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In biophysics, a zero-mode waveguide is an optical waveguide that guides light energy into a volume that is small in all dimensions compared to the wavelength of the light.

Zero-mode waveguides have been developed for rapid parallel sensing of zeptolitre sample volumes, as applied to gene sequencing, by Nanofluidics, Inc. (now Pacific Biosciences).[1]

A waveguide operated at frequencies lower than its cutoff frequency (wavelengths longer than its cutoff wavelength) and used as a precision attenuator is also known as a "waveguide below-cutoff attenuator."[2]


  1. ^ Jan Kieleczawa (2004). DNA sequencing: optimizing the process and analysis. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 190. ISBN 9780763747824.  
  2. ^ D. H. Russell (Dec. 1997). "The waveguide below-cutoff attenuation standard". IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Technology 45 (12): 2408–2413.  


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