|Common military ranks|
| Admiral of|
|Field Marshal|| Marshal of|
the Air Force
|Commander||Lt. Colonel||Wing Commander|
|Lt. Commander||Major||Squadron Leader|
|Ensign||2nd Lieutenant||Pilot Officer|
|Midshipman||Officer Cadet||Officer Cadet|
|Seamen, soldiers and airmen|
|Warrant Officer||Sergeant Major||Warrant Officer|
|Common Naval Ranks of the World|
Admiral is the rank, or part of the name of the ranks, of the highest naval officers. It is usually considered a full admiral (equivalent to full general) and above Vice Admiral and below Admiral of the Fleet/Fleet Admiral. It is usually abbreviated to "Adm." or "ADM". Where relevant, Admiral is a 4 star rank.
The word Admiral in Middle English comes from Anglo-French amiral, "commander", from Medieval Latin admiralis, "emir", admirallus, "admiral", from Arabic amir-al- أمير الـ, "commander of the" (as in amir-al-bahr أمير البحر "commander of the sea"). Crusaders learned the term during their encounters with the Arabs, perhaps as early as the 11th century. The Sicilians and later Genoese took the first two parts of the term and used them as one word, amiral, from their Catalan opponents. The French and Spanish gave their sea commanders similar titles while in Portuguese the word changed to almirante. As the word was used by people speaking Latin or Latin-based languages it gained the "d" and endured a series of different endings and spellings leading to the English spelling "admyrall" in the 14th century and to "admiral" by the 16th century.
The word Admiral has today come to be almost exclusively associated with the highest naval rank in most of the world's navies, equivalent to the Army rank of (Full) General. However, this wasn't always the case; for example, in some European countries prior to the end of World War II, Admiral was the third highest naval rank behind General Admiral and Grand Admiral.
The rank of Admiral has also been subdivided into various grades, several of which are historically extinct while others are used by most present day navies. The Royal Navy used colours (red, white, and blue, in descending order) to indicate the seniority of its admirals until 1864; for example, Horatio Nelson's highest rank was Vice Admiral of the White. The generic term for these naval equivalents of army generals is Flag Officer. Some navies have also used army-type titles for them, such as the Cromwellian General at Sea.
Almirante hombrera SEMAR.gif
POL PMW pagon1 admirał.svg
SP Almirante General.gif
c. 1205 (?).
admiral (plural admirals)
admiral m. sg.
Admiral is the highest rank in a navy. The term is used internationally by many countries. It derives originally from the Arabic amīr (= commander), and comes down to us by way of Old French and Latin.
Variations on the term are: