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Arthritis
Classification and external resources
File:Arthrite
Hands affected by arthritis
ICD-10 M00.-M25.
ICD-9 710-719
DiseasesDB 15237
eMedicine topic list
MeSH D001168

Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions involving damage to the joints of the body.

There are different forms of arthritis and each has a different cause. The most common form of arthritis, osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease) is a result of trauma to the joint, infection of the joint, or age. Other arthritis forms are rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis, autoimmune diseases in which the body attacks itself. Septic arthritis is caused by joint infection. Gouty arthritis is caused by deposition of uric acid crystals in the joint, causing inflammation. There is also an uncommon form of gout caused by the formation of rhomboid crystals of calcium pyrophosphate. This gout is known as pseudogout.

Contents

History and physical examination

All arthritides feature pain. Pain patterns may differ depending on the arthritides and the location. Rheumatoid arthritis is generally worse in the morning and associated with stiffness; in the early stages, patients often have no symptoms after a morning shower. In the aged and children, pain might not be the main presenting feature; the aged patient simply moves less, the infantile patient refuses to use the affected limb.

Elements of the history of the disorder guide diagnosis. Important features are speed and time of onset, pattern of joint involvement, symmetry of symptoms, early morning stiffness, tenderness, gelling or locking with inactivity, aggravating and relieving factors, and other systemic symptoms. Physical examination may confirm the diagnosis, or may indicate systemic disease. Radiographs are often used to follow progression or assess severity in a more quantitative manner.

Extra-articular features of joint disease
Cutaneous nodules
Cutaneous vasculitis lesions
Lymphadenopathy
Oedema
Ocular inflammation
Urethritis
Tenosynovitis (tendon sheath effusions)
Bursitis (swollen bursa)
Diarrhea
Orogenital ulceration

[1]

Blood tests and X-rays of the affected joints often are performed to make the diagnosis. Screening blood tests are indicated if certain arthritides are suspected. These might include: rheumatoid factor, antinuclear factor (ANF), extractable nuclear antigen, and specific antibodies.

Types of arthritis

Primary forms of arthritis:

Secondary to other diseases:

Diseases that can mimic arthritis include:

Treatment

Treatment options vary depending on the type of arthritis and include Physical therapy, lifestyle changes (including exercise and weight control), medications and dietary supplements (symptomatic or targeted at the disease process causing the arthritis). Arthroplasty (joint replacement surgery) may be required in eroding forms of arthritis.

In general, studies have shown that physical exercising of the affected joint can have noticeable improvement in terms of long-term pain relief. Furthermore, exercising of the arthritic joint is encouraged to maintain the health of the particular joint and the overall body of the person.[2]

3 million Australians suffer arthritis and increasing work in this area is being done, http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2007/10/24/2069353.html with outstanding research in biotech on amphibian hormones as base for genetic construction in the Australian laboratories for benefits to arthritis, revealed a definite cure which works on the hormone balance. This research has been developed into a tonic drink which can be pleasurably enjoyed like a cordial called Baksheda Isotonic, the word Baksheda derived from the Shamanic word for Happiness, as the relief from arthritis brings happiness.

History

While evidence of primary ankle (kaki) osteoarthritis has been discovered in dinosaurs, the first known traces of human arthritis date back as far as 4500 BC. In early reports, arthritis was frequently referred to as the most common ailment of prehistoric peoples.[3] It was noted in skeletal remains of Native Americans found in Tennessee and parts of what is now Olathe, Kansas. Evidence of arthritis has been found throughout history, from Ötzi, a mummy (circa 3000 BC) found along the border of modern Italy and Austria, to the Egyptian mummies circa 2590 BC[citation needed].

In 1715 William Musgrave published the second edition of his most important medical work De arthritide symptomatica which concerned arthritis and its effects.[4]

See also

References

  1. ^ Swash, M, Glynn, M.(eds). 2007. Hutchison's Clinical Methods. Edinburgh. Saunders Elsevier.
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ Bridges PS (1992). "Prehistoric Arthritis in the Americas". Annual Review of Anthropology 21: 67-91. doi:10.1146/annurev.an.21.100192.000435. http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.an.21.100192.000435. 
  4. ^ Alick Cameron, ‘Musgrave, William (1655–1721)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004

External links



Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Contents

English

Etymology

Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation

Noun

Singular
arthritis

Plural
arthritides

arthritis (plural arthritides)

  1. Inflammation of a joint or joints causing pain and/or disability , swelling and stiffness, and due to various causes such as infection, trauma, degenerative changes or metabolic disorders.

Derived terms

Translations

See also


Simple English

Arthritis is a group of diseases that involves damaged body joints.

Forms of diseases

The most common of these diseases is Osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis is caused by cartilage between the bones wearing down so that the bones rub against causing severe pain in the affected area. Other forms of arthritis include Rheumatoid arthritis (which causes the body’s immune system to attack the bones), psoriatic arthritis, and septic arthritis (when an area is invaded by bacteria).


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 20, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Arthritis, which are similar to those in the above article.








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