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Zhores Alferov

Born March 15, 1930 (1930-03-15) (age 79)
Vitebsk, BSSR, Soviet Union
Nationality Russia
Fields Applied physics
Institutions Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute
Alma mater V. I. Ulyanov Electrotechnical Institute
Known for Heterotransistors
Notable awards Kyoto Prize in Advanced Technology (2001) and others
Nobel Prize in Physics (2000)
Demidov Prize (1999)
Ioffe Prize (Russian Academy of Sciences, 1996)
USSR State Prize (1984)
Lenin Prize (1972)

Zhores Ivanovich Alferov (Russian: Жоре́с Ива́нович Алфёров; IPA: [ʐɐˈrʲɛs ɪˈvanəvʲɪtɕ ɐlˈfʲorəf]) (born March 15, 1930) is a Russian physicist and academic who contributed significantly to the creation of modern heterostructure physics and electronics. He is an inventor of the heterotransistor and the winner of 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics. He is also a Russian politician and has been a member of the Russian State Parliament, the Duma, since 1995.

Contents

Birth and education

Alferov was born in Vitebsk, BSSR, Soviet Union in a Belarusian-Jewish mixed family.[1] In 1952 he graduated from V. I. Ulyanov (Lenin) Electrotechnical Institute in Leningrad. Since 1953 he has worked in the Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences. From the Institute he earned several scientific degrees: a Candidate of Sciences in Technology in 1961 and a Doctor of Sciences in Physics and Mathematics in 1970. He has been director of the Institute since 1987. He was elected a corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1972, and a full member in 1979. From 1989 he has been Vice-President of the USSR Academy of Sciences and President of its Saint Petersburg Scientific Center. Since 1995 he is a member of the State Duma on the list of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation. He received 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics together with Herbert Kroemer, "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics".

Alferov invented the heterotransistor. This coped with much higher frequencies than its predecessors, and apparently revolutionised the mobile phone and satellite communications. Alverov and Kroemer independently applied this technology to firing laser lights. This in turn revolutionised semiconductor design in a host of areas, including LEDs, barcodes readers and CDs.

Hermann Grimmeiss, of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, which awards Nobel prizes, said: "Without Alferov, it would not be possible to transfer all the information from satellites down to the Earth or to have so many telephone lines between cities."[2]

Research area

Since 1962 he has been working in the area of semiconductor heterostructures. His contributions to physics and technology of semiconductor heterostructures, especially investigations of injection properties, development of lasers, solar cells, LED's, and epitaxy processes have led to the creation of modern heterostructure physics and electronics.

Political activity

Alferov with Vladimir Putin

Alferov was elected to the Russian State Parliament, the Duma in 1995 as a deputy for the political party Our Home is Russia, generally considered to be supportive of the policies of President Boris Yeltsin. In 1999 he was elected again, this time on the list of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation. He was re-elected in 2003 and again in 2007, when he was placed second on the party's federal electoral list behind Gennady Zyuganov and ahead of Nikolai Kharitonov, even though he is not a member of the party.[3] He was one of the signers of the Open letter to the President Vladimir V. Putin from the Members of the Russian Academy of Sciences against clericalisation of Russia.

Awards

References

  1. ^ "Алферов, Жорес" (in Russian). Lenta. 24 December 2007. http://lenta.ru/lib/14177331/full.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-26.  
  2. ^ Staff writers (10 October 2000). "Russian and Americans share hi-tech Nobel". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/965528.stm. Retrieved 2008-06-26.  
  3. ^ Communists, Patriots Name Their Leaders, Kommersant, Sep. 07, 2007

External links

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