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Phonetic sound
alveolar trill
Symbol (font) r
Symbol (image)
IPA–number 122
Entity (decimal) r
Unicode (hex) U+0072
X-SAMPA r
Kirshenbaum r
Sound sample

The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents dental, alveolar, and postalveolar trills is [r], and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is r. It is commonly called the rolled R or rolling R. Quite often, /r/ is used in phonemic transcriptions (especially those found in dictionaries) of languages like English and German that have rhotic consonants that are not an alveolar trill. This is partly due to ease of typesetting and partly because is often the symbol used for the orthographies of such languages.

In the majority of Indo-European languages, this sound is at least occasionally allophonic with an alveolar tap [ɾ], particularly in unstressed positions. Exceptions to this include Catalan, Spanish, and Albanian, which treat them as separate phonemes.

Contents

Features

Features of the alveolar trill:

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz ашəара [aʃʷara]'measure' See Abkhaz phonology
Afrikaans rooi [rɔɪ]'red'
Albanian rrush [ruʃ] 'grape'
Arabic رأس [rɑʔs]'head' represented by a <ر>. See Arabic phonology
Armenianռումբ [rumb] 'cannon-ball'
Basque errota [eˈrota] 'mill'
Catalan[1] esborrar [əzβuˈra]'to delete' See Catalan phonology
Croatian tri [tri] 'three' May be syllabic.
Czech chlor [xlɔ̝ːr] 'chlorine' May be syllabic. See Czech phonology
Dutch rood [roːt] 'red' Standard pronunciation. Pronunciation of 'r' varies regionally, see Dutch phonology
English Scottish curd [kʌrd] 'curd' See English phonology
Estonian narr [nɑrː] 'fool' See Estonian phonology
Finnish purra [purːɑ] 'to bite' See Finnish phonology
French southern France and Corsica rouge [ruʒ] 'red' See Standard and Quebec French phonologies.
rural Quebec
African French
German southern dialects Schmarrn [ʃmaːrn] 'nonsense/rubbish' somewhat rare, often used for emphasis. See German phonology
Greek ρεβίθια [reˈviθça] 'chick peas' See Modern Greek phonology
Hindi घर [ɡʱər] 'house' See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Hungarian arra [ɒrːɒ] 'that way' See Hungarian phonology
Ilokano gurruod[gʊˈruʔod]'thunder'
Italian[2] terra [ˈtɛrra] 'earth' See Italian phonology
Kele[3] [nrikei] 'leg'
Malay Standard arah [arah] 'direction'
Ngwe Njoagwi dialect [lɛ̀rɛ́] 'eye'
Persianرضا (Reza)[ˈrezɒː]'Reza' Allophone of [ɾ] in word-initial positions. See Persian phonology.
Polish[4] krok [ˈkrɔk] 'step' See Polish phonology
Portuguese carro [ˈkäru] 'car' In some dialects. See Portuguese phonology and Guttural R.
Romanian r [mər] 'apple' See Romanian phonology
Russian[5] играть [ɪˈɡr̠atʲ] 'to play' Retracted. See Russian phonology
Serbian рт/rt [r̩t] 'cape' May be syllabic
Slovak ryba [riba] 'fish' May be syllabic
Spanish[6] perro [ˈpe̞ro̞] 'dog' See Spanish phonology
Swedish Central Standard rov [ruːv] 'prey; loot' See Swedish phonology
Tajik арра [ʌrrʌ] 'saw'
Titan[3] [nrakeiʔin] 'girls'
Ubykh [bəqˁʼərda] 'to roll around'
Welsh Rhagfyr [ˈr̥aɡvɨr]'December'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[7] r-ree [rəˤə] 'habitual-go out' Underlyingly two sequences of /ɾ/

Raised alveolar non-sonorant trill

In Czech there are two contrasting alveolar trills. Besides the typical trill, written r, there is another, written ř, in words such as rybáři [ˈrɪbaːr̝ɪ] 'fishermen' and the common surname Dvořák. Its manner of articulation is similar to [r] but the tongue is raised; it is partially fricative, with the frication sounding rather like [ʒ], though not so retracted. Thus in the IPA it is written as ‹r› plus the raising diacritic, ‹r̝›. (Before the 1989 IPA Kiel Convention, it had a dedicated symbol ‹ɼ›). It is normally voiced, but there is a voiceless allophone r̝̊ as will many other Czech consonants.

This sound occurred historically in Polish, where it was written rz, but it has since merged with ż [ʐ].

(Listen: Antonín Dvořák [ˈantoɲiːn ˈdvor̝aːk] )

See also

References

Bibliography

  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Catalan"], Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (1-2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618 
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Polish"], Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191 
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator Vowels and Consonants] (Second ed.), Blackwell 
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator The Sounds of the World's Languages], Blackwell Publishing, ISBN ISBN 0-631-19815-6 
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Castilian Spanish"], Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373 
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Tilquipan Zapotec"], Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114 
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Italian"], Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628 
  • Skalozub, Larisa (1963), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator Palatogrammy i Rentgenogrammy Soglasnyx Fonem Russkogo Literaturnogo Jazyka], Izdatelstvo Kievskogo Universiteta 

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