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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Zodariid ground spiders
female Mallinella fulvipes
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Section: Entelegynae
Superfamily: Zodarioidea
Family: Zodariidae
Thorell, 1881
Genera

Habronestes
Hermippus
Ishania
Lutica
Palfuria
Tenedos
Suffasia
Thaumastochilus
Zodarion
 many more

Diversity
72 genera, 828 species
male Mallinella fulvipes
female Mallinella shimojanai

The Zodaraiid ground spiders or ant spiders, are a family (Zodaraiidae) of small to medium-sized eight-eyed spiders. They are found world-wide in tropical to warm temperate regions, though there are relatively few species in North America.

Some zodariids are ant mimics. Although ant mimicry is quite common in spiders, the form it takes in the zodariids is unusual because, although each species bears a morphological resemblance to the species of ant that forms its prey, the resemblance is not particularly close. It is enhanced by the spider's behaviour. The spiders live in association with a nest of ants of their prey species, and use their mimicry to enter and leave the nest unmolested (if the ants detected them as intruders they would mass to repel and perhaps kill them). The spiders walk on only the three rear pairs of legs, and if they encounter an ant during their forays into the nest territory, they touch their front legs to the ant's antennae in the same way as another ant would with its own antennae. If they have already captured an ant, they then offer that towards the challenging ant, which inspects it and behaves towards the spider as if it were another ant carrying a dead conspecific away from the nest (a common behaviour among ants).

It is likely that the spiders also derive some protection against predation from their similarity to the ants, since ants are unpalatable to many species that eat spiders.

Systematics

The categorization into subfamilies follows Joel Hallan's Biology Catalog.

  • Cydrelinae Simon, 1893
  • Aschema Jocqué, 1991
  • Caesetius Simon, 1893
  • Capheris Simon, 1893
  • Cydrela Thorell, 1873
  • Eocydrele Petrunkevitch, 1958 † (fossil)
  • Procydrela Jocqué, 1999
  • Psammoduon Jocqué, 1991
  • Psammorygma Jocqué, 1991
  • Rotundrela Jocqué, 1999
  • Cyriocteinae Jocqué, 1991
  • Cyrioctea Simon, 1889
  • Lachesaninae Jocqué, 1991
  • Antillorena Jocqué, 1991
  • Australutica Jocqué, 1995
  • Lachesana Strand, 1932
  • Lutica Marx, 1891
  • Sterenomorphinae Simon, 1893
  • Chariobas Simon, 1893
  • Cicynethus Simon, 1910
  • Madrela Jocqué, 1991
  • Storenomorpha Simon, 1884
  • Thaumastochilus Simon, 1897
  • Storeninae Simon, 1893
  • Amphiledorus Jocqué & Bosmans, 2001
  • Asceua Thorell, 1887
  • Asteron Jocqué, 1991
  • Basasteron Baehr, 2003
  • Cavasteron Baehr & Jocqué, 2000
  • Chilumena Jocqué, 1995
  • Cybaeodamus Mello-Leitão, 1938
  • Euasteron Baehr, 2003
  • Forsterella Jocqué, 1991
  • Habronestes L. Koch, 1872
  • Hermippus Simon, 1893
  • Hetaerica Rainbow, 1916
  • Ishania Chamberlin, 1925
  • Leprolochus Simon, 1893
  • Leptasteron Baehr & Jocqué, 2001
  • Mallinella Strand, 1906
  • Minasteron Baehr & Jocqué, 2000
  • Neostorena Rainbow, 1914
  • Nostera Jocqué, 1991
  • Pax Levy, 1990
  • Pentasteron Baehr & Jocqué, 2001
  • Phenasteron Baehr & Jocqué, 2001
  • Platnickia Jocqué, 1991
  • Pseudasteron Jocqué & Baehr, 2001
  • Selamia Simon, 1873
  • Spinasteron Baehr, 2003
  • Storena Walckenaer, 1805
  • Storosa Jocqué, 1991
  • Subasteron Baehr & Jocqué, 2001
  • Tenedos O. P.-Cambridge, 1897
  • Tropasteron Baehr, 2003
  • Zillimata Jocqué, 1995
  • Zodariinae Thorell, 1881
  • Akyttara Jocqué, 1987
  • Diores Simon, 1893
  • Dusmadiores Jocqué, 1987
  • Heradida Simon, 1893
  • Mallinus Simon, 1893
  • Mastidiores Jocqué, 1987
  • Microdiores Jocqué, 1987
  • Palaestina O. P.-Cambridge, 1872
  • Palfuria Simon, 1910
  • Ranops Jocqué, 1991
  • Suffasia Jocqué, 1991
  • Trygetus Simon, 1882
  • Zodarion Walckenaer, 1826
  • Adjutor Petrunkevitch, 1942 † (fossil)
  • Admissor Petrunkevitch, 1942 † (fossil)
  • Anniculus Petrunkevitch, 1942 † (fossil)
  • Colima Jocqué & Baert, 2006
  • Cryptothele L. Koch, 1872 (Southeast Asia)
  • Epicratinus Jocqué & Baert, 2006
  • Euryeidon Dankittipakul & Jocqué, 2004
  • Heradion Dankittipakul & Jocqué, 2004
  • Holasteron Baehr, 2004
  • Masasteron Baehr, 2003
  • Notasteron Baehr, 2001
  • Tropizodium Jocqué & Churchill, 2005
  • Zodariellum Andreeva & Tyschchenko, 1968

See also

External links


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Classis: Arachnida
Ordo: Araneae
Subordo: Opisthothelae
Infraordo: Araneomorphae
Taxon: Neocribellatae
Series: Entelegynae
Superfamilia: Zodaroidea
Familia: Zodariidae
Subfamiliae: Cryptothelinae - Cydrelinae - Cyriocteinae - Lachesaninae - Storeninae - Storenomorphinae - Zodariinae - incertae sedis

List of genera

Akyttara - Amphiledorus - Antillorena - Asceua - Aschema - Asteron - Australutica - Basasteron - Caesetius - Capheris - Cavasteron - Chariobas - Chilumena - Cicynethus - Colima - Cryptothele - Cybaeodamus - Cydrela - Cyrioctea - Diores - Dusmadiores - Epicratinus - Euasteron - Euryeidon - Forsterella - Habronestes - Heradida - Heradion - Hermippus - Hetaerica - Holasteron - Indozodion - Ishania - Lachesana - Leprolochus - Leptasteron - Lutica - Mallinella - Mallinus - Masasteron - Mastidiores - Microdiores - Minasteron - Neostorena - Nostera - Notasteron - Omucukia - Palaestina - Palfuria - Pax - Pentasteron - Phenasteron - Platnickia - Procydrela - Psammoduon - Psammorygma - Pseudasteron - Ranops - Rotundrela - Selamia - Spinasteron - Storena - Storenomorpha - Storosa - Subasteron - Suffasia - Tenedos - Thaumastochilus - Tropasteron - Tropizodium - Trygetus - Zillimata - Zodariellum - Zodarion

Name

Zodariidae Thorell, 1881

Synonyms

References

  • Jocqué, R. 1991. A generic revision of the spider family Zodariidae (Araneae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 201: 1-160. PDF
  • Wunderlich, J. 2004. The fossil spiders (Araneae) of the family Zodariidae in Baltic amber, with remarks on their subfamilies including the Cryptothelinae and the Homalonychinae. Beiträge zur Araneologie 3: 1578-1611.
  • Platnick, N. I. 2009. The World Spider Catalog, version 9.5. American Museum of Natural History. [1]

Vernacular names

English: Zodariid ground spider
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Zodariidae on Wikimedia Commons.

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