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Coin of king Zoilos II (5535 BCE).
Obv: Bust of Zoilos II with Greek legend ΒΑΣΗΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΖΟΗΛΟΥ ("Basileos Sotiros Zoilou") "King Zoilos the Saviour".
Rev: Athena advancing left, with thunderbolt and shield covered with aegis (type of Menander I). Kharosthi legend: MAHARAJASA TRATARASA JHOILASA "King Zoilos the Saviour".

Zoilos II Soter "Saviour" was an Indo-Greek king who ruled in eastern Punjab. Bopearachchi dates his reign to c. 5535 BCE, a date approximately supported by RC Senior.

He seems to have been one of the rulers who succeeded the last important Indo-Greek king Apollodotus II the Great in the eastern parts of his former kingdom. All these kings use the same symbol as Apollodotus II, the fighting Pallas Athene introduced by Menander I, and usually also the same epithet Soter (Saviour). It is therefore possible that they belonged to the same dynasty, and Zoilus II could also have been related to the earlier king Zoilus I, but the lack of written sources make all such conjections uncertain.

Contents

Coins of Zoilus II

Zoilos II issued silver drachms with diademed portrait and Pallas Athene in rather crude style, and two sorts of bronzes in various denominations: "Apollo, with tripod and small elephant", and "Elephant and tripod".

Monograms

Many of the (monograms) on the coins of Zoilos II are in Kharoshti, indicating that they were probably made by an Indian moneyer. This is a characteristic of several of the Indo-Greek kings of the eastern Punjab, such as Strato I, Apollodotus II, and sometimes Apollophanes and Dionysios. Furthermore, the monogram is often identical on their coins, indicating that the moneyer, or the place of mint, were the same.

The coins of Zoilos II combine Greek monograms with Kharoshthi ones, indicating that some of the celators may have been native Indians. The Kharoshthi monograms are the letters for: sti, ji, ra, ga, gri, ha, stri, ri, bu, a, di, stra, and śi. The "Apollo and tripod" and "Elephant and tripod" types only have Kharoshthi monograms, while the portrait types usually have combinations of Greek and Kharoshthi monograms.

Findplaces

The coins of Zoilos II have been found in the Sutlej and Sialkot II hoards, and in Punjab hoards east in the Jhelum (Bopearachchi, p138).

Also, coins of Zoilos II were found under the foundation of 1st century BCE rectangular chapel in the monastery of Dharmarajika, near Taxila (John Marshall, "Taxila, Archaeological excavations", p.248.)

Two coins of Zoilos II were also found in the Bara hoard near Peshawar, together with coins of the Indo-Scythian kings Azes I, Azilises, Azes II.[1]

Overstrikes

A coin of Zoilus II was overstruck on a coin of Apollodotus II.

Preceded by:
Dionysios
Indo-Greek Ruler
(Eastern Punjab)
(55 - 35 BCE)
Succeeded by:
Apollophanes
INDO-GREEK KINGS AND THEIR TERRITORIES
Based on Bopearachchi (1991)
Territories/
Dates
PAROPAMISADE
ARACHOSIA GANDHARA WESTERN PUNJAB EASTERN PUNJAB
200-190 BCE Demetrius I DemetriusCoin.jpg
190-180 BCE Agathocles AgathoclesWithAlexander.jpg Pantaleon
185-170 BCE Antimachus I AntimachusMedaille.jpg
180-160 BCE Apollodotus I AppolodotusCoin.JPG
175-170 BCE Demetrius II
160-155 BCE Antimachus II
170-145 BCE Eucratides Tetradrachm Eukratides.jpg
155-130 BCE Menander I Menander Alexandria-Kapisa.jpg
130-120 BCE Zoilos I ZoilosI-525.jpg Agathokleia Agathokleia&Strato.jpg
120-110 BCE Lysias Lysias-150.jpg Strato I
110-100 BCE Antialcidas Antialcidas.JPG Heliokles II
100 BCE Polyxenios Demetrius III Demetrius Aniketou.jpg
100-95 BCE Philoxenus PhiloxenusCoin2.JPG
95-90 BCE Diomedes Amyntas Epander
90 BCE Theophilos Theophilos-634.jpg Peukolaos Thraso
90-85 BCE Nicias Menander II MenanderDikaiou.jpg Artemidoros
90-70 BCE Hermaeus HermaeusCoin.jpg Archebios Archebios229.jpg
Yuezhi tribes Maues (Indo-Scythian)
75-70 BCE Telephos Apollodotus II ApollodotusCoin.jpg
65-55 BCE Hippostratos Hippostratos.jpg Dionysios
55-35 BCE Azes I (Indo-Scythian) Zoilos II ZoilosIICoin.JPG
55-35 BCE Apollophanes Apollophanes.jpg
25 BCE- 10 CE Strato II StratoIAndStratoII.jpg
Rajuvula (Indo-Scythian)

Notes

  1. ^ Reference

See also

References

  • "The Greeks in Bactria and India", W.W. Tarn, Cambridge University Press.
  • "Coins of the Indo-Greeks", Whitehead.
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