISO NL-ZE
Official website www.zeeland.nl

Zeeland (About this sound pronunciation ), also called Zealand in English and Zeelandic, is a province of the Netherlands. The province, located in the south-west of the country, consists of a number of islands (hence its name, meaning "sea-land") and a strip bordering Belgium. Its capital is Middelburg. With a population of about 380,000, its area is about 2930 km², of which almost 1140 km² is water. Large parts of Zeeland are below sea level. The last great flooding of the area was in 1953. Tourism is an important economic activity. Its sunny beaches make it a popular holiday destination in the summer. Most tourists are Germans. In some areas, the population can be two to four times higher during high summer season. The coat of arms of Zeeland shows a lion half-emerged from water, and the text "luctor et emergo" (Latin for "I struggle and I emerge").

Contents

Constituent parts

From north to south, it consists of

Advertisements

Municipalities

Amsterdam Almelo Almere Amersfoort Arnhem Assen Breda Den Haag Delft Delfzijl Den Bosch Den Helder Dordrecht Enchede Haarlem Hilversum Maastricht Middelburg Zwolle Lelystad Leiden Katwijk Nijmegen Eindhoven Vlissingen Rotterdam Leeuwarden Heerenveen Groningen (city) Emmen Almelo Apeldoorn Alkmaar Zaanstad Tilburg Venlo Heerlen Drenthe Flevoland Friesland Gelderland Groningen Limburg North Brabant North Holland Overijssel South Holland Utrecht Zeeland
Map of the Netherlands, linking to the province articles; red dots mark provincial capitals and black dots other notable cities or towns.
Satellite image of the Scheldt estuary

A list of the municipalities, with links to maps:

Municipality Population
Borsele 22,549
Goes 36,712
Hulst 27,936
Kapelle 12,098
Middelburg 47,257
Noord-Beveland 7,306
Reimerswaal 21,266
Schouwen-Duiveland 34,034
Sluis 24,222
Terneuzen 55,145
Tholen 25,271
Veere 22,047
Vlissingen 44,853

Geography

The province of Zeeland is a large river delta situated at the mouth of several major rivers. Most of the province lies below sea level and was reclaimed from the sea by inhabitants over time. What used to be a muddy landscape, flooding at high tide and reappearing at low tide, became a series of small man-made hills that stayed dry at all times. The people of the province would later connect the hills by creating dikes, which led to a chain of dry land that later grew into bigger islands and gave the province its current shape. The shape of the islands has changed over time at the hands of both man and nature. The North Sea flood of 1953 inundated vast amounts of land that were only partially reclaimed. The subsequent construction of the Delta Works also changed the face of the province. The infrastructure, although very distinct by the amount of bridges, tunnels and dams, has not shaped the geography of the province so much as the geography of the province has shaped its infrastructure. The dams, tunnels and bridges that are currently a vital part of the province's road system were constructed over the span of decades and came to replace old ferry lines. The final touch to this process came in 2003 when the Western Scheldt Tunnel was opened. It was the first solid connection between both banks of the Westerschelde and ended the era of water separating the islands and peninsulas of Zeeland.

History

Graafschap Zeeland
County of Zeeland
State of the Holy Roman Empire
County of Holland
 
County of Flanders
1299–1581
Capital Middelburg
Government Monarchy
Historical era Middle Ages
 - Personal union with
   County of Holland
 
1299 1299
 - Joined Burgundian
   Netherlands
 
1432
 - Habsburg Seventeen
   Provinces
founded
 
1477
 - Foundation of
   United Provinces
 
26 July 1581 1581
Altar for Nehalennia in Domburg, Zeeland, the Netherlands.

Nehalennia is a goddess of the ancient religion known around the province of Zeeland. Her worship dates back at least to the 2nd century BC,[1] and flourished in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD.[1] She was possibly a regional goddess, either Celtic or pre-Germanic – sources differ on the culture that first worshipped her. During the Roman Era, her main function appeared to be the protection of travelers, especially seagoing travelers crossing the North Sea. Most of what is known about her comes from the remains of over 160 carved stone offerings (votives) which have been dredged up from the Oosterschelde since 1970. Two more Nehalennia offering stones have also been found in Cologne, Germany.[1]

Zeeland was a contested area between the counts of Holland and Flanders until 1299, when the count of Holland gained control of the countship of Zeeland. Since then, Zeeland followed the fate of Holland. In 1432 it became part of the Low Countries possessions of Philip the Good of Burgundy, the later Seventeen Provinces. Through marriage, the Seventeen Provinces became property of the Habsburgs in 1477. In the Eighty Years' War, Zeeland was on the side of the Union of Utrecht, and became one of the United Provinces. The area now called Zeeuws-Vlaanderen was not part of Zeeland, but a part of the countship of Flanders (still under Habsburg) that was conquered by the United Provinces, hence called Staats-Vlaanderen (see: Generality Lands). After the French occupation (see département Bouches-de-l'Escaut) and the formation of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815, the present province Zeeland was formed. In 1944, Zeeland was devastated by the Battle of the Scheldt and the Walcheren Landings between Canadian and British forces, and the occupying Germans[2]. The catastrophic North Sea Flood of 1953, which killed over 1,800 people in Zeeland, led to the construction of the protective Delta Works.

Transportation

There is one passenger railway, here with municipalities and official station abbreviations:

Vlissingen (vs, vss) – Middelburg (mdb, arn) – Goes (gs) – Kapelle (bzl) – Reimerswaal (krg, kbd, rb) – connecting to Bergen op Zoom (bgn) (Noord-Brabant).

Bus connections (of Connexxion, except # 395) include:

Zeeland in foreign names

New Zealand

The islands of New Zealand were named by Dutch navigator Abel Tasman in 1642, but he did not land on New Zealand. Tasman named it Staten Landt, believing it to be part of the land of that name off the coast of Argentina. When that was shown not to be so Dutch authorities named it Nova Zeelandia in Latin, Nieuw Zeeland in Dutch. The two major seafaring provinces of the Netherlands in its Golden Age were Holland and Zeeland, and originally the Dutch explorers named the largest landmass of Oceania and the two islands to the southeast respectively Nieuw Holland and Nieuw Zeeland. The former was eventually replaced by the name Australia, but the name New Zealand remained in place for the latter. Captain James Cook of Britain subsequently called the archipelago New Zealand and soon after, British settlers arrived in New Zealand and English was the main language.

The Americas

The town of Zeeland in the US state of Michigan was settled in 1847 by Dutchman Jannes van de Luyster and was incorporated in 1907. The town still maintains a distinctive Dutch flavour. Flushing, a neighborhood within the borough of Queens, New York, is named after the city Flushing (Vlissingen in Dutch) in Zeeland. This dates from the period of the colony of New Netherland, when New York was still known as New Amsterdam. The Dutch colonies of Nieuw Walcheren and Nieuw Vlissingen, both on the Antillian island of Tobago, were both named after parts of Zeeland. The Canadian town of Zealand, New Brunswick, was named for the Zeeland birth place of Dutchman Philip Crouse who settled in the area in 1789.[3]

Taiwan

Fort Zeelandia was a fortress built over ten years from 1624–1634 by the Dutch East India Company, in the town of Anping (Tainan) on the island of Formosa, present day Taiwan, during their 38-year rule over the western part of it.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Lendering, 2006.
  2. ^ http://www.combinedops.com/Walcheren.htm
  3. ^ "Zealand, New Brunswick, Canada". University Educational Series, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada. http://d120788.u25.digipark.com/zealand/index.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-01. 

External links

Coordinates: 51°34′N 3°45′E / 51.567°N 3.75°E / 51.567; 3.75


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

This article covers the Dutch province, not to be confused with the Danish island Zealand.

Zeeland is a province of the Netherlands consisting of islands and peninsulas interconnected by the dams and bridges of the Delta Works (Deltawerken). Translated into English, it literally means sea land because that's basically what it is. The capital city is Middelburg.

The area is very flat making it ideal terrain for cycling.

  • Goes
  • Middelburg - the capital
  • Hulst
  • Renesse
  • Sluis
  • Terneuzen
  • Tholen
  • Vlissingen - often referred to as Flushing
  • Veere - very attractive village on the edge of Veerse Meer
  • Zierikzee

Understand

Zeeland was subject to heavy flooding in 1953 during a north-wester storm at springtide. The Dutch government instituted the Delta Works to protect the province. The entire system of dams, dikes and bridges is present throughout the province and all the way up to Rotterdam in South Holland.

Get in

By car

Zeeland is in the south-west of the country. While all the islands are interconnected and connected to the mainland by fast roads now, the province still retains a somewhat insular nature. On summer days major roads may become busy since there are no good alternatives for them.

By train

There is a national rail link connecting Vlissingen, Middelburg and Goes via Bergen op Zoom en Roosendaal (both in North-Brabant) to the national system. Train service is frequent (every half hour).

By air

For some destinations in Zeeland, Brussel Airport is closer then Rotterdam or Schiphol Airport. There is a national rail intercity connection from Schiphol Airport to Vlissingen stopping at al mayor stations.

Get around

By bicycle

As almost everywhere in The Netherlands exploring on bike is a good idea. There is an excellent infrastructure of cycle paths. Signed bicycle routes along points (Dutch: Knooppuntennetwerk) allow you to set up your own route through the beautiful landscape.

By bus

Connexxion [1] operates a good bus network in most of the province, although some services are reduced in terms of frequency or routes in the weekend and late nights.

Veolia [2] operates the bus network on Zeeuws-Vlaanderen.

By ferry

A fast ferry for pedestrian and cyclist only is being operated by Veolia [3] between Vlissingen en Breskens.

By train

NS [4], the national railway, provide frequent connections between Vlissingen, Middelburg, Goes and some smaller towns.

  • The Oosterschelde dam, a massive operable sea dam with an artificial island at its center. It is often a candidate for many a "modern world wonder" list all by itself. Together with the rest of the Delta Works, it's just incredible.
  • When you're really interested in this Oosterscheldekering you can visit the Neeltje Jans [5]. This is an attraction where you learn everything about water and the delta works (Deltawerken).
  • Veerse Meer -This is a lake or inland lagoon that was closed off to the sea in 1961. See [6]
This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

ZEELAND (or Zealand), a province of Holland, bounded S.E. and S. by Belgium, W. by the North Sea, N. by South Holland, and E. by North Brabant. It has an area of 690 sq. m. and a population (1905) of 227,292. Zeeland consists of the delta islands formed about the estuaries of the Maas and Scheldt with its two arms, the Honte or Western Scheldt, and the Ooster Scheldt, together with a strip of mainland called ZeelandFlanders. The names of the islands are Schouwen and Duiveland, St Filipsland, Tolen, North Beveland, South Beveland and Walcheren. The history of these islands is in every case one of varying loss and gain in the struggle with the sea. They were built up by the gradual accumulation of mud deposits in a shallow bay, separated by dunes from the North Sea. As late as the 12th and 13th centuries each of these islands consisted of several smaller islands, many of whose names are still preserved in the fertile polders which have taken their place. Lying for the most part below sea-level, the islands are protected by a continuous line of artificial dikes, which hide them from view on the seaward side, whence only an occasional church steeple is seen. The islands of Schouwen and Duiveland are united owing to the damming of the Dykwater; St Filipsland, or Philipsland, and South Beveland are connected with the mainland of North Brabant by naturally formed mud banks.

The soil of Zeeland consists of a fertile sea clay which especially favours the production of wheat; rye, barley (for malting), beans and peas, and flax are also cultivated. Cattle and swine are reared, and dairy produce is largely exported; but the sheep of the province are small and their wool indifferent. The industries (linen, yarn-spinning, distilling, brewing, salt-refining, shipbuilding) are comparatively unimportant. The inhabitants, who retain many quaint and archaic peculiarities of manner and dress, speak the variety of Dutch known as Low Frankish.

The chief towns on the island of Schouwen are the ports of Zieriksee and Brouwershaven. On the well-wooded fringe of the dunes on the west side of the island are the two villages of Renesse and Haamstede, the seats in former days of the two powerful lordships of the same name. St Maartensdyk on the adjoining island of Tolen was formerly the seat of a lordship which belonged successively to the families of Van Borssele, Burren and Orange-Nassau. There is a monument of the Van Borsseles in the Reformed church. The castle built here in the first half of the 14th century was demolished in 1819. The island of South Beveland frequently suffered from inundations and experienced a particularly disastrous one in 1530. In the same century the flourishing walled town of Reimenswaal and the island of Borsele or Borssele disappeared beneath the waves; but the last-named was gradually recovered during the 17th century. This island gave its name to the powerful lordship of the same name. Goes is the chief town on South Beveland. Oyster-breeding is practised on the north coast of the island, especially at Wemeldinge and Ierseke or Yerseke. Ierseke was once a town of importance and the seat of a lordship, while at Wemeldinge there was formerly an establishment of the Templars. In 1866 South Beveland and Walcheren were joined by a heavy railway dam, a canal being cut through the middle of the former island to restore the connexion between the East and West Scheldt. South Beveland is sometimes called the "granary" and Walcheren the "garden" of Zeeland. The principal towns in Walcheren are Middelburg, the chief town of the province, Flushing and Veere; all three connected by a canal (1867-72) which divides the island in two. The fishing village of Arnemuiden flourished as a harbour in the 16th century, but decayed owing to the silting up of the sand. Domburg is pleasantly situated at the foot of the dunes on the west side of the island, and in modern times has become a popular but primitive watering-place. It is a very old town, having received civic rights in the 13th century, and from time to time Roman remains and other antiquities have been dug out of the sands. Between Domburg and the village of Westkapelle there stretches the famous Westkapelle sea-dike. The mainland of Zeeland-Flanders was formerly also composed of numerous islands which were gradually united by the accumulation of mud and sand, and in this way many once flourishing commercial towns, such as Sluis and Aardenburg, were reduced in importance. The famous castle of Sluis, built in 1385, was partly blown up by the French in 1794, and totally demolished in 1818. Yzendyke represents a Hanse town which flourished in the 13th century and was gradually engulfed by the sea. Similarly the original port of Breskens was destroyed by inundations in the 15th and 16th centuries. The modern town rose into importance in the 19th century on account of its good harbour. The old towns of Axel and Halst were formerly important fortresses, and as such were frequently besieged in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. Ter Neuzen was strongly fortified in 1833-39, and has a flourishing transit trade, as the port of Ghent, by the canal constructed in 1825-27.


<< Zeehan

Zeerust >>


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Proper noun

Zeeland

  1. A province of the Netherlands.

Translations


Dutch

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /ˈzeː.lɑnt/

Proper noun

Zeeland n.

  1. Zeeland, a province of the Netherlands.

Related terms

Derived terms


Simple English

Zealand or Zeeland can mean:

Places

  • Zealand (Danish Sjælland), the Danish island
    • Region Sjælland, a Danish administrative region
  • Zeeland (province), the Dutch province
  • Zeeland (North Brabant), a town in the Netherlands
  • Zeeland (Gelderland), a hamlet in the Netherlands
  • Zeeland, Michigan, U.S. town
  • Zealand, New Brunswick, Canadian town
  • Zeeland, North Dakota, U.S. town

People

Other pages

  • Sealand (disambiguation)
  • Seeland (disambiguation)
  • New Zealand (disambiguation)


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message