Zinc: Wikis

  
  
  
  














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copperzincgallium
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Zn

Cd
Appearance
silvery gray
General properties
Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30
Element category transition metal
Category notes Alternatively considered a post-transition metal
Group, period, block 124, d
Standard atomic weight 65.38(4)g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 2 (Image)
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 7.14 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 6.57 g·cm−3
Melting point 692.68 K, 419.53 °C, 787.15 °F
Boiling point 1180 K, 907 °C, 1665 °F
Heat of fusion 7.32 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 123.6 kJ·mol−1
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) 25.470 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 610 670 750 852 990 1179
Atomic properties
Oxidation states +2, +1, 0
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 1.65 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 906.4 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1733.3 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3833 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 134 pm
Covalent radius 122±4 pm
Van der Waals radius 139 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure hexagonal
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 59.0 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 116 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 30.2 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (r.t.) (rolled) 3850 m·s−1
Young's modulus 108 GPa
Shear modulus 43 GPa
Bulk modulus 70 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.25
Mohs hardness 2.5
Brinell hardness 412 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-66-6
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of zinc
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
64Zn 48.6% 64Zn is stable with 34 neutrons
65Zn syn 243.8 d ε 1.3519 65Cu
γ 1.1155 -
66Zn 27.9% 66Zn is stable with 36 neutrons
67Zn 4.1% 67Zn is stable with 37 neutrons
68Zn 18.8% 68Zn is stable with 38 neutrons
70Zn 0.6% 70Zn is stable with 40 neutrons
72Zn syn 46.5 h β 0.458 72Ga
.Zinc (pronounced /ˈzɪŋk/ zingk, from German: Zink), also known as spelter, is a metallic chemical element; it has the symbol Zn and atomic number 30. It is the first element in group 12 of the periodic table.^ Tests in the first group include: measunng ZInC in plasma, red blood cells, urine and saliva .

^ In nature, zinc occurs only rarely in its metallic state and the vast majority of environmental samples contain the element only in the form of zinc compounds.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The dose of zinc required for treating acrodermatitis enteropathica is about 30-50 mg/zn 2 +/day and for some cases even greater doses are required.

.Zinc is, in some respects, chemically similar to magnesium, because its ion is of similar size and its only common oxidation state is +2. Zinc is the 24th most abundant element in the Earth's crust and has five stable isotopes.^ Zinc supplements: You should also take extra copper and perhaps magnesium as well because zinc interferes with their absorption.
  • For Patients & Visitors | NYU Langone Medical Center 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Zinc | ThirdAge Articles 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.thirdage.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A stable isotope study of zinc absorption in young men: Effects of phytate and alpha-cellulose.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Keep in mind that the dosages of zinc used in most of these studies are rather high, and should be used only under a physician's supervision.
  • For Patients & Visitors | NYU Langone Medical Center 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Zinc | ThirdAge Articles 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.thirdage.com [Source type: Academic]

.The most exploited zinc ore is sphalerite, a zinc sulfide.^ Zinc sulfide is the most dominant form of zinc in anoxic sediments (Casas & Crecelius, 1994).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sphalerite (ZnS) is the most important ore mineral and the principal source for zinc production.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Commercially, sphalerite (ZnS) is the most important ore mineral and the principal source of the metal for the zinc industry.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

The largest exploitable deposits are found in Australia, Canada, and the United States. .Zinc production includes froth flotation of the ore, roasting, and final extraction using electricity (electrowinning).^ Note : When using zinc nasal gel products, do not deeply inhale, as this may cause severe pain.
  • For Patients & Visitors | NYU Langone Medical Center 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc sulfate is used in products for eye irritation.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The maker of these zinc-containing nose sprays has also received several hundred reports of loss of smell from people who had used the products.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.Brass, which is an alloy of copper and zinc, has been used since at least the 10th century BC. Impure zinc metal was not produced in large scale until the 13th century in India, while the metal was unknown to Europe until the end of the 16th century.^ Remarkably, "Super Sharp Shooter" became Zinc's solo debut, and he's since released a number of popular tracks, although none have scaled the heights of his first.
  • DJ Zinc Discography at Discogs 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.discogs.com [Source type: General]

^ Women, who use oral contraceptive pills, usually have high serum copper levels and need zinc and vitamin B6 supplementation.

^ Shell also has large amounts of copper, especially when the sea is highly polluted with heavy metals.

.Alchemists burned zinc in air to form what they called "philosopher's wool" or "white snow". The element was probably named by the alchemist Paracelsus after the German word Zinke.^ Different salt forms provide different amounts of elemental zinc.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

German chemist Andreas Sigismund Marggraf is normally given credit for discovering pure metallic zinc in 1746. Work by Luigi Galvani and Alessandro Volta uncovered the electrochemical properties of zinc by 1800. Corrosion-resistant zinc plating of steel (hot-dip galvanizing) is the major application for zinc. Other applications are in batteries and alloys, such as brass. .A variety of zinc compounds are commonly used, such as zinc carbonate and zinc gluconate (as dietary supplements), zinc chloride (in deodorants), zinc pyrithione (anti-dandruff shampoos), zinc sulfide (in luminescent paints), and zinc methyl or zinc diethyl in the organic laboratory.^ Plasma and erythrocyte zinc concentrations and their relationship to dietary zinc intake and zinc supplementation during pregnancy in low-income African-American women.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ But as a rule, routine use of zinc supplements is not recommended.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Women, who use oral contraceptive pills, usually have high serum copper levels and need zinc and vitamin B6 supplementation.

.Zinc is an essential mineral of "exceptional biologic and public health importance".[1] Zinc deficiency affects about two billion people in the developing world and is associated with many diseases.^ There are many diseases that cause zinc deficiency and/or occur as a result of this deficiency.

^ Zinc therapy in health and Diseases.

^ Zinc therapy in Health and Diseases.

[2] .In children it causes growth retardation, delayed sexual maturation, infection susceptibility, and diarrhea, contributing to the death of about 800,000 children worldwide per year.^ Because of the ubiquity of zinc and the involvement of this micronutrient in so many core areas of metabolism, it is not surprising that the features of zinc deficiency are frequently quite basic and nonspecific, including growth retardation, alopecia, diarrhea, delayed sexual maturation and impotence, eye and skin lesions, and impaired appetite.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ At present a number of Pediatricians, have acted on prescribing Zinc Sulfate solution for children suffering from growth delay and inappetence.

^ Since zinc deficiency can also cause growth retardation, zinc supplementation at nutritional doses has been suggested for children with sickle cell disease.
  • For Patients & Visitors | NYU Langone Medical Center 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Zinc | ThirdAge Articles 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.thirdage.com [Source type: Academic]

[1] .Enzymes with a zinc atom in the reactive center are widespread in biochemistry, such as alcohol dehydrogenase in humans.^ Strong evidence suggests zinc transporter proteins in the various tissues act in concert to obtain such adaptation, but evidence is lacking in humans (McMahon and Cousins, 1998).
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, evaluation of zinc related enzymes such serum thymulin and serum metallothynonine could be helpful III diagnosing ZIllC deficiency.

^ In this direction the first comprehensive book “The role of Zinc in Human Health” is in final printing stages by publication office of this Center.

.Consumption of excess zinc can cause ataxia, lethargy and copper deficiency.^ Zinc-induced copper deficiency in an infant.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The elevated level of copper in connection with zinc deficiency in gingiva causes the increase of permeability of gingival epithelium for bacteria.

^ Nutrient intake of patients with rheumatoid arthritis is deficient in pyridoxine, zinc, copper, and magnesium .

Contents

Characteristics

Physical

Zinc, also referred to in nonscientific contexts as spelter,[3] is a bluish-white, lustrous, diamagnetic metal,[4] though most common commercial grades of the metal have a dull finish.[5] .It is somewhat less dense than iron and has a hexagonal crystal structure.^ Zinc possesses a low to intermediate hardness (Mohs hardness 2.5) and crystallizes in a distorted hexagonal close-packed structure.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc appears to be a less effective inhibitor of iron absorption than iron is of zinc absorption.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Unwanted impurities (gangue) and other impurities, such as iron, cadmium and lead, which substitute for zinc in the mineral crystal structure, are removed by flotation (Jolly, 1989).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[6]
The metal is hard and brittle at most temperatures but becomes malleable between 100 and 150 °C.[4][5] Above 210 °C, the metal becomes brittle again and can be pulverized by beating.[7] Zinc is a fair conductor of electricity.[4] .For a metal, zinc has relatively low melting (420 °C) and boiling points (900 °C).^ Thus low plasma zinc concentration in hypoalbuminimic states such as liver cirrhosis and malnutrition, points towards decreased binding of zinc with carrier proteins.

^ Subjects whose habitual diets are high in phytate or who have very high phytate:zinc molar ratios have also been noted to have relatively low zinc concentrations in hair.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Although evaluation of serum/plasma zinc concentration does not directly point towards body stores of zinc, low plasma/serum zinc levels could be a hint of zinc deficiency in body.

[8] .Its melting point is the lowest of all the transition metals aside from mercury and cadmium.^ The same OR was obtained when the model included information of other metals that might act as possible confounders (chromium, vanadium, cobalt selenium, cadmium, lead, and mercury).

[8]
.Many alloys contain zinc, including brass, an alloy of zinc and copper.^ Many people including sports men and women, could have low levels of body zinc (even marginal type).

^ Many, but not all, zinc-containing neurons in the brain are a subclass of the glutamatergic neurons, and they are found predominantly in the telencephalon.

^ Zinc as an essential element has significant role in growth, development and reproduction in many life forms including humans.

.Other metals long known to form binary alloys with zinc are aluminium, antimony, bismuth, gold, iron, lead, mercury, silver, tin, magnesium, cobalt, nickel, tellurium and sodium.^ The same OR was obtained when the model included information of other metals that might act as possible confounders (chromium, vanadium, cobalt selenium, cadmium, lead, and mercury).

^ Effects of dietary tin on zinc, copper, iron, manganese, and magnesium metabolism of adult males.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In physiological buffers, 10-3 M calcium, cobalt, copper, manganese, magnesium, sodium, or potassium had no effect on the rate of betaA4 aggregation.

[9] While neither zinc nor zirconium are ferromagnetic, their alloy ZrZn2 exhibits ferromagnetism below 35 K.[4]

Occurrence

.Zinc makes up about 75 ppm (0.0075%) of the Earth's crust, making it the 24th most abundant element there.^ Safety Issues Interactions You Should Know About References Zinc is an important element that is found in every cell in the body.
  • Zinc | ThirdAge Articles 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.thirdage.com [Source type: Academic]

[10] .Soil contains 5–770 ppm of zinc with an average of 64 ppm.^ Beyer & Anderson (1985) fed woodlice ( Porcellio scaber ) for 64 weeks on soil litter containing zinc at concentrations of up to 12 800 mg/kg.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Van Tilborg (1996) reported on a freshwater stream in Belgium (the Kleine Nete) which contained total zinc at an average of 60 g/litre (range <20140 g/litre).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For non-contaminated soils worldwide, Adriano (1986) reported average zinc concentrations of 4090 mg/kg, with a minimum of 1 mg/kg and a maximum of 2000 mg/kg.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[10] Seawater has only 30 ppb zinc and the atmosphere contains 0.1–4 µg/m3.[10]
A black shiny lump of solid with uneven surface.
Sphalerite (ZnS)
.The element is normally found in association with other base metals such as copper and lead in ores.^ The interaction of zinc with other metals, such as copper, iron and calcium, has been reviewed in some detail elsewhere (Walsh et al., 1994; Bremner & Beattie, 1995).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ CONCLUSIONS: High serum copper and low serum zinc are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality whereas no association was found with serum calcium and magnesium and mortality risk.

^ Zuurdeeg BW (1992) [Natural background levels of heavy metals and some other trace elements in surface water in the Netherlands.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[11] .Zinc is a chalcophile ("sulfur loving"), meaning the element has a low affinity for oxygen and prefers to bond with sulfur in highly insoluble sulfides.^ Porter KG, McMaster D, Elmes ME, & Love AHG (1977) Anemia and low serum copper during zinc therapy.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Since zinc is very reactive, it reacts strongly with other elements, such as oxygen, chlorine and sulfur, at elevated temperatures (Melin & Michaelis, 1983).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The dominant species under anaerobic conditions is zinc sulfide, which is insoluble and so the mobility of zinc in anaerobic soils is low (Kalbasi et al., 1978; Perwak et al., 1980).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Chalcophiles formed as the crust solidified under the reducing conditions of the early Earth's atmosphere.[12] .Sphalerite, which is a form of zinc sulfide, is the most heavily mined zinc-containing ore because its concentrate contains 60–62% zinc.^ The mined ores usually contain zinc at levels of 48% and are concentrated at the mine sites to levels of 4060%.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Most rocks and many minerals contain zinc in varying amounts.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc sulfide is the most dominant form of zinc in anoxic sediments (Casas & Crecelius, 1994).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[11]
.Other minerals, from which zinc is extracted, include smithsonite (zinc carbonate), hemimorphite (zinc silicate), wurtzite (another zinc sulfide), and sometimes hydrozincite (basic zinc carbonate).^ Another study reported no resorption in Sprague-Dawley rats receiving 0.5% zinc as zinc carbonate in the diet (Kinnamon, 1963).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition to pica eating other symptoms seen in children with mild zinc deficiency include disorders of taste perception and delayed wound healing.

^ Zinc is a mineral which is necessary for the synthesis of hundreds of enzymes, including: alcohol dehydrogenase, procarboxy peptidase, alkaline phosphatase, carbonic anhydrase, surperoxide dismutase etc.

[13] .With the exception of wurtzite, all these other minerals were formed as a result of weathering processes on the primordial zinc sulfides.^ Other forms of zinc: .

^ It occurs as the mineral hydrozincite, a weathering product of zinc spar.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc sulfide is the most dominant form of zinc in anoxic sediments (Casas & Crecelius, 1994).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[12]
.World zinc resources total about 1.8 gigatonnes.^ Secondary zinc production constitutes about 2030% of current total zinc production (1.9 million tonnes in 1994).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, total annual emissions of zinc to air from natural sources are estimated at about 45 000 tonnes/year (Nriagu, 1989).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The total body content of zinc is about 2-3 gm.

[14] .Nearly 200 megatonnes were economically viable in 2008; adding marginally economic and subeconomic reserves to that number, a total reserve base of 500 megatonnes has been identified.^ A diet supplemented with zinc (source not identified) at 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 g/g, and with adequate levels of copper (10 g/g) was administered to pregnant rats (strain and number not given).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[14] Large deposits are in Australia, Canada and the United States with the largest reserves in Iran.[15][16][17][18][19][12] .At the current rate of consumption, these reserves are estimated to be depleted sometime between 2027 and 2055.[20][21] About 346 megatonnes have been extracted throughout history to 2002, and one estimate found that about 109 megatonnes of that remains in use.^ Therefore considering 20% absorption rate for zinc (from diet), the amount of zinc required by older neonates and children is estimated about 2.5 microgm znld.

^ Absynth 5 LFO Tips 23 January 2010, 8:21 am One of the coolest things about Absynth is that you can draw custom waveforms.
  • DSK VSTi at rekkerd.org 10 February 2010 12:36 UTC rekkerd.org [Source type: General]

^ The cellulase index declined following weight and shell loss between days 20 and 30 at the lower dose and by day 30 the growth rate was only 50% of controls.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[22]

Isotopes

.Five isotopes of zinc occur in nature.^ Zinc carbonate occurs naturally as zinc spar.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In nature, zinc occurs only rarely in its metallic state and the vast majority of environmental samples contain the element only in the form of zinc compounds.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This is because zinc and cadmium are chemically similar and often occur together in nature.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.64Zn is the most abundant isotope (48.63% natural abundance).^ A further 19 radioactive isotopes ( 57 Zn 63 Zn, 65 Zn, 68 Zn 80 Zn) are known; 65 Zn is the most stable with a half-life of 243.8 days, but most have very short half-lives (Lide, 1991).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In nature, zinc is a mixture of five stable isotopes: 64 Zn (49%), 66 Zn (28%), 68 Zn (19%), 67 Zn (4.1%), and 70 Zn (0.62%) (Budavari, 1989).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[23] .This isotope has such a long half-life, at 4.3×1018 a,[24] that its radioactivity can be ignored.^ In another human isotope study, the estimated half-life was approximately 280 days (Wastney et al., 1986).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The half-life of erythrocytes is quite long (120 days), so that erythrocyte zinc concentrations will not reflect recent changes in body zinc stores.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A further 19 radioactive isotopes ( 57 Zn 63 Zn, 65 Zn, 68 Zn 80 Zn) are known; 65 Zn is the most stable with a half-life of 243.8 days, but most have very short half-lives (Lide, 1991).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[25] .Similarly, 70Zn (0.6%), with a half life of 1.3×1016 a is not usually considered to be radioactive.^ In the rat, the biological half-life of 65 Zn decreased with an increase in dietary zinc (5 mg/kg, 52 days; 160 mg/kg, 4 days) (Coppen & Davies, 1987).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Considering the latest sources, correct treatment with correct method and dosage can reduce the usual duration of colds by half (its economical aspects are very important for the society).

^ A further 19 radioactive isotopes ( 57 Zn 63 Zn, 65 Zn, 68 Zn 80 Zn) are known; 65 Zn is the most stable with a half-life of 243.8 days, but most have very short half-lives (Lide, 1991).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.The other isotopes found in nature are 66Zn (28%), 67Zn (4%) and 68Zn (19%).^ In addition, because of its mass resolution, ICP-MS enables isotopic ratio analysis ( 67 Zn/ 68 Zn/ 70 Zn) or isotope dilution studies using 65 Zn (Ward, 1987).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A further 19 radioactive isotopes ( 57 Zn 63 Zn, 65 Zn, 68 Zn 80 Zn) are known; 65 Zn is the most stable with a half-life of 243.8 days, but most have very short half-lives (Lide, 1991).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In nature, zinc is a mixture of five stable isotopes: 64 Zn (49%), 66 Zn (28%), 68 Zn (19%), 67 Zn (4.1%), and 70 Zn (0.62%) (Budavari, 1989).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Several dozen radioisotopes have been characterized. 65Zn, which has a half-life of 243.66 days, is the most long-lived isotope, followed by 72Zn with a half-life of 46.5 hours.[23] Zinc has 10 nuclear isomers. .69mZn has the longest half-life, 13.76 h.^ In the rat, the biological half-life of 65 Zn decreased with an increase in dietary zinc (5 mg/kg, 52 days; 160 mg/kg, 4 days) (Coppen & Davies, 1987).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[23] The superscript m indicates a metastable isotope. The nucleus of a metastable isotope is in an excited state and will return to the ground state by emitting a photon in the form of a gamma ray. 61Zn has three excited states and 73Zn has two.[26] .The isotopes 65Zn, 71Zn, 77Zn and 78Zn each have only one excited state.^ It is present only in the divalent state Zn(II).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[23]
.The most common decay mode of an isotope of zinc with a mass number lower than 64 is electron capture.^ Studies suggest that people with acne have lower-than-normal levels of zinc in their bodies.
  • For Patients & Visitors | NYU Langone Medical Center 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Alkaline Phosphates' quantity lower than normal limit is seen in severe malnutrition, Zinc deficiency, Radiotherapy, Scurvy and Achondroplasia (9).

^ However, this study used a much lower amount of zinc—50 times lower—per squirt of spray than was used in the studies just described.
  • For Patients & Visitors | NYU Langone Medical Center 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]

The decay product resulting from electron capture is an isotope of copper.[23]
n30Zn + en29Cu
.The most common decay mode of an isotope of zinc with mass number higher than 64 is beta decay), which produces an isotope of gallium.^ In general, zinc levels in urban and industrial areas are higher than in rural areas.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ At 0.15 mg/litre, mortality was 80%, the number of progeny was reduced by more than 50%, and primiparous individuals were significantly smaller and produced significantly fewer eggs.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Doses of zinc higher than the recommended safe levels (see Safety Issues ) should be used only under a physician's supervision.
  • For Patients & Visitors | NYU Langone Medical Center 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Zinc | ThirdAge Articles 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.thirdage.com [Source type: Academic]

[23]
n30Znn31Ga + e + νe

Compounds and chemistry

Reactivity

.Zinc has an electron configuration of [Ar]3d104s2 and is a member of the group 12 of the periodic table.^ The configuration of the outermost electrons is 3d 10 4s 2 .
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Table No: 12-10 .

^ Zinc intakes (mg/day) in the period 19821989 ranged from 8.7 to 9.7 mg/day for women aged 6065 and 2530 years, respectively; comparable estimates for men were 12.9 and 16.4 mg/day.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

It is a moderately reactive metal and strong reducing agent.[27] .The surface of the pure metal tarnishes quickly, eventually forming a protective passivating layer of the basic zinc carbonate, Zn5(OH)6CO3, by reaction with atmospheric carbon dioxide.^ In air, acidifying factors, such as sulfur dioxide, nitric oxides and chlorides attack the zinc hydroxide-carbonate layer on the surface of metallic zinc yielding soluble zinc compounds.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When heated to 150 C, the compound decomposes into zinc oxide and carbon dioxide.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In view of your vast researches on the metal Zinc (Zn) it is an honor to cooperate with you.

[28] .This layer helps prevent further reaction with air and water.^ These reactions decrease the pH of the water, although the natural buffering capacity of the water usually prevents any significant change (US DHHS, 1994).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Zinc burns in air with a bright bluish-green flame, giving off fumes of zinc oxide.^ The metal burns in air with a bluish-green flame.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Rohrs LC (1957) Metal-fume fever from inhaling zinc oxide.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Drinker P, Thomson RM, & Finn JL (1927b) Metal fume fever: II. Resistance acquired by inhalation of zinc oxide on 2 successive days.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[29] .Zinc reacts readily with acids, alkalis and other non-metals.^ Zinc and other metals .
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc and other heavy metals are highly partitioned to suspended sediment in the water column.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, other studies have reported that zinc added to sludges after digestion is more readily bioavailable than zinc added prior to digestion.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[30] .Extremely pure zinc reacts only slowly at room temperature with acids.^ Since zinc is very reactive, it reacts strongly with other elements, such as oxygen, chlorine and sulfur, at elevated temperatures (Melin & Michaelis, 1983).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, concentrated zinc chloride solutions react like strong acids because of the formation of the acids H[ZnCl 2 OH] and H 2 [ZnCl 2 (OH) 2 ] (Giesler et al., 1983).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[29] .Strong acids, such as hydrochloric or sulfuric acid, can remove the passivating layer and subsequent reaction with water releases hydrogen gas.^ Zinc is amphoteric and dissolves in strong alkalis and mineral acids with evolution of hydrogen and soluble zinc salts.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the conventional electrolytic process zinc concentrates are roasted to remove sulfur, as sulfur dioxide, which is made into sulfonic acid.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[29]
.The chemistry of zinc is dominated by the +2 oxidation state.^ The proportion of zinc in soil solution increases with decreasing pH. In high pH soils (> 6.5), the chemistry of zinc is dominated by interactions with organic ligands.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.When compounds in this oxidation state are formed the outer shell s electrons are lost, which yields a bare zinc ion with the electronic configuration [Ar]3d10.^ The configuration of the outermost electrons is 3d 10 4s 2 .
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In nature, zinc occurs only rarely in its metallic state and the vast majority of environmental samples contain the element only in the form of zinc compounds.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As a result of weathering, soluble compounds of zinc are formed and may be released to water.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[31] This allows for the formation of four covalent bonds by accepting four electron pairs and thus obeying the octet rule. .The stereochemistry is therefore tetrahedral and the bonds may be described as being formed from sp3 hybrid orbitals on the zinc ion.^ As a result of weathering, soluble compounds of zinc are formed and may be released to water.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A change in pH of 0.5 can mean the difference between the majority of zinc being in an adsorbed or desorbed form.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The solubility of zinc is primarily determined by pH. At acidic pH values, zinc may be present in the aqueous phase in its ionic form.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[32] .In aqueous solution an octahedral complex, [Zn(H2O)6]2+ is the predominant species.^ The hydroxide is precipitated in alkaline solution, but with excess base, it redissolves to form "zincates", ZnO 2 2- , which are hydroxo complexes such as Me + [Zn(OH) 3 ] - , Me 2 + [Zn(OH) 4 ] 2- and Me 2 + [Zn(OH) 4 (H 2 O) 2 ] 2- (Budavari, 1989).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Geering HR & Hodgson JF (1969) Micronutrient cation complexes in soil solution: III. Characterization of soil solution ligands and their complexes with Zn 2+ and Cu 2+ .
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[33] .The volatilization of zinc in combination with zinc chloride at temperatures above 285 °C indicates the formation of Zn2Cl2, a zinc compound with a +1 oxidation state.^ NIOSH (1984) Zinc and compounds, as Zn.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc and compounds, as Zn, Method 7030.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In nature, zinc occurs only rarely in its metallic state and the vast majority of environmental samples contain the element only in the form of zinc compounds.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[29] .No compounds of zinc in oxidation states other than +1 or +2 are known.^ In nature, zinc occurs only rarely in its metallic state and the vast majority of environmental samples contain the element only in the form of zinc compounds.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, other studies have reported that zinc added to sludges after digestion is more readily bioavailable than zinc added prior to digestion.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As compared with other mineral containing solutions and zinc preparations, there is little or no GI complication with the usage of this solution.

[34] .Calculations indicate that a zinc compound with the oxidation state of +4 is unlikely to exist.^ Organometallic zinc compounds do not exist in the environment.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In nature, zinc occurs only rarely in its metallic state and the vast majority of environmental samples contain the element only in the form of zinc compounds.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ At pH > 10.5 zinc returned to solution as the zincate, although such a high pH is unlikely to exist in the environment.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[35]
.Zinc chemistry is similar to the chemistry of the late first-row transition metals, nickel and copper though it has a filled d-shell, so its compounds are diamagnetic and mostly colorless.^ Zinc absorption is similar to that of copper and iron.

^ II. Critical levels of copper in young barley, wheat, rape, lettuce and ryegrass, and of nickel and zinc in young barley and ryegrass.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Wong CK (1993) Effects of chromium, copper, nickel, and zinc on longevity and reproduction of the cladoceran Moina macrocopa .
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[36] The ionic radii of zinc and magnesium happen to be nearly identical. .Because of this some of their salts have the same crystal structure[37] and in circumstances where ionic radius is a determining factor zinc and magnesium chemistries have much in common.^ Zinc possesses a low to intermediate hardness (Mohs hardness 2.5) and crystallizes in a distorted hexagonal close-packed structure.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, some of these indices are affected by biological and technical factors other than depleted body stores of zinc, which may confound the interpretation of the result.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zarembo JE, Godfrey JC, Godfrey NJ. Zinc(II) in saliva: determination of concentrations produced by different formulations of zinc gluconate lozenges containing common excipients.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[29] Otherwise there is little similarity. .Zinc tends to form bonds with a greater degree of covalency and it forms much more stable complexes with N- and S- donors.^ Owing to the high polarizing effect, zinc protolyses part of the water envelope and forms hydroxo complexes.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc is a transition element and is able to form complexes with a variety of organic ligands.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc taken up by plant roots is mainly in the form of Zn 2+ , although absorption of hydrated zinc, zinc complexes and zinc organic chelates has also been reported (Kabata-Pendias & Pendias, 1984).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[36] .Complexes of zinc are mostly 4- or 6- coordinate although 5-coordinate complexes are known.^ The mechanism and control of zinc absorption from the intestine has not yet been fully elucidated, although absorption is known to be regulated homoeostatically, and depends on the pool of zinc in the body and the amount of zinc ingested.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc taken up by plant roots is mainly in the form of Zn 2+ , although absorption of hydrated zinc, zinc complexes and zinc organic chelates has also been reported (Kabata-Pendias & Pendias, 1984).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[29]

Compounds

White lumped powder on a glass plate
Zinc chloride
.Binary compounds of zinc are known for most of the metalloids and all the nonmetals except the noble gases.^ Zinc is capable of reducing most metals except aluminium and magnesium (E o (aq) Zn/Zn 2+ , 0.763 eV; Budavari, 1989).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ All the zinc compounds were absorbed equally after one or two applications.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc is one of the most abundant trace metals in humans and is found in all tissues and all body fluids.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.The oxide ZnO is a white powder that is nearly insoluble in neutral aqueous solutions, but is amphoteric, dissolving in both strong basic and acidic solutions.^ Zinc is amphoteric and dissolves in strong alkalis and mineral acids with evolution of hydrogen and soluble zinc salts.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc oxide is a coarse white or greyish powder, odourless and with a bitter taste.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[29] The other chalcogenides (ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe) have varied applications in electronics and optics.[38] Pnictogenides (Zn3N2, Zn3P2, Zn3As2 and Zn3Sb2),[39][40] the peroxide (ZnO2), the hydride (ZnH2), and the carbide (ZnC2) are also known.[41] .Of the four halides, ZnF2 has the most ionic character, whereas the others (ZnCl2, ZnBr2, and ZnI2) have relatively low melting points and are considered to have more covalent character.^ Flesh foods (i.e., meat, poultry, fish and other seafood) are rich sources of readily available zinc, while fruits and vegetables contain relatively low zinc concentrations.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ High zinc concentrations are also found in seafood, especially oysters, whereas fruits and vegetables contain relatively low zinc concentrations.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[42]
Skeletal chemical formula of a three-dimensional compound, featuring oxygen atom in the center, bonded to four Zn atoms. The latter are interconnected through oxygens and O-C-O groups.
Basic zinc acetate
.In weak basic solutions containing Zn2+ ions, the hydroxide Zn(OH)2 forms as a white precipitate.^ Zinc compounds hydrolyse in solution to produce hydrated zinc ions, zinc hydroxide and hydrated zinc oxides, which may precipitate.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The cages were metal, lined with plywood and painted with zinc octoate as a solution in white spirit at 0.5 litre/m 2 and containing 8% zinc as metal (as recommended by the manufacturers), or with white spirit.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Basic zinc carbonate, zinc carbonate hydroxide, is known in variable composition and is usually characterized as 3Zn(OH) 2 2ZnCO 3 .
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.In stronger alkaline solutions, this hydroxide is dissolved to form zincates ([Zn(OH)4]2−).^ The hydroxide is precipitated in alkaline solution, but with excess base, it redissolves to form "zincates", ZnO 2 2- , which are hydroxo complexes such as Me + [Zn(OH) 3 ] - , Me 2 + [Zn(OH) 4 ] 2- and Me 2 + [Zn(OH) 4 (H 2 O) 2 ] 2- (Budavari, 1989).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[29] .The nitrate Zn(NO3)2, chlorate Zn(ClO3)2, sulfate ZnSO4, phosphate Zn3(PO4)2, molybdate ZnMoO4, cyanide Zn(CN)2, arsenite Zn(AsO2)2, arsenate Zn(AsO4)2•8H2O and the chromate ZnCrO4 (one of the few colored zinc compounds) are a few examples of other common inorganic compounds of zinc.^ Zinc forms complexes with chloride, phosphate, nitrate and sulfate.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ NIOSH (1984) Zinc and compounds, as Zn.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc and compounds, as Zn, Method 7030.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[43][44] .One of the simplest examples of an organic compound of zinc is the acetate (Zn(O2CCH3)2).^ NIOSH (1984) Zinc and compounds, as Zn.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc and compounds, as Zn, Method 7030.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Also in non-organic failure to thrieve (F.T.T), one must always think about deficiency of zinc especially if this condition is associated with anorexia.

.Organozinc compounds are those that contain zinc–carbon covalent bonds.^ When heated to 150 C, the compound decomposes into zinc oxide and carbon dioxide.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In nature, zinc occurs only rarely in its metallic state and the vast majority of environmental samples contain the element only in the form of zinc compounds.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Occupational exposure to dusts and fumes of zinc and zinc compounds can occur in a variety of settings in which zinc is produced, or in which zinc and zinc-containing materials are used.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Diethylzinc ((C2H5)2Zn) is a reagent in synthetic chemistry. .It was first reported in 1848 from the reaction of zinc and ethyl iodide, and was the first compound known to contain a metal–carbon sigma bond.^ The cheaper zinc supplements usually contain the metallic form of the minerals and are administered in amounts greater than the required dose.

^ Enclosed 9: Documents in connection with report of the first seminar on the effect of Zinc on Human Health and the need for prescribing Zinc Oral Solution in Iran.

^ Note that many zinc products also contain another metal called cadmium.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[45] .Decamethyldizincocene contains a strong zinc–zinc bond at room temperature.^ Typical unfiltered urban room air may contain zinc at concentrations as high as 1 g/m 3 (Henkin, 1979).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[46]

History

Ancient use

Large black bowl-shaped bucket on a stand. The bucket has incrustation around its top.
Late Roman brass bucket – the Hemmoorer Eimer from Warstade, Germany second to third century AD
.Various isolated examples of the use of impure zinc in ancient times have been discovered.^ Pre-mass production of Zinc Sulfate Oral Solution in Zinc Studies and Researches Unit (discovery of Dr. Hakimi and Zinc Researchers) for treatment and research use of foundations and various research and treatment universities.

.A possibly prehistoric statuette containing 87.5% zinc was found in a Dacian archaeological site in Transylvania (modern Romania).^ Differences in assimilation rates for zinc in two populations of centipede ( Lithobius variegatus ) were found to be related to the degree of contamination of the site from which the population was collected (Hopkin & Martin, 1984).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In two patients using insulin preparations containing zinc, pruritic, erythematous, papular lesions were observed at the injection site.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The crystallographically determined surface of rhinovirus-14 has been found to contain binding sites for at least 360 Zn2+.

[47] .Ornaments made of alloys that contain 80–90% zinc with lead, iron, antimony, and other metals making up the remainder, have been found that are 2500 years old.^ Zinc and other metals .
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc and other heavy metals are highly partitioned to suspended sediment in the water column.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In nature, zinc occurs only rarely in its metallic state and the vast majority of environmental samples contain the element only in the form of zinc compounds.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[11] The Berne zinc tablet is a votive plaque dating to Roman Gaul made of an alloy that is mostly zinc.[48] .Also, some ancient writings appear to mention zinc.^ Excessive copper can affect zinc metabolism in some species, but zinc absorption does not appear to be seriously affected.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

The Greek historian Strabo, in a passage taken from an earlier writer of the 4th century BC, mentions "drops of false silver", which when mixed with copper make brass. .This may refer to small quantities of zinc produced as a by-product of smelting sulfide ores.^ In current zinc production, emission factors are 0.150 g of zinc per tonne of metal produced (EZI, 1996).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Even if it is assumed that all zinc production elsewhere (1.5 10 6 tonnes) was by pyrometallurgical technology, the proportion of zinc produced by this technology could not have exceeded 2.4 10 6 tonnes, or 39%.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc metallurgy can be divided into two basic processes: electrolytic refining, which comprised 83% of primary production in 1993; and pyrometallurgical smelting (ILZSG, 1994).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[49] .The Charaka Samhita, thought to have been written in 500 BC or before, mentions a metal which, when oxidized, produces pushpanjan, thought to be zinc oxide.^ In current zinc production, emission factors are 0.150 g of zinc per tonne of metal produced (EZI, 1996).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Rohrs LC (1957) Metal-fume fever from inhaling zinc oxide.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Drinker P, Thomson RM, & Finn JL (1927b) Metal fume fever: II. Resistance acquired by inhalation of zinc oxide on 2 successive days.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[50]
.Zinc ores were used to make the zinc–copper alloy brass many centuries prior to the discovery of zinc as a separate element.^ Zinc ore (smithsonite) has been used for the production of brass since 1400.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ From a hundred years ago Zinc has been recognized as an essential and vital element (Raulin discovery in 1896 as a required element for growth Aspergillus niger).

^ Zinc is an important element in the immune system, it is involved in many immune mechanisms such as cellular and humoral immune systems, strengthens thymic activity and its hormones.

.Palestinian brass from the 14th to 10th centuries BC contains 23% zinc.^ Zinc sulfate contains 23% elemental zinc; 220 mg zinc sulfate contains 50 mg zinc.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[51] The Book of Genesis, written between the 10th and 5th centuries BC,[52] mentions Tubalcain as an "instructor in every artificer in brass and iron" (Genesis 4:22). Knowledge of how to produce brass spread to Ancient Greece by the 7th century BC but few varieties were made.[53]
.The manufacture of brass was known to the Romans by about 30 BC.[54] They made brass by heating powdered calamine (zinc silicate or carbonate), charcoal and copper together in a crucible.^ When heated to 150 C, the compound decomposes into zinc oxide and carbon dioxide.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The dose of zinc required for treating acrodermatitis enteropathica is about 30-50 mg/zn 2 +/day and for some cases even greater doses are required.

^ Plasma zinc increased to a plateau at levels about 1.5 - 2 times those in controls within the first 30 days.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[54] The resulting calamine brass was then either cast or hammered into shape and was used in weaponry.[55] Some coins struck by Romans in the Christian era are made of what is probably calamine brass.[56] In the West, impure zinc was known from antiquity to exist in the remnants in melting ovens, but it was usually discarded, as it was thought to be worthless.[57]
.Zinc mines at Zawar, near Udaipur in India, have been active since the Mauryan period in the late 1st millennium BC. The smelting of metallic zinc here however appears to have begun around the 12th century AD.[58][59] One estimate is that this location produced an estimated million tonnes of metallic zinc and zinc oxide from the 12th to 16th centuries.^ Beyer WN & Anderson A (1985) Toxicity to woodlice of zinc and lead oxides added to soil litter.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As is mentioned in paragraph 3-3 of this report, costs for one cycle of treatment or prevention by Zinc Sulfate Solution is estimated at about ten thousand rials.

^ Secondary zinc production constitutes about 2030% of current total zinc production (1.9 million tonnes in 1994).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[13] .Another estimate gives a total production of 60,000 tons of metallic zinc over this period.^ The estimated total body zinc concentration is about 2 gm; 20-3% of which is in bones and 50-60% in skeletal muscles.

^ Note that many zinc products also contain another metal called cadmium.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One of the consequences of oxidative stress is the production of metallothionein, a low molecular weight protein also induced by high concentrations of heavy metals such as zinc.

[58] .The Rasaratna Samuccaya, written in approximately the 14th century AD, mentions two types of zinc-containing ores; one used for metal extraction and another used for medicinal purposes.^ As is mentioned in paragraph 3-3 of this report, costs for one cycle of treatment or prevention by Zinc Sulfate Solution is estimated at about ten thousand rials.

^ In America most vitamin D in food diet is provided for by adding vitamin D to the dairies and vitamin D is added to all types of milk in a way that it contains 400 units in every quart .

^ After this conclusion when we found out about Zinc important effects on immune system we had it accompanied in another clinical work with anti Tuberculosis medicines.

[59]

Early studies and naming

.Zinc was distinctly recognized as a metal under the designation of Fasada in the medical Lexicon ascribed to the Hindu king Madanapala and written about the year 1374.[60] Smelting and extraction of impure zinc by reducing calamine with wool and other organic substances was accomplished in the 13th century in India.^ King JC. Enhanced zinc utilization during lactation may reduce maternal and infant zinc depletion.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Due to the reduced plasticity of the aging brain the presentation of this organic affective syndrome and/or depression is under a 'dementia' disguise, facilitated by organic cerebral changes caused primarily by zinc deficiency and copper toxicity, secondarily by the cerebral B12 deficiency.

^ Treatment of colds with zinc reduced the mean daily clinical score and this was statistically significant on the fourth and fifth day of medication.

[4][61] The Chinese did not learn of the technique until the 17th century.[61]
Various alchemical symbols attributed to the element zinc
Alchemists burned zinc metal in air and collected the resulting zinc oxide on a condenser. .Some alchemists called this zinc oxide lana philosophica, Latin for "philosopher's wool", because it collected in wooly tufts while others thought it looked like white snow and named it nix album.^ Chinese white; zinc white; flowers of zinc; philosopher's wool .
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, only 35% of the total collected zinc oxide was respirable.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Effects of zinc and other nutritional factors on insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in postmenopausal women.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

[62]
.The name of the metal was probably first documented by Paracelsus, a Swiss-born German alchemist, who referred to the metal as "zincum" or "zinken" in his book Liber Mineralium II, in the 16th century.^ For all premature babies or those who were born with low weight, Zinc supplement be prescribed for the first 6 months.

^ Enclosed 11: Documents related to authorship of the first comprehensive book on the role of Zinc in human health which is in final printing stages.

[61][63] The word is probably derived from the German zinke, and supposedly meant "tooth-like, pointed or jagged" (metallic zinc crystals have a needle-like appearance).[64] Zink could also imply "tin-like" because of its relation to German zinn meaning tin.[65] Yet another possibility is that the word is derived from the Persian word سنگ seng meaning stone.[66] The metal was also called Indian tin, tutanego, calamine, and spinter.[11]
.German metallurgist Andreas Libavius received a quantity of what he called "calay" of Malabar from a cargo ship captured from the Portuguese in 1596.[67] Libavius described the properties of the sample, which may have been zinc.^ Contamination of soil and sediment samples, in which zinc concentrations may vary in the range 102000 mg/kg, is less of a problem.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For many environmental samples, zinc concentrations are sufficiently high to obviate the need for the precautions described above.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When interpreting the data on water concentration of zinc, it is necessary to be aware that the higher values reported in early studies may be due to contamination of the samples.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Zinc was regularly imported to Europe from the Orient in the 17th and early 18th centuries,[61] but was at times very expensive.[note 1]

Isolation of the pure element

Picture of an old man head (profile). The mand has long face, short hair and tall forehead.
Credit for first isolating pure zinc is usually given to Andreas Sigismund Marggraf.
.The isolation of metallic zinc in the West may have been achieved independently by several people.^ No consistently effective therapy for the common cold has been well documented, but evidence suggests that several possible mechanisms may make zinc an effective treatment.

^ The effects of zinc deficiency are well documented and may be severe.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some limited research has shown zinc supplements may slightly slow the worsening of symptoms in people with Alzheimer’s disease.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.Postlewayt's Universal Dictionary, a contemporary source giving technological information in Europe, did not mention zinc before 1751 but the element was studied before then.^ Unfortunately we did not evaluate primary zinc status before physical exercise and therefore it is not clear that whether body zinc level during physical activity is low or not?

^ In the recent years, it was proved that soil is a poor source of zinc and diet could be deficient in this element.

^ Meanwhile previous studies illustrated hair zinc content in malnourished children did not significantly from that of normal healthy children.

[59][68]
.Flemish metallurgist P.M. de Respour reported that he extracted metallic zinc from zinc oxide in 1668.[13] By the turn of the century, Étienne François Geoffroy described how zinc oxide condenses as yellow crystals on bars of iron placed above zinc ore being smelted.^ Lopez de Romana D, Lonnerdal B, Brown KH. Absorption of zinc from wheat products fortified with iron and either zinc sulfate or zinc oxide.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[13] In Britain, John Lane is said to have carried out experiments to smelt zinc, probably at Landore, prior to his bankruptcy in 1726.[69]
In 1738, William Champion patented in Great Britain a process to extract zinc from calamine in a vertical retort style smelter.[70] .His technology was somewhat similar to that used at Zawar zinc mines in Rajasthan but there is no evidence that he visited the Orient.^ No consistently effective therapy for the common cold has been well documented, but evidence suggests that several possible mechanisms may make zinc an effective treatment.

^ There is no direct relation between hair and plasma zinc levels.

^ RESULTS: There was no difference in reinfection rates between the zinc and placebo groups (25 vs 29%, P = 0.46).

[71] Champion's process was used through 1851.[61]
.German chemist Andreas Marggraf normally gets credit for discovering pure metallic zinc even though Swedish chemist Anton von Swab distilled zinc from calamine four years before.^ Serum copper, zinc, selenium, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase levels in epileptic children before and after 1 year of sodium valproate and carbamazepine therapy.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[61] In his 1746 experiment, Marggraf heated a mixture of calamine and charcoal in a closed vessel without copper to obtain a metal.[57] This procedure became commercially practical by 1752.[72]

Later work

William Champion's brother, John, patented a process in 1758 for calcining zinc sulfide into an oxide usable in the retort process.[11] .Prior to this only calamine could be used to produce zinc.^ Even if it is assumed that all zinc production elsewhere (1.5 10 6 tonnes) was by pyrometallurgical technology, the proportion of zinc produced by this technology could not have exceeded 2.4 10 6 tonnes, or 39%.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Only by repeating tests and low status of Zinc in plasma we could become suspect that Zinc deficiency exists (sources ...

^ It is notable that nutritional deficiency not only consists of protein and energy deficiency, rather lack of nutritional factors such as calcium, vitamin A,B,D and zinc, that could affect growth of children.

In 1798, Johann Christian Ruberg improved on the smelting process by building the first horizontal retort smelter.[73] .Jean-Jacques Daniel Dony built a different kind of horizontal zinc smelter in Belgium, which processed even more zinc.^ The difference between adsorbed and metabolically processed zinc has clearly been shown in experiments with Japanese quail fed spinach and lettuce (McKenna et al., 1992).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ More recent literature confirms the importance of organic matter in reducing the effects of zinc in microbial processes, such as the breakdown of glutamic acid, and phosphatase activity.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[61]
Painting of a middle-aged man sitting by the table, wearing a wig, black jacket, white shirt and white scarf.
Italian doctor Luigi Galvani discovered in 1780 that connecting the spinal cord of a freshly dissected frog to an iron rail attached by a brass hook caused the frog's leg to twitch.[74] He incorrectly thought he had discovered an ability of nerves and muscles to create electricity and called the effect "animal electricity".[75] The galvanic cell and the process of galvanization were both named for Luigi Galvani and these discoveries paved the way for electrical batteries, galvanization and cathodic protection.[75]
.Galvani's friend, Alessandro Volta, continued researching this effect and invented the Voltaic pile in 1800.[74] The basic unit of Volta's pile was a simplified galvanic cell, which is made of a plate of copper and a plate of zinc connected to each other externally and separated by an electrolyte.^ The effects of the dietary intakes of copper, iron, manganese, and zinc on the trace element content of human milk.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Dietary fructose or starch: Effects on copper, zinc, iron, manganese, calcium, and magnesium balances in humans.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Randomized, community-based trial of the effect of zinc supplementation, with and without other micronutrients, on the duration of persistent childhood diarrhea in Lima, Peru.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

These were stacked in series to make the Voltaic cell, which in turn produced electricity by directing electrons from the zinc to the copper and allowing the zinc to corrode.[74]
.The non-magnetic character of zinc and its lack of color in solution delayed discovery of its importance to biochemistry and nutrition.^ For purposes of long term parenteral nutrition zinc should be added to the different infusion solutions.

[76] .This changed in 1940 when carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme that scrubs carbon dioxide from blood, was shown to have zinc in its active site.^ Tracer studies have shown that zinc is metabolically very active with initial uptake by liver representing a rapid phase of zinc turnover.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Well-studied zinc metalloenzymes include the ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymerases, alcohol dehydrogenase, carbonic anhydrase, and alkaline phosphatase.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Henkin RI, Martin BM, Agarwal RP. Efficacy of exogenous oral zinc in treatment of patients with carbonic anhydrase VI deficiency.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[76] The digestive enzyme carboxypeptidase became the second known zinc-containing enzyme in 1955.[76]

Production

Mining and processing

.Zinc is the fourth most common metal in use, trailing only iron, aluminium, and copper with an annual production of about 10 megatonnes.^ Zinc is the fourth most widely used metal in the world after iron, aluminium and copper.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ At the present, zinc sulphate is the most common form of zinc used as a supplement.

^ Zinc absorption is similar to that of copper and iron.

[77] The world's largest zinc producer is Nyrstar, a merger of the Australian OZ Minerals and the Belgian Umicore.[78] .About 70% of the world's zinc originates from mining, while the remaining 30% comes from recycling secondary zinc.^ Secondary zinc production constitutes about 2030% of current total zinc production (1.9 million tonnes in 1994).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The dose of zinc required for treating acrodermatitis enteropathica is about 30-50 mg/zn 2 +/day and for some cases even greater doses are required.

^ Plasma zinc increased to a plateau at levels about 1.5 - 2 times those in controls within the first 30 days.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[79] Commercially pure zinc is known as Special High Grade, often abbreviated SHG, and is 99.995% pure.[80]
Worldmap reviealing that about 40% of zinc is produced in China, 20% in Australia, 20% in Peru, and 5% in US, Canada and Kazakhstan each.
Percentage of zinc output in 2006 by countries[81]
.Worldwide, 95% of the zinc is mined from sulfidic ore deposits, in which sphalerite ZnS is nearly always mixed with the sulfides of copper, lead and iron.^ Cadmium, copper, lead and zinc.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ United Kingdom, Wales, zinc-lead ore mine .
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc absorption is similar to that of copper and iron.

[82] .There are zinc mines throughout the world, with the main mining areas being China, Australia and Peru.^ In this disorder there is decreased absorption of zinc, the individuals being otherwise normal.

[77] China produced over one-fourth of the global zinc output in 2006.[77]
.Zinc metal is produced using extractive metallurgy.^ In current zinc production, emission factors are 0.150 g of zinc per tonne of metal produced (EZI, 1996).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Recycling provides some 28% of the zinc metal produced.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc is widely used as a protective coating of other metals, in dye casting and the construction industry, and for alloys.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[83] .After grinding the ore, froth flotation, which selectively separates minerals from gangue by taking advantage of differences in their hydrophobicity, is used to get an ore concentrate.^ I noticed the different ‘versions’ of DSK Strings were avalaible, so i selected them and was able to use several DSK strings (3 in fact, i didn’t try with 4), and export in wave file.
  • DSK VSTi at rekkerd.org 10 February 2010 12:36 UTC rekkerd.org [Source type: General]

^ Unwanted impurities (gangue) and other impurities, such as iron, cadmium and lead, which substitute for zinc in the mineral crystal structure, are removed by flotation (Jolly, 1989).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[83] .A final concentration of zinc of about 50% is reached by this process with the remainder of the concentrate being sulfur (32%), iron (13%), and SiO2 (5%).^ The typical North American male consumes about 13 mg/day of dietary zinc; women consume approximately 9 mg/day.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc therapy increases duodenal concentrations of metallothionein and iron in Wilson's disease patients.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[83]
Roasting converts the zinc sulfide concentrate produced during processing to zinc oxide:[82]
2 ZnS + 3 O2 → 2 ZnO + 2 SO2
Top 5 Zinc producing countries in 2009[84]
Rank Country tonnes
1 People's Republic of China China (PRC) 2,875,000
2 Peru Peru 1,439,000
3 Australia Australia 1,279,000
4 United States United States 735,000
5 Canada Canada 695,000
The sulfur dioxide is used for the production of sulfuric acid, which is necessary for the leaching process. .If deposits of zinc carbonate, zinc silicate or zinc spinel, like the Skorpion Deposit in Namibia are used for zinc production the roasting can be omitted.^ It was for this reason that we discussed the sterile condition and solubility in distilled water and use of Zinc Sulfate of Germany's Merck product was emphasized.

^ Pregnancy and breast-feeding : Zinc is LIKELY SAFE for most pregnant and breast-feeding women when used in the recommended daily amounts (RDA).
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pre-mass production of Zinc Sulfate Oral Solution in Zinc Studies and Researches Unit (discovery of Dr. Hakimi and Zinc Researchers) for treatment and research use of foundations and various research and treatment universities.

[85]
.For further processing two basic methods are used: pyrometallurgy or electrowinning.^ Zinc metallurgy can be divided into two basic processes: electrolytic refining, which comprised 83% of primary production in 1993; and pyrometallurgical smelting (ILZSG, 1994).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In this study, we used the same animal model to study further biochemical and physiological processes which may be involved in the pathogenesis of early onset macular degeneration in monkeys.

Pyrometallurgy processing reduces zinc oxide with carbon or carbon monoxide at 950 °C (1,740 °F) into the metal, which is distilled as zinc vapor.[86] The zinc vapor is collected in a condenser.[82] The below set of equations demonstrate this process:[82]
2 ZnO + C → 2 Zn + CO2
2 ZnO + 2 CO → 2 Zn + 2 CO2
Electrowinning processing leaches zinc from the ore concentrate by sulfuric acid:[87]
ZnO + H2SO4ZnSO4 + H2O
After this step electrolysis is used to produce zinc metal.[82]
2 ZnSO4 + 2 H2O → 2 Zn + 2 H2SO4 + O2
The sulfuric acid regenerated is recycled to the leaching step.

Environmental impact

.The production for sulfidic zinc ores produces large amounts of sulfur dioxide and cadmium vapor.^ It became apparent that patients (consuming large amounts of phytate) with growth and sexual developmental failure, showed clinical improvement with zinc supplementation.

^ There is also concern that taking large amounts of a multivitamin plus a separate zinc supplement increases the chance of dying from prostate cancer.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Skin also contains large amount of zinc; however the amount is less than other internal organs.

Smelter slag and other residues of process also contain significant amounts of heavy metals. .About 1.1 megatonnes of metallic zinc and 130 kilotonnes of lead were mined and smelted in the Belgian towns of La Calamine and Plombières between 1806 and 1882.[88] The dumps of the past mining operations leach significant amounts of zinc and cadmium, and, as a result, the sediments of the Geul River contain significant amounts of heavy metals.^ Cadmium is a heavy metal that is very poisonous.

^ The amount of elemental zinc in tablets and capsules varies between 5-50mg.

^ Whole grain products contain lesser amount of zinc.

[88] .About two thousand years ago emissions of zinc from mining and smelting totaled 10 kilotonnes a year.^ Europe are now about 1.1 m/year, corresponding to a potential zinc wash-off of about 8 g/year per m 2 of exposed zinc surface.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Secondary zinc production constitutes about 2030% of current total zinc production (1.9 million tonnes in 1994).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, total annual emissions of zinc to air from natural sources are estimated at about 45 000 tonnes/year (Nriagu, 1989).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.After increasing 10-fold from 1850, zinc emissions peaked at 3.4 megatonnes per year in the 1980s and declined to 2.7 megatonnes in the 1990s, although a 2005 study of the Arctic troposphere found that the concentrations there did not reflect the decline.^ Europe are now about 1.1 m/year, corresponding to a potential zinc wash-off of about 8 g/year per m 2 of exposed zinc surface.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There are ranges of optimal concentrations for essential elements such as zinc, which are dependent upon species and habitat.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ E. fetida ) to zinc concentrations of 1000, 2500, 5000 and 10 000 mg/kg of manure (dry weight) for 6 weeks.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Anthropogenic and natural emissions occur at a ratio of 20 to 1.[89]
.Levels of zinc in rivers flowing through industrial or mining areas can be as high as 20 ppm.^ Meats, seafood, dairy products, nuts, legumes, and whole grains offer relatively high levels of zinc.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although the plasma zinc level in neonates is similar to adults, it is high in premature infants, having inverse relation with gestational age.

^ Patients who in view of the food table with absorbable Zinc deficiency who live in deprived or crisis ridden areas and the rating of their food table should be done through Zinc.

[90] .Effective sewage treatment greatly reduces this; treatment along the Rhine, for example, has decreased zinc levels to 50 ppb.^ Taking zinc along with some antibiotics might decrease the effectiveness of some antibiotics.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An increase in water hardness from 50 to 200 mg/litre (CaCO 3 ), and the addition of humic acid (1.5 mg/litre) significantly reduced the toxic effect of zinc on brood size.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In Stockholm, for example, ambient air sulfur dioxide levels and experimental zinc corrosion rates have decreased concomitantly by 94% and 73%, respectively (Knotknova & Porter, 1994 ).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[90] .Concentrations of zinc as low as 2 ppm adversely affects the amount of oxygen that fish can carry in their blood.^ Fish were simultaneously exposed to zinc concentrations in water of up to 0.5 mg/litre for 16 weeks.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Immune function was shown to be adversely affected by zinc deficiency.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For analysis of zinc at low concentrations, reagents of an appropriately high purity are essential.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[91]
A panorama featuring a large industrial plant on a sea side, in front of mountains.
.
The zinc works at Lutana, is the largest exporter in Tasmania, generating 2.5% of the state's GDP.
^ It was proposed that GDPs are generated by an inhibitory action of zinc on pre- and postsynaptic GABA B receptors (Xie & Smart, 1991).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.It produces over 250 kilotonnes of zinc per year.^ Europe are now about 1.1 m/year, corresponding to a potential zinc wash-off of about 8 g/year per m 2 of exposed zinc surface.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In current zinc production, emission factors are 0.150 g of zinc per tonne of metal produced (EZI, 1996).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In this study, the emission factors for non-ferrous metals smelting and refining were 3003000 g of zinc per tonne of metal produced.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[92] The zinc works were historically responsible for high heavy metal levels in the Derwent River[93]
.Soils contaminated with zinc through the mining of zinc-containing ores, refining, or where zinc-containing sludge is used as fertilizer, can contain several grams of zinc per kilogram of dry soil.^ Zinc supplementation of soils is achieved using sewage sludge or chemical fertilizers.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Application of various types of zinc fertilizers to soil or onto leaves can help to overcome these problems (Takkar & Walker, 1993).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Beyer WN, Miller GW, & Cromartie EJ (1984) Contamination of the O2 soil horizon by zinc smelting and its effect on woodlouse survival.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[90] .Levels of zinc in excess of 500 ppm in soil interfere with the ability of plants to absorb other essential metals, such as iron and manganese.^ Zinc in soils and plants.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc is mainly used as a protective coating of other metals, such as iron and steel.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc and other metals .
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[90] .Zinc levels of 2000 ppm to 180,000 ppm (18%) have been recorded in some soil samples.^ With increasing pH levels there is an increase in the adsorption of zinc by negatively charged colloidal soil particles, with a subsequent decrease in the solubility of zinc.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ No differences between zinc levels in tops and roots were reported for plants grown in the soil sampled 90 m from the tower.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Similar variations were noted in zinc levels in agricultural soils and lake sediments.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[90]

Applications

Anti-corrosion and batteries

Merged elongated crystals of various shades of gray.
Crystalline surface of a hot-dip galvanized handrail
.The metal is most commonly used as an anti-corrosion agent.^ It is capable of reducing most other metal states and is therefore used as an electrode in dry cells and in hydrometallurgy.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc is the fourth most widely used metal in the world after iron, aluminium and copper.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Most appropriate is the use of the complexing agents ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) or diethyldithiocabamate (DDC) to extract zinc, using trichloroethane or chloroform as the solvent.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[94] .Galvanization, which is the coating of iron or steel to protect the metals against corrosion, is the most familiar form of using zinc in this way.^ Zinc is mainly used as a protective coating of other metals, such as iron and steel.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc is the fourth most widely used metal in the world after iron, aluminium and copper.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ At the present, zinc sulphate is the most common form of zinc used as a supplement.

.In 2006 in the United States, 56% or 773 kilotonnes of the zinc metal was used for galvanization,[95] while worldwide 47% was used for this purpose.^ In nature, zinc occurs only rarely in its metallic state and the vast majority of environmental samples contain the element only in the form of zinc compounds.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is capable of reducing most other metal states and is therefore used as an electrode in dry cells and in hydrometallurgy.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc is widely used as a protective coating of other metals, in dye casting and the construction industry, and for alloys.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[96]
.Zinc is more reactive than iron or steel and thus will attract almost all local oxidation until it completely corrodes away.^ Natural atmospheric zinc levels due to weathering of soil are almost always less than 1000 ng/m 3 .
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In general, views on zinc were introduced for the first time in 1934, but it was not until 1960 that the importance of zinc, its deficiency and the related complications were completely understood.

^ However, other studies have reported that zinc added to sludges after digestion is more readily bioavailable than zinc added prior to digestion.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[97] .A protective surface layer of oxide and carbonate (Zn5(OH)6(CO3)2) forms as the zinc corrodes.^ In air, acidifying factors, such as sulfur dioxide, nitric oxides and chlorides attack the zinc hydroxide-carbonate layer on the surface of metallic zinc yielding soluble zinc compounds.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc normally appears dull grey owing to coating with an oxide or basic carbonate.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When heated to 150 C, the compound decomposes into zinc oxide and carbon dioxide.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[98] .This protection lasts even after the zinc layer is scratched but degrades through time as the zinc corrodes away.^ Zinc levels in this layer were 1.510 times higher than in the next layer (1020 cm) (UBA, 1994).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[98] .The zinc is applied electrochemically or as molten zinc by hot-dip galvanizing or spraying.^ Typical airborne exposures observed include 0.190.29 mg/m 3 during the smelting of zinc-containing iron scrap, 0.906.2 mg/m 3 at non-ferrous foundries and 0.0760.101 mg/m 3 in hot-dip galvanizing facilities.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Düsseldorf, Institute for applied zinc galvanization, pp 12 (in German).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A rare case suggesting such a relationship has been diagnosed recently in a worker from a hot-dip (zinc) galvanizing plant.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[10] Galvanization is used on chain-link fencing, guard rails, suspension bridges, lightposts, metal roofs, heat exchangers, and car bodies.[10]
.The relative reactivity of zinc and its ability to attract oxidation to itself also makes it a good sacrificial anode in cathodic protection.^ Releases from sacrificial zinc anodes .
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In order to protect steel structures from corrosion in the marine environment and in soils, sacrificial zinc anodes are used, resulting in a slow release of zinc to the environment.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Cathodically protecting (CP) buried pipelines requires a solid piece of zinc to be connected by a conductor to a steel pipe.^ It requires the formation of a zinc complex with APDC, which can be accumulated at a mercury electrode and stripped using a cathodic scan.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc is mainly used as a protective coating of other metals, such as iron and steel.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In order to protect steel structures from corrosion in the marine environment and in soils, sacrificial zinc anodes are used, resulting in a slow release of zinc to the environment.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[98] .Zinc acts as the anode (negative terminus) by slowly corroding away as it passes electric current to the steel pipeline.^ In order to protect steel structures from corrosion in the marine environment and in soils, sacrificial zinc anodes are used, resulting in a slow release of zinc to the environment.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[98][note .2] Zinc is also used to cathodically protect metals that are exposed to sea water from corrosion.^ Fish were simultaneously exposed to zinc concentrations in water of up to 0.5 mg/litre for 16 weeks.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Carter JW & Cameron IL (1973) Toxicity bioassay of heavy metals in water using Tetrahymena pyriformis .
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc and other heavy metals are highly partitioned to suspended sediment in the water column.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[99] A zinc disc attached to a ship's iron rudder will slowly corrode while the rudder stays unattacked.[97] .Other similar uses include a plug of zinc attached to a propeller or the metal protective guard for the keel of the ship.^ Zinc is mainly used as a protective coating of other metals, such as iron and steel.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc and other metals .
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc and other heavy metals are highly partitioned to suspended sediment in the water column.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.With a standard electrode potential of −0.76 volts, zinc is used as an anode material for batteries.^ Cherian L & Gupta VK (1992) Spectrophotometric determination of zinc using 4-carboxyphenyldiazoaminoazobenzene and its application in complex materials.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It’s not known if zinc would have the same potential benefits when used for ADHD in people from Western countries.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It requires the formation of a zinc complex with APDC, which can be accumulated at a mercury electrode and stripped using a cathodic scan.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

(More reactive lithium (SEP -3.04 V) is used for anodes in lithium batteries ). .Powdered zinc is used in this way in alkaline batteries and sheets of zinc metal form the cases for and act as anodes in zinc–carbon batteries.^ Among enzymes which are related to zinc, alkaline phosphatase, carbonic anhydrase, nucleoside phosphorylase and ribonuclease are the most efficient enzymes determining zinc deficiency.

^ In nature, zinc occurs only rarely in its metallic state and the vast majority of environmental samples contain the element only in the form of zinc compounds.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hair zinc cannot be used in cases of very severe malnutrition and/or severe zinc deficiency, when the rate of growth of the hair shaft is often diminished.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[100][101] .Zinc is used as the anode or fuel of the zinc-air battery/fuel cell.^ Inorganic zinc compounds have various applications, e.g., for automotive equipment, storage and dry-cell batteries and organ pipes.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Inorganic zinc compounds have various applications, e.g., for automotive equipment, storage and dry cell batteries, and dental, medical and household applications.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In order to protect steel structures from corrosion in the marine environment and in soils, sacrificial zinc anodes are used, resulting in a slow release of zinc to the environment.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[102][103][104]

Alloys

.A widely used alloy which contains zinc is brass, in which copper is alloyed with anywhere from 3% to 45% zinc, depending upon the type of brass.^ There are ranges of optimal concentrations for essential elements such as zinc, which are dependent upon species and habitat.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Serum/plasma zinc is the most widely used index of zinc status in humans.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The toxicity of zinc will depend on environmental conditions and habitat types.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[98] .Brass is generally more ductile and stronger than copper and has superior corrosion resistance.^ Zinc is also helpful in treating menustral irregularities and genital disorders in female patients, although copper is more important than zinc in these circumstances.

[98] .These properties make it useful in communication equipment, hardware, musical instruments, and water valves.^ The instrumental detection limit for zinc in fresh waters is 20 ng/litre using conventional nebulization systems.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[98]
A mosaica pattern composed of components having various shapes and shades of brown .
Microstructure of cast brass at magnification 400x
.Other widely used alloys that contain zinc include nickel silver, typewriter metal, soft and aluminum solder, and commercial bronze.^ Zinc is widely used as a protective coating of other metals, in dye casting and the construction industry, and for alloys.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In nature, zinc occurs only rarely in its metallic state and the vast majority of environmental samples contain the element only in the form of zinc compounds.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Again, care is required in the handling of samples to avoid contamination (Batley, 1989a), avoiding metal surfaces and using appropriately cleaned plastic containers.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[4] .Zinc is also used in contemporary pipe organs as a substitute for the traditional lead/tin alloy in pipes.^ At present, copper alloys are used in pipes, which could be a source for copper poisoning.

^ Zinc is widely used as a protective coating of other metals, in dye casting and the construction industry, and for alloys.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Inorganic zinc compounds have various applications, e.g., for automotive equipment, storage and dry-cell batteries and organ pipes.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[105] .Alloys of 85–88% zinc, 4–10% copper, and 2–8% aluminium find limited use in certain types of machine bearings.^ Zinc and copper also appeared to be accumulated in transplanted livers, but these findings were not quantitative and there were no detectable histological effects following transplantation.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Women, who use oral contraceptive pills, usually have high serum copper levels and need zinc and vitamin B6 supplementation.

^ Schmitt Y, Moser V, & Kruse-Jarres JD (1993) Zinc, copper and aluminium in the corpuscular components of peripheral blood in patients with pre-terminal and terminal renal failure.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Zinc is the primary metal used in making American one cent coins since 1982.[106] The zinc core is coated with a thin layer of copper to give the impression of a copper coin.^ Women, who use oral contraceptive pills, usually have high serum copper levels and need zinc and vitamin B6 supplementation.

^ For osteoporosis: 15 mg zinc combined with 5 mg manganese, 1000 mg calcium, and 2.5 mg copper has been used.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Finlayson BJ & Verrue KM (1982) Toxicities of copper, zinc, and cadmium mixtures to juvenile chinook salmon.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.In 1994, 33,200 tonnes (36,600 short tons) of zinc were used to produce 13.6 billion pennies in the United States.^ Secondary zinc production constitutes about 2030% of current total zinc production (1.9 million tonnes in 1994).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In current zinc production, emission factors are 0.150 g of zinc per tonne of metal produced (EZI, 1996).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Even if it is assumed that all zinc production elsewhere (1.5 10 6 tonnes) was by pyrometallurgical technology, the proportion of zinc produced by this technology could not have exceeded 2.4 10 6 tonnes, or 39%.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[107]
.Alloys of primarily zinc with small amounts of copper, aluminium, and magnesium are useful in die casting as well as spin casting, especially in the automotive, electrical, and hardware industries.^ Small amount of zinc binds to alpha 2 macroglobulin, transferrin and amino acids.

^ Women, who use oral contraceptive pills, usually have high serum copper levels and need zinc and vitamin B6 supplementation.

^ Shell also has large amounts of copper, especially when the sea is highly polluted with heavy metals.

[4] These alloys are marketed under the name Zamak.[108] An example of this is zinc aluminium. The low melting point together with the low viscosity of the alloy makes the production of small and intricate shapes possible. The low working temperature leads to rapid cooling of the cast products and therefore fast assembly is possible.[4][96][109] .Another alloy, marketed under the name Prestal, contains 78% zinc and 22% aluminium and is reported to be nearly as strong as steel but as malleable as plastic.^ Increased zinc contents in acidic foods attributed to storage in galvanized zinc containers has been reported (Halsted et al., 1974).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Food consumption in the two groups fed a diet containing zinc was reported to be reduced to about 38% of normal.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Another study reported no resorption in Sprague-Dawley rats receiving 0.5% zinc as zinc carbonate in the diet (Kinnamon, 1963).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[4][110] .This superplasticity of the alloy allows it to be molded using die casts made of ceramics and cement.^ Zinc is widely used as a protective coating of other metals, in dye casting and the construction industry, and for alloys.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If zinc is the primary constituent of the alloy, it is called a zinc-base alloy, mainly used for casting and for wrought applications.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[4]
Similar alloys with the addition of a small amount of lead can be cold-rolled into sheets. .An alloy of 96% zinc and 4% aluminium is used to make stamping dies for low production run applications for which ferrous metal dies would be too expensive.^ Cherian L & Gupta VK (1992) Spectrophotometric determination of zinc using 4-carboxyphenyldiazoaminoazobenzene and its application in complex materials.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hussein AS, Cantor AH, & Johnson TH (1988) Use of high levels of dietary aluminum and zinc for inducing pauses in egg production of Japanese quail.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The zinc absorption data have been used by WHO (1996b) to develop a model for classifying diets as having high, moderate and low zinc bioavailability.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[111] .In building facades, roofs or other applications in which zinc is used as sheet metal and for methods such as deep drawing, roll forming or bending, zinc alloys with titanium and copper are used.^ Other forms of zinc: .

^ Zinc is mainly used as a protective coating of other metals, such as iron and steel.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc and other metals .
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[112] Unalloyed zinc is too brittle for these kinds of manufacturing processes.[112]
.Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) is a semiconductive alloy that can be divided into an array of small sensing devices.^ Therefore consumption of legumes as whole, results in enterance of more zinc into body while less cadmium is absorbed.

^ Adults: 24-50mg of elemental zinc/kg/24hr., divided in 3 doses (equivalent to 100-220 mg of zinc sulphate/day, divided into 3 doses, orally).

[113] These devices are similar to an integrated circuit and can detect the energy of incoming gamma ray photons.[113] When placed behind an absorbing mask, the CZT sensor array can also be used to determine the direction of the rays.[113]

Other industrial uses

White powder on a glass plate.
Zinc oxide is used as a white pigment in paints.
Roughly one quarter of all zinc output, in the United States (2006), is consumed in the form of zinc compounds;[95] a variety of which are used industrially. Zinc oxide is widely used as a white pigment in paints, and as a catalyst in the manufacture of rubber.[10] .It is also used as a heat disperser for the rubber and acts to protect its polymers from ultraviolet radiation (the same UV protection is conferred to plastics containing zinc oxide).^ When heated to 150 C, the compound decomposes into zinc oxide and carbon dioxide.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The compound is used as a pigment in paints and as an ultraviolet (UV) absorber in several products.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Again, care is required in the handling of samples to avoid contamination (Batley, 1989a), avoiding metal surfaces and using appropriately cleaned plastic containers.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[10] .The semiconductor properties of zinc oxide make it useful in varistors and photocopying products.^ It was for this reason that we discussed the sterile condition and solubility in distilled water and use of Zinc Sulfate of Germany's Merck product was emphasized.

^ Pre-mass production of Zinc Sulfate Oral Solution in Zinc Studies and Researches Unit (discovery of Dr. Hakimi and Zinc Researchers) for treatment and research use of foundations and various research and treatment universities.

^ Zinc Sulfate oral solution special properties of DR. HAKIMI and colleagues as ~ompared ~it~ all other products containing Zinc in Iran and the rest of the world .

[114] .The zinc zinc-oxide cycle is a two step thermochemical process based on zinc and zinc oxide for hydrogen production.^ In other words, zinc is essential in all steps of insulin metabolism (production, secretion etc).

^ Safety and effectiveness of an L-lysine, zinc, and herbal-based product on the treatment of facial and circumoral herpes.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lopez de Romana D, Lonnerdal B, Brown KH. Absorption of zinc from wheat products fortified with iron and either zinc sulfate or zinc oxide.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[115]
.Zinc chloride is often added to lumber as a fire retardant[116] and can be used as a wood preservative.^ Hair zinc cannot be used in cases of very severe malnutrition and/or severe zinc deficiency, when the rate of growth of the hair shaft is often diminished.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Laboratory experiments are often carried out without equilibrium between the added zinc and the soil, which is a critical drawback in short-term experiments ( < 3 weeks).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc chloride and fluoride have catalytic properties and are used in organic synthesis and also in wood preservation and for antiseptic purposes (Budavari, 1989).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[117] It is also used to make other chemicals.[116] Zinc methyl (Zn(CH3)2) is used in a number of organic syntheses.[118] .Zinc sulfide (ZnS) is used in luminescent pigments such as on the hands of clocks, X-ray and television screens, and luminous paints.^ X-ray and television screens, luminous paints, fungicide .
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Because of its semiconducting and luminescent properties, zinc sulfide is used industrially as a pigment and as phosphors in X-ray and television screens (Neumueller, 1983; Budavari, 1989).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The compound is used as a pigment in paints and as an ultraviolet (UV) absorber in several products.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[119] Crystals of ZnS are used in lasers that operate in the mid-infrared part of the spectrum.[120] Zinc sulfate is a chemical in dyes and pigments.[116] .Zinc pyrithione is used in antifouling paints.^ Contact dermatitis has been reported following use of shampoos containing zinc pyrithione (Nigam et al., 1988).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[121]
.Zinc powder is sometimes used as a propellant in model rockets.^ Zinc Sulfate powder has been used (especially in exporting case to the developing and deprived and back­warded countries).

^ Zinc, as an anti in flammatory agent, is sometimes used for treating acne, rheumatoid .

[122] When a compressed mixture of 70% zinc and 30% sulfur powder is ignited there is a violent chemical reaction.[122] .This produces zinc sulfide, together with large amounts of hot gas, heat, and light.^ It became apparent that patients (consuming large amounts of phytate) with growth and sexual developmental failure, showed clinical improvement with zinc supplementation.

^ There is also concern that taking large amounts of a multivitamin plus a separate zinc supplement increases the chance of dying from prostate cancer.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Skin also contains large amount of zinc; however the amount is less than other internal organs.

[122] Zinc sheet metal is used to make zinc bars.[123]
Zinc has been proposed as a salting material for nuclear weapons (cobalt is another, better-known salting material).[124] A jacket of isotopically enriched 64Zn, irradiated by the intense high-energy neutron flux from an exploding thermonuclear weapon, would transmute into the radioactive isotope 65Zn with a half-life of 244 days and produce massive gamma radiation, significantly increasing the radioactivity of the weapon's fallout for several days.[124] Such a weapon is not known to have ever been built, tested, or used.[124] .65Zn is also used as a tracer to study how alloys that contain zinc wear out, or the path and the role of zinc in organisms.^ Efficacy of a dentifrice containing zinc citrate for the control of plaque and gingivitis: a 6-month clinical study in adults.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many researches have been conducted in the recent years studying zinc and its supplementary role in diet.

^ Pre-mass production of Zinc Sulfate Oral Solution in Zinc Studies and Researches Unit (discovery of Dr. Hakimi and Zinc Researchers) for treatment and research use of foundations and various research and treatment universities.

[125]
.Zinc dithiocarbamate complexes are used as agricultural fungicides; these include Zineb, Metiram, Propineb and Ziram.^ Other organo-zinc compounds, such as zineb (zinc ethylene-bis(dithiocarbamate)) and ziram (zinc dimethyl-dithiocarbamate), are used as agricultural fungicides (Neumueller, 1983).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cherian L & Gupta VK (1992) Spectrophotometric determination of zinc using 4-carboxyphenyldiazoaminoazobenzene and its application in complex materials.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Organo-zinc compounds are used as fungicides, topical antibiotics and lubricants.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[126] .Zinc naphthenate is used as wood preservative.^ Zinc chloride and fluoride have catalytic properties and are used in organic synthesis and also in wood preservation and for antiseptic purposes (Budavari, 1989).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[127] Zinc, in the form of ZDDP, is also used as an anti-wear additive for metal parts in engine oil.[128]

Medicinal

.Zinc is included in most single tablet over-the-counter daily vitamin and mineral supplements.^ Most rocks and many minerals contain zinc in varying amounts.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplementation and prostate cancer prevention in the SU.VI.MAX trial.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For such individuals vitamin and mineral containing syrups and tablets are available that could be used.

[129] .It is believed to possess antioxidant properties, which protect against premature aging of the skin and muscles of the body, although studies differ as to its effectiveness.^ Although the plasma zinc level in neonates is similar to adults, it is high in premature infants, having inverse relation with gestational age.

^ WBCS', proteins and antibodies that protect the body against different microorganisms and tumors gradually loose their strength and activity, making old people more susceptible to diseases and disorders.

^ Meanwhile it is notable that different results were observed in treatment of acne, although zinc is very effective in treating acne in adolescence.

[130] .Zinc also helps speed up the healing process after an injury.^ Taking zinc by mouth or applying it to the skin in an ointment that also contains erythromycin seems to help clear up acne.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc is also applied to the skin for treating acne, aging skin, herpes simplex infections, and to speed wound healing.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ DJ Zinc Discography at Discogs Sign Up Log In Help .
  • DJ Zinc Discography at Discogs 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.discogs.com [Source type: General]

[130] .Zinc gluconate glycine and zinc acetate are used in throat lozenges or tablets to reduce the duration and the severity of cold symptoms.^ Zinc gluconate lozenges for common cold.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Prophylaxis and treatment of rhinovirus colds with zinc gluconate lozenges.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hair zinc cannot be used in cases of very severe malnutrition and/or severe zinc deficiency, when the rate of growth of the hair shaft is often diminished.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[131] .Preparations include zinc oxide, zinc acetate and zinc gluconate.^ Turner RB, Cetnarowski WE. Effect of treatment with zinc gluconate or zinc acetate on experimental and natural colds.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For oral prescription, sulphate, gluconate, acetate and oxide forms of zinc are available.

^ The more absorbable forms of zinc include zinc citrate, zinc acetate, zinc glycerate and monomethionine.

[129]
Skeletal chemical formula of a planar compound featuring a Zn atom in the center, symmetrically bonded to four oxygens. Those oxygens are further connected to linear COH chains.
Zinc gluconate is one compound used for the delivery of zinc as a dietary supplement
.Zinc preparations can protect against sunburn in the summer and windburn in the winter.^ Bremner I, Young BW, & Mills CF (1976) Protective effect of zinc supplementation against copper toxicosis in sheep.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Lovell MA, Xie C, Markesbery WR. Protection against amyloid beta peptide toxicity by zinc.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Herkovits J, Pérez-Coll CS, & Zeni S (1989) Protective effect of zinc against spontaneous malformations and lethality in Bufo arenarum embryos.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[54] .Applied thinly to a baby's diaper area (perineum) with each diaper change, it can protect against diaper rash.^ For this reason it is important that regulatory criteria for zinc, while protecting against toxicity, are not set so low as to drive zinc levels into the deficiency area.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[54]
.The Age-Related Eye Disease Study determined that zinc can be part of an effective treatment for age-related macular degeneration.^ Stur M, Tittl M, Reitner A, Meisinger V. Oral zinc and the second eye in age-related macular degeneration.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Oral zinc in macular degeneration.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Treating an eye disease called age-related macular degeneration (AMD) when taken with other medicines.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[132] .Zinc supplementation is an effective treatment for acrodermatitis enteropathica, a genetic disorder affecting zinc absorption that was previously fatal to babies born with it.^ Two genetic disorders, acrodermatitis enteropathica and sickle-cell disease, are associated with suboptimal zinc status.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In patients suffering from acrodermatitis enteropathica a rare genetic defect affecting the assimilation of zinc an increased incidence of secondary infections is seen, and T-cell numbers, thymic hormone levels and T-cell mediated cellular and humoral immunities are deficient (Aggett, 1989).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Merchant HW, Gangarosa LP, Glassman AB, Sobel RE. Zinc sulfate supplementation for treatment of recurring oral ulcers.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[54]
.Zinc lactate is used in toothpaste to prevent halitosis.^ Administration of zinc helps in preventing cancer and is useful in patients suffering from cancers (such as Hodgkin and leukemia) which has been shown in some researches.

^ Zinc is used for treatment and prevention of zinc deficiency and its consequences, including stunted growth and acute diarrhea in children, and slow wound healing.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc citrate is used in toothpaste and mouthwash to prevent dental plaque formation and gingivitis.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[133] .Zinc pyrithione is widely applied in shampoos because of its anti-dandruff function.^ Such tests have greater biological significance than static biochemical tests because they measure the extent of the functional consequences of zinc deficiency.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Contact dermatitis has been reported following use of shampoos containing zinc pyrithione (Nigam et al., 1988).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[134] .Zinc ions are effective antimicrobial agents even at low concentrations.^ Many people including sports men and women, could have low levels of body zinc (even marginal type).

^ For analysis of zinc at low concentrations, reagents of an appropriately high purity are essential.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Low hair zinc concentration accompanies situations that are associated with zinc deficiency such as acrodermatitis enteropathica, sickle cell anemia and celiac disease.

[135] .Gastroenteritis is strongly attenuated by ingestion of zinc, and this effect could be due to direct antimicrobial action of the zinc ions in the gastrointestinal tract, or to the absorption of the zinc and re-release from immune cells (all granulocytes secrete zinc), or both.^ Zinc could interfere with absorption of copper.

^ This could be due to the inability of mammary glands in secreting zinc.

^ Davidsson L, Almgren A, Sandstrom B, Hurrell RF. Zinc absorption in adult humans: the effect of iron fortification.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[136][137][note 3]

Biological role

.Zinc is an essential trace element, necessary for plants,[89] animals,[138] and microorganisms.^ Zinc is an ubiquitous and essential element.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Trace elements in soil-plant-animal systems.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc is an essential element in the environment.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[139] .Zinc is found in nearly 100 specific enzymes[140] (other sources say 300), serves as structural ions in transcription factors and is stored and transferred in metallothioneins.^ It is in the structure of nearly 100 enzymes and has role in the synthesis of nucleus of cells.

^ Zinc transcription factors .
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ginger roots, black pepper, mustard, and red pepper (Chili) are other good sources of zinc.

[141] .It is "typically the second most abundant transition metal in organisms" after iron and it is the only metal which appears in all enzyme classes.^ Zinc is one of the most abundant trace metals in humans and is found in all tissues and all body fluids.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc is the fourth most widely used metal in the world after iron, aluminium and copper.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the case of zinc toxicity, zinc replaces other metals (e.g., iron, manganese) in the active centres of enzymes (e.g., hydrolases and haem enzymes).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[89]
.In proteins, Zn ions are often coordinated to the amino acid side chains of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, cysteine and histidine.^ In a comparison of the 12 zinc metalloenzymes for which the structures have been determined by X-ray crystallography, Vallee & Auld (1990a,b) noted that, at each catalytic site, zinc is generally coordinated by three amino acid residues, most commonly histidines, and a water molecule, whereas at structural sites zinc is coordinated by four cysteine residues.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc by forming zinc fingers (via Histidine and Cysteine chelation) forms the basic structure for binding with DNA. In addition zinc helps in binding of proteins with cell membrane (e.g.

[142] .The theoretical and computational description of this zinc binding in proteins (as well as that of other transition metals) is difficult.^ Zinc and other metals .
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc and other heavy metals are highly partitioned to suspended sediment in the water column.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other components that have been shown to reduce the availability of zinc are binding to casein and its phosphopeptides as a result of tryptic or chymotryptic digestion.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[142]
.There are 2–4 grams of zinc[143] distributed throughout the human body.^ Arranging Homostatic Distribution of Zinc in the body, tissular concentration and arrangement of Zinc inside the cells makes it difficult to assess Zinc status in the body.

^ Zinc is needed for the proper growth and maintenance of the human body.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the human body, about 2.5 gm of zinc is present in different tissues, mostly in semen and prostate.

.Most zinc is in the brain, muscle, bones, kidney, and liver, with the highest concentrations in the prostate and parts of the eye.^ The highest zinc concentration factor was reported to be 3.5.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The highest concentrations of zinc in humans were found in liver, kidney, pancreas, prostate and eye (Forsséen, 1972; Yukawa et al., 1980; Hambidge et al., 1986).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Lowest zinc levels are found in muscle, highest (510 times higher) in eggs, viscera and liver (Eisler, 1993; Stanners & Bourdeau, 1995).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[144] .Semen is particularly rich in zinc, which is a key factor in prostate gland function and reproductive organ growth.^ Innumerable aspects of cellular metabolism is related to Zinc, the most important of which are growth and development, the immune system, neural, intellectual and behavioral development and reproduction system which in cellular functions of Zinc are divided into three categories: (sources ...

^ Zinc as an essential element has significant role in growth, development and reproduction in many life forms including humans.

^ In the human body, about 2.5 gm of zinc is present in different tissues, mostly in semen and prostate.

[145]
.In humans, zinc plays "ubiquitous biological roles".[1] It interacts with "a wide range of organic ligands",[1] and has roles in the metabolism of RNA and DNA, signal transduction, and gene expression.^ Zinc status and metabolic role in humans .
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In humans, the absorption of zinc in the diet ranges widely.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Whittaker P. Iron and zinc interactions in humans.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

It also regulates apoptosis. .A 2006 study estimated that about 10% of human proteins (2800) potentially bind zinc, in addition to hundreds which transport and traffic zinc; a similar in silico study in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana found 2367 zinc-related proteins.^ A study of local absorption of zinc in humans.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The human body absorbs about 10-40% of dietary zinc.

^ In another human isotope study, the estimated half-life was approximately 280 days (Wastney et al., 1986).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[89]
.In the brain, zinc is stored in specific synaptic vesicles by glutamatergic neurons[146] and can "modulate brain excitability".[1] It plays a key role in synaptic plasticity and so in learning.^ The specific etiological role for zinc was not clear, and the dermal application of zinc as zinc oxide has not been associated with any adverse dermal effects in humans.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc plays a key role in maintaining vision, and it is present in high concentrations in the eye.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is notable that zinc must be present in many nucleotide phosphate ester enzymes which catalyze reactions, playing important role in DNA synthesis.

[147] .However it has been called "the brain's dark horse"[146] since it also can be a neurotoxin, suggesting zinc homeostasis plays a critical role in normal functioning of the brain and central nervous system.^ Zinc is significant for normal brain functioning.

^ Zinc is important in normal functioning of insulin.

^ Warkany J & Petering HG (1972) Congenital malformation of the central nervous system in rats produced by maternal zinc deficiency.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[146]

Enzymes

Interconnected stripes, mostly of yellow and blue color with a few red segments.
Ribbon diagram of human carbonic anhydrase II, with zinc atom visible in the center
.Zinc is a good Lewis acid, making it a useful catalytic agent in hydroxylation and other enzymatic reactions.^ Ginger roots, black pepper, mustard, and red pepper (Chili) are other good sources of zinc.

^ Treatment of Wilson's disease with zinc: XI. Interaction with other anticopper agents.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ King JC. Do women using oral contraceptive agents require extra zinc?
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[140] The metal also has a flexible coordination geometry, which allows proteins using it to rapidly shift conformations to perform biological reactions.[148] .Two examples of zinc-containing enzymes are carbonic anhydrase and carboxypeptidase, which are vital to the processes of carbon dioxide (CO2) regulation and digestion of proteins, respectively.^ Henkin RI, Martin BM, Agarwal RP. Efficacy of exogenous oral zinc in treatment of patients with carbonic anhydrase VI deficiency.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[149]
.In vertebrate blood, carbonic anhydrase converts CO2 into bicarbonate and the same enzyme transforms the bicarbonate back into CO2 for exhalation through the lungs.^ Among enzymes which are related to zinc, alkaline phosphatase, carbonic anhydrase, nucleoside phosphorylase and ribonuclease are the most efficient enzymes determining zinc deficiency.

^ Zinc binds with carbonic anhydrase and to a lesser extent with superoxide desmotase and (Me +) inside red blood cells.

^ Being a part of carbonic anhydrase enzyme, it has a role in acid-base balance.

[150] .Without this enzyme, this conversion would occur about one million times slower[151] at the normal blood pH of 7 or would require a pH of 10 or more.^ About half of 10 million deaths occurring in under 5 yrs.

^ Results showed that 9 out of 10 neonates had greater than normal urinary zinc excretion (about 1 microgm/mm of urine); about 5 times greater than the normal adult value.

^ This amount is about half of iron content, 10-15 times, 10-15 time greater then copper, and 100 times greater than body content of magnesium.

[152] .The non-related β-carbonic anhydrase is required in plants for leaf formation, the synthesis of indole acetic acid (auxin) and anaerobic respiration (alcoholic fermentation).^ Among enzymes which are related to zinc, alkaline phosphatase, carbonic anhydrase, nucleoside phosphorylase and ribonuclease are the most efficient enzymes determining zinc deficiency.

^ Being a part of carbonic anhydrase enzyme, it has a role in acid-base balance.

^ Zinc is a mineral which is necessary for the synthesis of hundreds of enzymes, including: alcohol dehydrogenase, procarboxy peptidase, alkaline phosphatase, carbonic anhydrase, surperoxide dismutase etc.

[153]
Carboxypeptidase cleaves peptide linkages during digestion of proteins. A coordinate covalent bond is formed between the terminal peptide and a C=O group attached to zinc, which gives the carbon a positive charge. .This helps to create a hydrophobic pocket on the enzyme near the zinc, which attracts the non-polar part of the protein being digested.^ Zinc being a part of carboxy peptidase (GI enzyme) helps in digestion of proteins.

^ Since zinc is a part of lactic dehydrogeuase enzyme, its deficiency could affect inversely the anaerobic metabolism of muscles.

^ In addition, evaluation of zinc related enzymes such serum thymulin and serum metallothynonine could be helpful III diagnosing ZIllC deficiency.

[149]

Other proteins

.Zinc serves a purely structural role in zinc fingers, twists and clusters.^ Also zinc has significant physiological role in structure and function of bio-membranes.

^ Zinc by forming zinc fingers (via Histidine and Cysteine chelation) forms the basic structure for binding with DNA. In addition zinc helps in binding of proteins with cell membrane (e.g.

[154] .Zinc fingers form parts of some transcription factors, which are proteins that recognize DNA base sequences during the replication and transcription of DNA.^ Zinc is attached by "zinc fingers" to DNA proteins.

^ These proteins are transcription factors.

^ Zinc being a part of carboxy peptidase (GI enzyme) helps in digestion of proteins.

.Each of the nine or ten Zn2+ ions in a zinc finger helps maintain the finger's structure by coordinately binding to four amino acids in the transcription factor.^ Zinc helps in maintaining Vit.

^ Small amount of zinc binds to alpha 2 macroglobulin, transferrin and amino acids.

^ Although amino acid chelated zinc is very expensive, it is easily absorbed and tolerated.

[151] .The transcription factor wraps around the DNA helix and uses its fingers to accurately bind to the DNA sequence.^ Recent evidences have shown the significance of zinc as a vital element for certain DNA polymerases, RNA polymerases I, Il, Ill, and many transcription factors.

^ Zinc by forming zinc fingers (via Histidine and Cysteine chelation) forms the basic structure for binding with DNA. In addition zinc helps in binding of proteins with cell membrane (e.g.

^ The biological activity of zinc is due to its binding with many biochemically active proteins such as enzymes, and transcription factors, which regulate gene function and gene expression.

A twisted band, with one side painted blue and another gray. Its two ends are connected through some chemical species to a green atom (zinc).
Zinc fingers help read DNA sequences
.In blood plasma, zinc is bound to and transported by albumin (60%, low-affinity) and transferrin (10%).^ The disappearance of zinc from blood in women with low ferritin was accelerated in the range usually found in subjects with zinc deficiency.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Comparison of zinc concentrations in blood and seminal plasma and the various sperm parameters between fertile and infertile men.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, short-range, low-level dust transport can also be included and would increase the windblown dust estimate to 5000 10 6 tonnes/year (Pye, 1987), corresponding to a zinc input of 350 000 tonnes/year.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[143] .Since transferrin also transports iron, excessive iron reduces zinc absorption, and vice-versa.^ Excessive consumption of iron and copper inhibits absorption of zinc.

^ Zinc absorption is similar to that of copper and iron.

^ However, the authors noted a reduction in 4/9 subjects of the areas under the curve at 3 h and 6 h for iron, and suggested that there was a trend (not statistically significant) for zinc to inhibit the intestinal absorption of iron.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

A similar reaction occurs with copper.[155] .The concentration of zinc in blood plasma stays relatively constant regardless of zinc intake.^ Plasma and serum zinc concentration: .

^ Tests in the first group include: measunng ZInC in plasma, red blood cells, urine and saliva .

^ Zinc concentration in plasma and erythrocytes of subjects receiving folic acid supplementation.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[156] .Cells in the salivary gland, prostate, immune system and intestine use zinc signaling as one way to communicate with other cells.^ Zinc is an important element in the immune system, it is involved in many immune mechanisms such as cellular and humoral immune systems, strengthens thymic activity and its hormones.

^ It is capable of reducing most other metal states and is therefore used as an electrode in dry cells and in hydrometallurgy.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Half of the animals were treated during this period with a topical application of oil saturated with zinc chloride, for the full 24 h in one group, and for the last 8 h in the other.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[157]
.Zinc may be held in metallothionein reserves within microorganisms or in the intestines or liver of animals.^ Homeostasis may involve metal-binding proteins such as metallothionein and cysteine-rich intestinal protein.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hempe JM & Cousins RJ (1992) Cysteine-rich intestinal protein and intestinal metallothionein: an inverse relationship as a conceptual model for zinc absorption in rats.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The level of intestinal metallothionein may be important in the development of this zinc-induced hypocupraemia.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[158] .Metallothionein in intestinal cells is capable of adjusting absorption of zinc by 15–40%.^ I. Intestinal absorption of zinc.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc is absorbed partially from all parts of intestine, however maximum absorption occurs in jejunum.

^ Figure nO.2 displays dietary zinc, absorption, endogenous secretion of intestine and excretion of zinc in urine, stool and skin (mg/d).

[159] .However, inadequate or excessive zinc intake can be harmful; excess zinc particularly impairs copper absorption because metallothionein absorbs both metals.^ Zinc could interfere with absorption of copper.

^ Excessive zinc absorption decreases copper from being absorbed.

^ Excessive consumption of iron and copper inhibits absorption of zinc.

[160]
Reference ranges for blood tests, showing zinc in purple at center-right.

Dietary intake

Several plates full of various sereals, fruits and vegetables on a table.
Foods and spices that contain zinc
.In the U.S., the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is 8 mg/day for women and 11 mg/day for men.^ For older infants, children, and adults, Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) quantities of zinc have been established: infants and children 7 months to 3 years, 3 mg/day; 4 to 8 years, 5 mg/day; 9 to 13 years, 8 mg/day; girls 14 to 18 years, 9 mg/day; boys and men age 14 and older, 11 mg/day; women 19 and older, 8 mg/day; pregnant women 14 to 18, 13 mg/day; pregnant women 19 and older, 11 mg/day; lactating women 14 to 18, 14 mg/day; lactating women 19 and older, 12 mg/day.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the rat, the biological half-life of 65 Zn decreased with an increase in dietary zinc (5 mg/kg, 52 days; 160 mg/kg, 4 days) (Coppen & Davies, 1987).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ LNRI = lower reference nutrient intake; RDA = recommended daily allowance; RNI = recommended nutrient intake .
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[161] .Median intake in the U.S. around 2000 was 9 mg/day for women and 14 mg/day in men.^ Zinc intakes (mg/day) in the period 19821989 ranged from 8.7 to 9.7 mg/day for women aged 6065 and 2530 years, respectively; comparable estimates for men were 12.9 and 16.4 mg/day.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The typical North American male consumes about 13 mg/day of dietary zinc; women consume approximately 9 mg/day.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The estimated average daily dietary zinc intakes range from 5.6 to 13 mg/day in infants and children from 2 months up to 19 years and from 8.8 to 14.4 mg/day in adults aged 2050 years.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[161] .Red meats, especially beef, lamb and liver have some of the highest concentrations of zinc in food.^ Meat, liver, egg and sea food, especially oysters, are rich sources of zinc.

^ This leads to increased concentration of zinc in their meat.

^ Lamb meat, green leafY vegetable, beef, liver, mollusks .

[145]
.The concentration of zinc in plants varies based on levels of the element in soil.^ Zinc in soils and plants.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The concentration of zinc in the plants increased with increasing soil zinc concentration.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc concentrations in soils .
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.When there is adequate zinc in the soil, the food plants that contain the most zinc are wheat (germ and bran) and various seeds (sesame, poppy, alfalfa, celery, mustard).^ Most rocks and many minerals contain zinc in varying amounts.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc in soils and plants.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The zinc content of foods varies.

[162] .Zinc is also found in beans, nuts, almonds, whole grains, pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds and blackcurrant.^ Meats, seafood, dairy products, nuts, legumes, and whole grains offer relatively high levels of zinc.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although these grains contain phytate, which prevent absorption of zinc, if taken as "whole" and along with other zinc-rich diets, zinc deficiency can be prevented.

^ Whole wheat and grains are rich sources of zinc that must be used in vegetarians.

[163]
.Other sources include fortified food and dietary supplements, which come in various forms.^ Absorption of dietary zinc varies between 20-40% and depends on body requirement and gastric PH. Similar to Iron, zinc bound to protein (in animal food sources) is more absorbable.

^ Most animal food sources contain sufficient amount of ZInC. Shell, especially contains great amounts of zinc (about 10 times greater than other sources).

.A 1998 review concluded that zinc oxide, one of the most common supplements in the United States, and zinc carbonate are nearly insoluble and poorly absorbed in the body.^ At the present, zinc sulphate is the most common form of zinc used as a supplement.

^ Among enzymes which are related to zinc, alkaline phosphatase, carbonic anhydrase, nucleoside phosphorylase and ribonuclease are the most efficient enzymes determining zinc deficiency.

^ In the first research which was conducted by the author and colleagues during autumn of 1999, entitled "The effect of zinc supplementation on height and weight percentiles" it was concluded that ZInC supplementation increased height and weight percentiles.

[164] .This review cited studies which found low plasma zinc concentrations after zinc oxide and zinc carbonate were consumed compared with those seen after consumption of zinc acetate and sulfate salts.^ Plasma and serum zinc concentration: .

^ When heated to 150 C, the compound decomposes into zinc oxide and carbon dioxide.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ C- Purchase of technology of medicinal Zinc Sulfate production by Zinc Studies and Researches Unit from industrial countries.

[164] .However, harmful excessive supplementation is a problem among the relatively affluent, and should probably not exceed 20 mg/day in healthy people,[165] although the U.S. National Research Council set a Tolerable Upper Intake of 40 mg/day.^ Although the therapeutic dose of zinc does not depend on body weight, the total daily dosage (about 20 mg/day) in neonates and infants is less than that of older children.

^ Zinc intakes (mg/day) in the period 19821989 ranged from 8.7 to 9.7 mg/day for women aged 6065 and 2530 years, respectively; comparable estimates for men were 12.9 and 16.4 mg/day.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Dietary supplementation with zinc at a rate of 20 mg/day did not result in adverse effects on pregnancy progress or outcomes in healthy pregnant women in a number of large, controlled trials (Hunt et al., 1984; Kynast & Saling, 1986; Mahomed et al., 1989).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[161]
For fortification, however, a 2003 review recommended zinc oxide in cereals as cheap, stable, and as easily absorbed as more expensive forms.[166] .A 2005 study found that various compounds of zinc, including oxide and sulfate, did not show statistically significant differences in absorption when added as fortificants to maize tortillas.^ Beyer WN & Anderson A (1985) Toxicity to woodlice of zinc and lead oxides added to soil litter.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ MS (1990) Percutaneous absorption of zinc from zinc oxide applied topically to intact skin in man.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When heated to 150 C, the compound decomposes into zinc oxide and carbon dioxide.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[167]

Deficiency

.Zinc deficiency is usually due to insufficient dietary intake, but can be associated with malabsorption, acrodermatitis enteropathica, chronic liver disease, chronic renal disease, sickle cell disease, diabetes, malignancy, and other chronic illnesses.^ Cells that have zinc deficiency show .

^ Prasad AS. Zinc deficiency in patients with sickle cell disease.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Low hair zinc concentration accompanies situations that are associated with zinc deficiency such as acrodermatitis enteropathica, sickle cell anemia and celiac disease.

[2] .Symptoms of mild zinc deficiency are diverse.^ The first and foremost symptom in mild zinc deficiency is slowing of the growth rate.

^ Despite this, metabolic and pathologic changes of zinc deficiency have not been clearly understood and an adequate diagnostic procedure for diagnosing mild or marginal zinc deficiency does not exist.

^ Excessive calcium absorption aggravates the symptoms of zinc deficiency in pigs, dogs and birds.

[161] .Clinical outcomes include depressed growth, diarrhea, impotence and delayed sexual maturation, alopecia, eye and skin lesions, impaired appetite, altered cognition, impaired host defense properties, defects in carbohydrate utilization, and reproductive teratogenesis.^ Zinc deficiency is not uncommon worldwide, but is rare in the US. Symptoms include slowed growth, low insulin levels, loss of appetite, irritability, generalized hair loss, rough and dry skin, slow wound healing, poor sense of taste and smell, diarrhea, and nausea.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The principal features of this syndrome were growth failure and delayed sexual maturation, giving 16- to 18-year-olds a physical appearance resembling that of prepubertal 9-year-olds, commonly associated with hepatosplenomegaly and iron deficiency.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc defidency leads to growth delay in children and delayed sexual puberty in boys.

[156] .Mild zinc deficiency depresses immunity,[168] although excessive zinc does also.^ The first and foremost symptom in mild zinc deficiency is slowing of the growth rate.

^ Despite this, metabolic and pathologic changes of zinc deficiency have not been clearly understood and an adequate diagnostic procedure for diagnosing mild or marginal zinc deficiency does not exist.

^ Excessive calcium absorption aggravates the symptoms of zinc deficiency in pigs, dogs and birds.

[143] .Animals with a diet deficient in zinc require twice as much food in order to attain the same weight gain as animals given sufficient zinc.^ B (especially B 6 ) to food, in order to prevent their deficiencies.

^ For increasing the growth of animals, zinc is added to their food.

^ According to the writer, if people forget the foods that contain zinc, they can not obtain the required daily dose of zinc i.e.

[119]
Groups at risk for zinc deficiency include the elderly, vegetarians, and those with renal insufficiency. .The zinc chelator phytate, found in seeds and cereal bran, can contribute to zinc malabsorption in those with heavily vegetarian diets.^ The zinc requirement is mainly met by consumption of meat in omnivorous diets, or unrefined cereals, legumes and nuts diet patterns that are mostly vegetarian.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Low zinc intakes have been reported for populations in Papua New Guinea, while intakes of zinc from vegetarian diets in India have been reported to be as high as 16 mg/day (WHO, 1996b).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Even in the presence of fibro-phytate, present in the coating of the grains and seeds (that bind with zinc), still sufficient amount of zinc is absorbed.

[2] .There is a paucity of adequate zinc biomarkers, and the most widely used indicator, plasma zinc, has poor sensitivity and specificity.^ Serum/plasma zinc is the most widely used index of zinc status in humans.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Serum/plasma zinc is also not very specific.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For zinc, the sensitivity of NAA is poor.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[169] .Diagnosing zinc deficiency is a persistent challenge.^ Despite this, metabolic and pathologic changes of zinc deficiency have not been clearly understood and an adequate diagnostic procedure for diagnosing mild or marginal zinc deficiency does not exist.

^ In addition, evaluation of zinc related enzymes such serum thymulin and serum metallothynonine could be helpful III diagnosing ZIllC deficiency.

^ Zinc deficiency in animals is characterized by reduction in growth, cell replication, adverse reproductive effects, adverse developmental effects, which persist after weaning, and reduced immunoresponsiveness.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[1]
.Nearly two billion people in the developing world are deficient in zinc.^ Since those first reports, mild zinc deficiency has been reported in infants and younger children living both in developing and in industrialized countries.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc deficiency impairs development of the brain and has been shown to cause long-term behavioural consequences in rats.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For muscle cramps in zinc deficient people with liver disease: zinc sulfate 220 mg twice daily.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[2] .In children it causes an increase in infection and diarrhea, contributing to the death of about 800,000 children worldwide per year.^ Europe are now about 1.1 m/year, corresponding to a potential zinc wash-off of about 8 g/year per m 2 of exposed zinc surface.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Total worldwide input was estimated to be 77 000375 000 tonnes/year (Nriagu & Pacyna, 1988).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, total annual emissions of zinc to air from natural sources are estimated at about 45 000 tonnes/year (Nriagu, 1989).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[1] .The World Health Organization advocates zinc supplementation for severe malnutrition and diarrhea.^ World Health Organization 2001 .
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Castillo-Duran C, Heresi G, Fisberg M, & Uauy R (1987) Controlled trial of zinc supplementation during recovery from malnutrition: effects on growth and immune function1-3.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ World Food Organization has considered zinc requirements in males and females as 15 mg/day and 12 mg/day respectively.

[170] .Zinc supplements help prevent disease and reduce mortality, especially among children with low birth weight or stunted growth.^ Reducing diarrhea in malnourished children, or in children who have low zinc levels.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Effect of zinc supplementation on growth and body composition in children with sickle cell disease.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pre-school children from both low income and well-off families showed improvement in growth, weight and height after receiving zinc supplements.

[170] .However, zinc supplements should not be administered alone, since many in the developing world have several deficiencies, and zinc interacts with other micronutrients.^ Since those first reports, mild zinc deficiency has been reported in infants and younger children living both in developing and in industrialized countries.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However the fact that the level of zinc in hair illustrates body zinc levels is not supported by other studies and investigations.

^ Status of Vitamin 'A', from Science till Action", that vitamin A deficiency and exophthalamus are important health issues in many developing countries.

[171]
.Zinc deficiency is crop plants' most common micronutrient deficiency; it is particularly common in high-pH soils.^ Zinc in soils and plants.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The concentration of zinc in the plants increased with increasing soil zinc concentration.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc in soils and plants, Dordrecht, Kluwer.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Zinc-deficient soil is cultivated in the cropland of about half of Turkey and India, a third of China, and most of Western Australia, and substantial responses to zinc fertilization have been reported in these areas.^ Since those first reports, mild zinc deficiency has been reported in infants and younger children living both in developing and in industrialized countries.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There was no effect of zinc on survival, even at the highest exposure concentration, during developmental stages 1 and 2 (these stages take about half of the development time from egg to juvenile).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Application of various types of zinc fertilizers to soil or onto leaves can help to overcome these problems (Takkar & Walker, 1993).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[89] .Plants that grow in soils that are zinc-deficient are more susceptible to disease.^ Zinc in soils and plants.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The concentration of zinc in the plants increased with increasing soil zinc concentration.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc in soils and plants, Dordrecht, Kluwer.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Zinc is primarily added to the soil through the weathering of rocks, but humans have added zinc through fossil fuel combustion, mine waste, phosphate fertilizers, limestone, manure, sewage sludge, and particles from galvanized surfaces.^ Pretreatment of the soil with phosphate fertilizer also increased the amount of zinc extracted.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc was added to the soils in the form of zinc nitrate or sewage sludge.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc supplementation of soils is achieved using sewage sludge or chemical fertilizers.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Excess zinc is toxic to plants, although zinc toxicity is far less widespread.^ Symptoms of zinc toxicity in plants differ from those of zinc deficiency, with coralloid rather than extended roots and curled rather than mottled leaves.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Toxicity of zinc to algae and aquatic plants in static conditions a .
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Concentrations of zinc that are subtoxic or non-toxic to plants may have metabolic effects higher up the food chain.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[89]

Precautions

Toxicity

.Although zinc is an essential requirement for good health, excess zinc can be harmful.^ From a hundred years ago Zinc has been recognized as an essential and vital element (Raulin discovery in 1896 as a required element for growth Aspergillus niger).

^ It is called an “essential trace element” because very small amounts of zinc are necessary for human health.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ By determining height and weight percentiles at regular intervals in the initial stages of growth failure, the essential required dose of zinc sulphate (oral) is administered.

.Excessive absorption of zinc suppresses copper and iron absorption.^ Zinc could interfere with absorption of copper.

^ Excessive zinc absorption decreases copper from being absorbed.

^ Excessive consumption of iron and copper inhibits absorption of zinc.

[160] .The free zinc ion in solution is highly toxic to plants, invertebrates, and even vertebrate fish.^ Zinc Phosphide is highly toxic to wild birds and freshwater fish.

^ Because plant tolerance to zinc toxicity varies greatly, specific soil extractable levels, which might indicate toxicity, have not been established.

^ If care be taken to keep the zinc in excess, the solution will be free from all foreign metals except iron and perhaps manganese.

[172] The Free Ion Activity Model is well-established in the literature, and shows that just micromolar amounts of the free ion kills some organisms. A recent example showed 6 micromolar killing 93% of all Daphnia in water.[173]
.The free zinc ion is a powerful Lewis acid up to the point of being corrosive.^ Nearly 60% of serum zinc is bound unstably to albumin and free amino acids while the remaining 40% has tight binding with alpha 2 globulin.

^ Relationships between serum free fatty acids and zinc, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a research note.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The other notable point is that in experimental Zinc deficiency in men induces disturbance in Folic Acid absorption.

.Stomach acid contains hydrochloric acid, in which metallic zinc dissolves readily to give corrosive zinc chloride.^ The cheaper zinc supplements usually contain the metallic form of the minerals and are administered in amounts greater than the required dose.

^ Note that many zinc products also contain another metal called cadmium.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In some people, zinc might cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, metallic taste, kidney and stomach damage, and other side effects.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.Swallowing a post-1982 American one cent piece (97.5% zinc) can cause damage to the stomach lining due to the high solubility of the zinc ion in the acidic stomach.^ High doses above the recommended amounts might cause fever, coughing, stomach pain, fatigue, and many other problems.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In some people, zinc might cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, metallic taste, kidney and stomach damage, and other side effects.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[174]
.There is evidence of induced copper deficiency at low intakes of 100–300 mg Zn/day; a recent trial had higher hospitalizations for urinary complications compared to placebo among elderly men taking 80 mg/day.^ Zinc-induced copper deficiency in an infant.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The dose of zinc required for treating acrodermatitis enteropathica is about 30-50 mg/zn 2 +/day and for some cases even greater doses are required.

^ Adults: 24-50mg of elemental zinc/kg/24hr., divided in 3 doses (equivalent to 100-220 mg of zinc sulphate/day, divided into 3 doses, orally).

[175] The USDA RDA is 15 mg Zn/day. .Even lower levels, closer to the RDA, may interfere with the utilization of copper and iron or adversely affect cholesterol.^ Zinc status is not adversely affected by folic acid supplementation and zinc intake does not impair folate utilization in human subjects.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[160] .Levels of zinc in excess of 500 ppm in soil interfere with the ability of plants to absorb other essential metals, such as iron and manganese.^ However the fact that the level of zinc in hair illustrates body zinc levels is not supported by other studies and investigations.

^ Zinc is significant in synthesis of insulin and plays an essential role in maintaining blood glucose level.

^ Body zinc status could be evaluated by measuring its' level in various body fluids such as plasma and urine.

[90] .There is also a condition called the zinc shakes or "zinc chills" that can be induced by the inhalation of freshly formed zinc oxide formed during the welding of galvanized materials.^ During delivery and after the condition of the mother and newborn is registered in another information form and status of Colostrums and Zinc of mother's milk is examined and registered.

^ For oral prescription, sulphate, gluconate, acetate and oxide forms of zinc are available.

^ However there are conditions that despite severe zinc deficiency, the level of zinc in hair is normal or elevated.

[119]
.The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has stated that zinc damages nerve receptors in the nose, which can cause anosmia.^ It has been recently shown that zinc deficiency states, (causing mild growth failure), serum zinc levels could be normal.

^ Genital damage in young mice with Zinc deficiency causes cryptorchidism, atrophy of seminiferous tubes, sperm with malformed tales and axoneme damages.

^ From 2000 and onwards all reference books of nutrition stated that the only method of diagnosing mild and moderate zinc deficiency was by administrating ZInC supplements and observing the clinical .

.Reports of anosmia were also observed in the 1930s when zinc preparations were used in a failed attempt to prevent polio infections.^ Administration of zinc helps in preventing cancer and is useful in patients suffering from cancers (such as Hodgkin and leukemia) which has been shown in some researches.

^ It is also used for boosting the immune system, treating the common cold and recurrent ear infections, and preventing lower respiratory infections.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc is used for treatment and prevention of zinc deficiency and its consequences, including stunted growth and acute diarrhea in children, and slow wound healing.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[176] .On June 16, 2009, the FDA said that consumers should stop using zinc-based intranasal cold products and ordered their removal from store shelves.^ It was for this reason that we discussed the sterile condition and solubility in distilled water and use of Zinc Sulfate of Germany's Merck product was emphasized.

^ Turner RB. Ineffectiveness of intranasal zinc gluconate for prevention of experimental rhinovirus colds.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pre-mass production of Zinc Sulfate Oral Solution in Zinc Studies and Researches Unit (discovery of Dr. Hakimi and Zinc Researchers) for treatment and research use of foundations and various research and treatment universities.

.The FDA said the loss of smell can be life-threatening because people with impaired smell cannot detect leaking gas or smoke and cannot tell if food has spoiled before they eat it.^ According to the writer, if people forget the foods that contain zinc, they can not obtain the required daily dose of zinc i.e.

^ In June 2009, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advised consumers not to use certain zinc-containing nose sprays (Zicam) after receiving over 100 reports of loss of smell.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The maker of these zinc-containing nose sprays has also received several hundred reports of loss of smell from people who had used the products.
  • ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[177] .Recent research suggests that the topical antimicrobial zinc pyrithione is a potent heat shock response inducer that may impair genomic integrity with induction of PARP-dependent energy crisis in cultured human keratinocytes and melanocytes.^ Many researches have been conducted in the recent years studying zinc and its supplementary role in diet.

^ B- Researches conducted in recent years demonstrate that Zinc deficiency is widespread (from %17 to %43, 17-43 in children and adolescents in various regions of Iran) has been reported.

^ The role of zinc deficiency in growth disorders in children has been the topic of interest for researchers in the recent years.

[178]

Poisoning

In 1982, the United States Mint began minting pennies coated in copper but made primarily of zinc. .With the new zinc pennies, there is the potential for zinc toxicosis, which can be fatal.^ There is greater potential for leaching of zinc in light acidic soils, compared to soils with a high organic matter or calcium carbonate content.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There are limited data available for performing a detailed assessment of the potential risk for zinc for each environmental medium (air, water, soil, sediment).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.One reported case of chronic ingestion of 425 pennies (over 1 kg of zinc) resulted in death due to gastrointestinal bacterial and fungal sepsis, while another patient, who ingested 12 grams of zinc, only showed lethargy and ataxia (gross lack of coordination of muscle movements).^ Shook Ones (DJ Zinc D&B Remix) (12", S/Sided, W/Lbl) .
  • DJ Zinc Discography at Discogs 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.discogs.com [Source type: General]

[179] .Several other cases have been reported of humans suffering zinc intoxication by the ingestion of zinc coins.^ Enclosed 9: Documents in connection with report of the first seminar on the effect of Zinc on Human Health and the need for prescribing Zinc Oral Solution in Iran.

^ Studies conducted in 1995 demonstrate that nearly 15.7% of children suffer from mild and/or severe weight loss; in other words their weight is below the standard level.

^ Double blind studies have proved that zinc decreases the duration and severity of common cold and other infections.

[180][181]
.Pennies and other small coins are sometimes ingested by dogs, resulting in the need for medical treatment to remove the foreign body.^ Inadequate treatment of ZInC deficiency results In progressIve FTT, recurrent infections, and sometimes even death.

The zinc content of some coins can cause zinc toxicity, which is commonly fatal in dogs, where it causes a severe hemolytic anemia, and also liver or kidney damage; vomiting and diarrhea are possible symptoms.[182] Zinc is highly toxic in parrots and poisoning can often be fatal.[183] .The consumption of fruit juices stored in galvanized cans has resulted in mass parrot poisonings with zinc.^ Also galvanized reservoirs should not be used for storing water and acidic fruits, since it could cause food poisoning.

^ Also, since zinc is water­soluble, cooking or preserving (canned food) food will result in loss of zinc.

[54]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ An East India Company ship carrying a cargo of nearly pure zinc metal from the Orient sank off the coast Sweden in 1745.(Emsley 2001, p. 502)
  2. ^ Electric current will naturally flow between zinc and steel but larger pipeline systems require a rectifier that adds an induced DC electric current to the CP system.
  3. ^ In clinical trials, both zinc gluconate and zinc gluconate glycine (the formulation used in lozenges) have been shown to shorten the duration of symptoms of the common cold.
    Godfrey, J. C.; Godfrey, N. J.; Novick, S. G. (1996). "Zinc for treating the common cold: Review of all clinical trials since 1984". Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 2 (6): 63–72. PMID 8942045. 
    The amount of glycine can vary from two to twenty moles per mole of zinc gluconate. One review of the research found that out of nine controlled experiments using zinc lozenges, the results were positive in four studies, and no better than placebo in five.
    Hulisz, Darrell T. "Zinc and the Common Cold: What Pharmacists Need to Know". US Pharmacist. uspharmacist.com. http://www.uspharmacist.com/oldformat.asp?url=newlook/files/alte/feat2.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-28. 
    This review also suggested that the research is characterized by methodological problems, including differences in the dosage amount used, and the use of self-report data. The evidence suggests that zinc supplements may be most effective if they are taken at the first sign of cold symptoms.

References

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  2. ^ a b c d Prasad, A. S. (2003). "Zinc deficiency". British Medical Journal 326 (7386): 409. doi:10.1136/bmj.326.7386.409. PMID 12595353. 
  3. ^ "Spelter". Encyclo. http://www.encyclo.co.uk/define/spelter. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j CRC 2006, p. 4-41
  5. ^ a b Heiserman 1992, p. 123
  6. ^ Lehto 1968, p. 826
  7. ^ Scoffern, John (1861). The Useful Metals and Their Alloys. Houlston and Wright. pp. 591–603. http://books.google.com/books?id=SSkKAAAAIAAJ. Retrieved 2009-04-06. 
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  174. ^ Bothwell, Dawn N.; Mair, Eric A.; Cable, Benjamin B. (2003). "Chronic Ingestion of a Zinc-Based Penny". Pediatrics 111 (3): 689. doi:10.1542/peds.111.3.689. PMID 12612262. 
  175. ^ Johnson AR, Munoz A, Gottlieb JL, Jarrard DF (2007). "High dose zinc increases hospital admissions due to genitourinary complications". J. Urol. 177 (2): 639. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2006.09.047. PMID 17222649. 
  176. ^ Oxford, J. S.; Öberg, Bo (1985). Conquest of viral diseases: a topical review of drugs and vaccines. Elsevier. p. 142. ISBN 0444805664. http://books.google.com/books?id=n24Pju7kHIYC&pg=PA142. 
  177. ^ FDA says Zicam nasal products harm sense of smell, Los Angeles Times, June 17, 2009
  178. ^ The topical antimicrobial zinc pyrithione is a heat shock response inducer that causes DNA damage and PARP-dependent energy crisis in human skin cells. Lamore SD, Cabello CM, Wondrak GT. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2009 Oct 7. [Epub ahead of print
  179. ^ Barceloux, Donald G.; Barceloux, Donald (1999). "Zinc". Clinical Toxicology 37: 279. doi:10.1081/CLT-100102426. 
  180. ^ Bennett, Daniel R. M.D.; Baird, Curtis J. M.D.; Chan, Kwok-Ming; Crookes, Peter F.; Bremner, Cedric G.; Gottlieb, Michael M.; Naritoku, Wesley Y. M.D. (1997). "Zinc Toxicity Following Massive Coin Ingestion.". American Journal of Forensic Medicine & Pathology 18: 148. doi:10.1097/00000433-199706000-00008. 
  181. ^ Fernbach, S. K.; Tucker G. F. (1986). "Coin ingestion: unusual appearance of the penny in a child". Radiology 158 (2): 512. PMID 3941880. http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/abstract/158/2/512. 
  182. ^ Stowe, C. M.; Nelson, R.; Werdin, R.; et al. (1978). "Zinc phosphide poisoning in dogs". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 173 (3): 270. PMID 689968. 
  183. ^ Reece, R. L.; Dickson, D. B.; Burrowes, P. J. (1986). "Zinc toxicity (new wire disease) in aviary birds". Australian Veterinary Journal 63: 199. doi:10.1111/j.1751-0813.1986.tb02979.x. 

Bibliography

  • Chambers, William and Robert (1901). Chambers's Encyclopaedia: A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge (Revised ed.). London and Edinburgh: J. B. Lippincott Company. http://books.google.com/books?id=Rz8oAAAAYAAJ&printsec=toc&client=firefox-a&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0. 
  • Cotton, F. Albert; Wilkinson, Geoffrey; Murillo, Carlos A.; Bochmann, Manfred (1999). Advanced Inorganic Chemistry (6th ed.). .New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.^ New York, John Wiley & Sons, pp 81152.
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York, John Wiley & Sons.
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York, John Wiley & Sons, p 57.
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 04711999575.
     
  • CRC contributors (2006). David R. Lide. ed. .Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87th ed.^ CRC handbook of chemistry and physics.
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN 0849304873. http://books.google.com/books?id=WDll8hA006AC&pg=PT893.
     
  • Emsley, John (2001). "Zinc". Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford, England, UK: .Oxford University Press.^ Oxford University Press, New York, pp 148152.
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    pp. 499–505. ISBN 0198503407. http://books.google.com/books?id=j-Xu07p3cKwC.
     
  • Greenwood, N. N.; Earnshaw, A. (1997). .Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.^ The geochemistry of rare and dispersed chemical elements in soils 2nd ed.
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0750633654.
     
  • Heiserman, David L. (1992). ."Element 30: Zinc".^ Although 30-60 mg/d of elemental zinc is the usual therapeutic dose, higher doses of zinc are needed in zinc deficiency syndrome.

    .Exploring Chemical Elements and their Compounds.^ Chemical names, synonyms and formulae of elemental zinc and zinc compounds .
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    New York: TAB Books. ISBN 083063018X. http://books.google.com/books?id=24l-Cpal9oIC&pgis=1.
     
  • Lehto, R. S. (1968). "Zinc". in Clifford A. Hampel. The Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements. .New York: Reinhold Book Corporation.^ New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, pp12501258.
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    pp. 822–830. .LCCN 68-29938. ISBN 0442155980. 
  • United States National Research Council, Institute of Medicine.^ In: National Research Council of Canada, Associate committee on scientific criteria for environmental quality ed.
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ US National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Subcommittee on Zinc.
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    (2000). .Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc.^ Spencer H, Asmussen CR, Holtzman RB, & Kramer L (1979) Metabolic balances of cadmium, copper, manganese, and zinc in man.
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Taylor D, Maddock BG, & Mance G (1985) The acute toxicity of nine grey list metals (arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, tin, vanadium and zinc) to two marine fish species: dab ( Limanda limanda ) and grey mullet ( Chelon labrosus ).
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A group of 18 female volunteers participated in a 10-week, single-blind dietary supplementation study designed to investigate the effect of zinc supplementation on iron, copper and zinc status.
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    .National Academies Press.^ Washington DC, National Academy of Sciences Press.
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    pp. 442–455. http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=10026. 
  • Stwertka, Albert (1998). "Zinc". Guide to the Elements (Revised ed.). .Oxford University Press.^ Oxford University Press, New York, pp 148152.
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0195080831.
     
  • Weeks, Mary Elvira (1933). ."III. Some Eighteenth-Century Metals". The Discovery of the Elements.^ Zuurdeeg BW (1992) [Natural background levels of heavy metals and some other trace elements in surface water in the Netherlands.
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    Easton, PA: Journal of Chemical Education. ISBN 0766138720.
     

External links

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which is an alloy of copper and zinc, was not known till the thirteenth century. What is designated by this word in Scripture is properly copper (Deut 8:9). It was used for fetters (Jdg 16:21; 2Kg 25:7), for pieces of armour (1Sam 17:5, 6), for musical instruments (1Chr 15:19; 1Cor 13:1), and for money (Mt 10:9).
It is a symbol of insensibility and obstinacy in sin (Isa 48:4; Jer 6:28; Ezek 22:18), and of strength (Ps 10716; Mic 4:13).
The Macedonian empire is described as a kingdom of brass (Dan 2:39). The "mountains of brass" Zechariah (6:1) speaks of have been supposed to represent the immutable decrees of God.
.The serpent of brass was made by Moses at the command of God (Num 21:4-9), and elevated on a pole, so that it might be seen by all the people when wounded by the bite of the serpents that were sent to them as a punishment for their murmurings against God and against Moses.^ It accelerates the healing process in wounds and enhances the immune system against infection especially in old aged people.

It was afterwards carried by the Jews into Canaan, and preserved by them till the time of Hezekiah, who caused it to be at length destroyed because it began to be viewed by the people with superstitious reverence (2Kg 18:4). (See Nehushtan.)
The brazen serpent is alluded to by our Lord in Jn 3:14, 15. (See SERPENT.)
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)

Simple English

copper ← Zinc → gallium
-

Zn

Cd
30Zn
Appearance
gray-blue metal
File:Zinc fragment sublimed and 1cm3
General properties
Name, symbol, number Zinc, Zn, 30
Pronunciation /ˈzɪŋk/ zingk
Element category transition metal
Category notes sometimes considered a post-transition metal
Group, period, block 124, d
Standard atomic weight 65.38 g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 2 (Image)
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 7.14 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 6.57 g·cm−3
Melting point 692.68 K, 419.53 °C, 787.15 °F
Boiling point 1180 K, 907 °C, 1665 °F
Heat of fusion 7.32 kJ·mol−1
Atomic properties
Oxidation states +2, +1, 0
(+1 is very rare)
Electronegativity 1.65 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
1st: 906.4 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1733.3 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3833 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 134 pm
Covalent radius 122±4 pm
Van der Waals radius 139 pm
Miscellanea
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 59.0 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 116 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 30.2 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (r.t.) (rolled) 3850 m·s−1
Young's modulus 108 GPa
Shear modulus 43 GPa
Bulk modulus 70 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.25
Mohs hardness 2.5
Brinell hardness 412 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-66-6

Zinc, sometimes called spelter,[1] is a chemical element. It is a transition metal, a group of metals. It is sometimes considered a post-transition metal. Its symbol on the periodic table is "Zn". Zinc is the 30th element on the periodic table, and has an atomic number of 30. Zinc has a mass number of 65.38. It contains 30 protons and 30 electrons. In total, 29 isotopes of zinc are known, and five of these occur in nature. Some isotopes are radioactive. Their half-lives are between 40 milliseconds for 57Zn and 5x1018 years for 70Zn.

Zinc is a metal that is mostly used for galvanizing and batteries. It is the fourth most common metal.

Contents

Properties

Physical properties

Zinc is a shiny blue-gray metal. When it has just been cut, zinc has a white-gray color. If it is exposed to air, it will not stay shiny for long. It melts at a low temperature (

  1. REDIRECT Template:Convert/°C). This temperature is lower than most transition metals but higher than tin or lead. It can be melted on a cooking stove. It boils at a low temperature for a metal.[2] It is not magnetic. When heated a little, it becomes very flexible. If it is heated more, it becomes very brittle.[3] It forms alloys easily with other metals.

Chemical properties

Zinc is a reactive metal. It is about as reactive as aluminium and more reactive than most of the more common metals, such as iron, copper, nickel, and chrome. It is less reactive than magnesium. Zinc can react with acids, bases, and nonmetals.[4] It does not rust in air, though. A coating of zinc oxide and zinc carbonate forms on the surface of the zinc when it is in air.[5] This coating stops corrosion. Acids can dissolve this coating and react with the zinc metal.[6] This reaction of zinc with an acid makes a zinc(II) salt such as zinc chloride and hydrogen gas. This is a very common chemical reaction. The reaction below is the reaction with hydrochloric acid.

Zn + HCl → ZnCl2 + H2
File:Zinc
Zinc burning

Zinc can burn when powdered or in small pieces to make zinc oxide, a white powder. The flame is bright blue-green.[7]

2 Zn + O2 → 2 ZnO

Zinc oxide can dissolve in strong bases. This reaction happens in some batteries that have zinc in them.

ZnO + H2O + 2 OH- → Zn(OH)42-.

Zinc is a chalcophile. This means that it would rather react with sulfur and elements below it on the periodic table than oxygen. That is why zinc sulfide is the most common zinc ore, not zinc oxide.

Chemical compounds

See also: Zinc compounds

Zinc can make chemical compounds with other elements. These chemical compounds are only in one oxidation state: +2. A +1 compound has been found but it is hard to make. There are no other oxidation states other than +1 or +2.[8] Most of these compounds have no color. If they have a color, it is not the zinc that is making the color.

Zinc chloride is one of the most common zinc compounds. They are quite unreactive. They are a little acidic when dissolved in water. They make a green flame when heated in a fire.

Where zinc is found

Five isotopes of zinc are found in nature. 64Zn is the most common isotope, with 48.63% of naturally occurring Zinc.[1] This isotope has a half-life of 4.3x1018 years.[2] This is so long, that its radioactivity can be ignored.[3] Similarly, 70Zn (0.6%), with a half life of 1.3x1016 years is usually considered to not be radioactive. The other isotopes found in nature are 66Zn (28%), 67Zn (4%) and 68Zn (19%).

[[File:|thumb|Sphalerite, a common zinc ore]] Zinc is not found as a metal in the earth's crust. Zinc is only found as zinc compounds. Sphalerite, a mineral that is made of zinc sulfide, is a main ore of zinc. Very little zinc is in the ocean. Zinc ore is normally found with copper and lead ores.

There are some other zinc ores, such as smithsonite (zinc carbonate) and a zinc silicate mineral. They are less common.

Preparation

The zinc sulfide is concentrated by flotation. There is a detergent that collects the zinc sulfide. The impurities sink to the bottom and are removed. Then the zinc sulfide is heated in air to make zinc oxide and sulfur dioxide.[4]

2 ZnS + 3 O2 → 2 ZnO + 2 SO2

The sulfur dioxide is oxidized to sulfur trioxide.

2 SO2 + O2 → 2 SO3

The sulfur trioxide reacts with the zinc oxide to make zinc sulfate.[5] This makes a soluble form of zinc which can be processed more.

SO3 + ZnO → ZnSO4

The zinc sulfate is purified and electrolyzed.[4] This electrolysis makes oxygen, zinc, and sulfuric acid. This makes a pure zinc that is known as "SHG" or special high grade.[6]

2 ZnSO4 + 2 H2O → 2 Zn + 2 H2SO4 + O2

The sulfuric acid is reused in place of the sulfur trioxide to leach more zinc oxide.

Zinc oxide can also be reduced by carbon to zinc metal and carbon dioxide at high temperatures.[7] This is a blast furnace process similar to how iron is made.

2 ZnO + C → 2 Zn + CO2

This form of zinc is cheaper but is not pure.

Zinc is the fourth most common metal in the world.[8] About 10 million tons are made every year.[8]

Uses

As a metal

File:Feuerverzinkte Oberflä
A hot-dipped galvanized item
File:Duracell AA
Common alkaline batteries. These batteries have a bluish-gray zinc powder in the middle of the battery.

Zinc is used in electrical batteries.[9][10] The alkaline cell and the Leclanche cell are the ones that use zinc the most. It becomes oxidized and provides electrons for the battery to run.

About 59% of zinc is used for corrosion prevention, which includes galvanizing. 47% of the world's zinc is used for galvanizing.[11] This is used to protect another metal, usually iron, from rusting. The zinc coating corrodes instead of the iron. The zinc coating can be placed on the metal in two ways. The metal can be dipped into a pot of melted zinc. The zinc can also be electroplated on to the metal. Dipping lasts longer but has a patchy surface that some do not think looks nice. It is also used in motorboats and pipelines to slow rusting[12]. The motor of a motorboat often has a "bullet" of zinc, that will corrode easily, but will help other metal parts of the motor to stay rust free.

Zinc is used in alloys. Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc. Brass is the most common zinc alloy. Zinc can form alloys with many other metals. Zinc aluminium is an alloy of zinc and aluminium, which makes good bearings. Commercial bronze has zinc in it. Sometimes cadmium telluride is reacted with zinc to make cadmium zinc telluride, a semiconductor. Nickel silver is another zinc alloy.

Zinc can be used in the pipes of a pipe organ. An alloy of tin and lead was used in the past.[13] Zinc is used in the US penny, where it only has a thin layer of copper. The core is zinc.[14] Older pennies were made completely out of copper.

A mixture of powdered zinc and sulfur can be used to propel a model rocket. This reaction makes zinc sulfide, heat, light, and gases.[15] Zinc sheet metal is used to make zinc bars.[16]

As zinc compounds

About 1/4 of zinc is used to make zinc compounds. Zinc oxide can be used for sunscreen or paint pigment. Zinc oxide also is a semiconductor.[17] Zinc chloride is used to preserve wood so it does not rot.[18] Some fungicides have zinc in them. Zinc sulfate is used in dyes and pigments. Zinc sulfide is used in fluorescent bulbs to convert the ultraviolet light to visible light.

In biology

Humans need a little bit of zinc to help their body run well.[19] If they do not get enough zinc in their food, they can get a mineral deficiency. Almost two billion people have a zinc deficiency.[20] Zinc deficiency makes one more easily get infections. Some people say that when we get colds, we should take more zinc. Others say that zinc does not make a difference.[21] There are medicines that one can use when they have a cold.[22] People add tiny amounts of zinc compounds to vitamin pills and cereals to make sure that they get enough zinc. Most single-tablet vitamins have zinc in them.[23] Zinc is found in at least 100 enzymes.[24] It is the second most common transition metal other than iron. Zinc also is used by the brain. The human body contains 2 to 4 grams of zinc. A zinc enzyme helps remove carbon dioxide from blood. Wheat has much zinc in it.

Safety

Large amounts of zinc metal are toxic. It can dissolve in stomach acid. When too much zinc is eaten, copper and iron levels go down in the body. Zinc compounds can be corrosive in the stomach.[25] Zinc compounds put in the nose can ruin the sense of smell.[26]

Zinc ions are very toxic to fish and many things that live in water.[27]

References

  1. NNDC contributors (2008), Alejandro A. Sonzogni (Database Manager), ed., Chart of Nuclides, Upton (NY): National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/chart/, retrieved 2008-09-13 
  2. CRC 2006, p. 11-70
  3. NASA contributors (PDF), Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Data Processing, Sky Maps, and Basic Results, NASA, http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr3/pub_papers/fiveyear/basic_results/wmap5basic.pdf, retrieved 2008-03-06 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Porter, Frank C. (1991), Zinc Handbook, CRC Press, ISBN 9780824783402, http://books.google.com/?id=laACw9i0D_wC 
  5. Gupta, C. K.; Mukherjee, T. K. (1990), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator Hydrometallurgy in Extraction Processes], CRC Press, p. 62, ISBN 0849368049 
  6. (PDF) Special High Grade Zinc (SHG) 99.995%, Nyrstar, 2008, http://nyrstar.com/nyrstar/en/products/zinccongalvanising/techdownloads/shg_budel.pdf, retrieved 2008-12-01 
  7. Bodsworth, Colin (1994), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator The Extraction and Refining of Metals], CRC Press, p. 148, ISBN 0849344336 
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Zinc: World Mine Production (zinc content of concentrate) by Country", 2006 Minerals Yearbook: Zinc (Washington, D.C.: United States Geological Survey): p. Table 15, February 2008, http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/zinc/myb1-2006-zinc.pdf, retrieved 2009-01-19 
  9. Besenhard, Jürgen O. (1999) (PDF), Handbook of Battery Materials, Wiley-VCH, ISBN 3527294694, http://www.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/tocs/60178752.pdf, retrieved 2008-10-08 
  10. Wiaux, J. -P.; Waefler, J. -P. (1995), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Recycling zinc batteries: an economical challenge in consumer waste management"], Journal of Power Sources 57: 61, doi:10.1016/0378-7753(95)02242-2 
  11. Panagapko, Doug (2006), Zinc, Natural Resources Canada, http://info.wlu.ca/~wwwgeog/special/vgt/English/can_mod2/unit7.htm, retrieved 2008-12-12 
  12. Bounoughaz, M.; Salhi, E.; Benzine, K.; Ghali E.; Dalard F. (2003), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "A comparative study of the electrochemical behaviour of Algerian zinc and a zinc from a commercial sacrificial anode"], Journal of Materials Science 38: 1139, doi:10.1023/A:1022824813564 
  13. Bush, Douglas Earl; Kassel, Richard (2006), The Organ: An Encyclopedia, Routledge, p. 679, ISBN 9780415941747, http://books.google.com/?id=cgDJaeFFUPoC 
  14. Coin Specifications, United States Mint, http://www.usmint.gov/about_the_mint/?action=coin_specifications, retrieved 2008-10-08 
  15. Boudreaux, Kevin A, Zinc + Sulfur, Angelo State University, http://www.angelo.edu/faculty/kboudrea/demos/zinc_sulfur/zinc_sulfur.htm, retrieved 2008-10-08 
  16. Technical Information, Zinc Counters, 2008, http://www.zinccounters.co.uk/html/tech/tech.htm, retrieved 2008-11-29 
  17. Zhang, Xiaoge Gregory (1996), Corrosion and Electrochemistry of Zinc, Springer, p. 93, ISBN 0306453347, http://books.google.com/?id=Qmf4VsriAtMC 
  18. Blew, Joseph Oscar (1953), Wood preservatives, Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, http://hdl.handle.net/1957/816 
  19. Prasad A. S. (2008), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Zinc in human health: effect of zinc on immune cells"], Mol. Med. 14 (5-6): 353, doi:10.2119/2008-00033.Prasad, PMID 18385818 
  20. Prasad, A. S. (2003), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Zinc deficiency"], British Medical Journal 326 (7386): 409, doi:10.1136/bmj.326.7386.409, PMID 12595353 
  21. "Zinc and Health : The Common Cold". Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health. http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/zinc.asp#h7. Retrieved 2010-05-01. 
  22. Ananda S., Prasad; Fitzgerald, James T.; Bao, Bin; Beck, Frances W.J.; Chandrasekar, Pranatharthi H. (2000), "Duration of Symptoms and Plasma Cytokine Levels in Patients with the Common Cold Treated with Zinc Acetate: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial" (PDF), Annals of Internal Medicine 133 (4): 245, http://www.annals.org/cgi/reprint/133/4/245.pdf 
  23. DiSilvestro, Robert A. (2004), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator Handbook of Minerals as Nutritional Supplements], CRC Press, pp. 135, 155, ISBN 0849316529 
  24. Cotton 1999, pp. 625–629
  25. Bothwell, Dawn N.; Mair, Eric A.; Cable, Benjamin B. (2003), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Chronic Ingestion of a Zinc-Based Penny"], Pediatrics 111 (3): 689, doi:10.1542/peds.111.3.689, PMID 12612262 
  26. "FDA says Zicam nasal products harm sense of smell". Los Angeles Times. 17 June 2009. http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-sci-zicam17-2009jun17,0,3013664.story. Retrieved 17 June 2009. 
  27. Eisler, Ronald (1993), "Zinc Hazard to Fish, Wildlife, and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review" (PDF), Contaminant Hazard Reviews (Laurel, Maryland: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service) (10), http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/infobase/eisler/chr_26_zinc.pdf 


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