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Blasphemy is irreverence[1] toward holy personages, religious artifacts, customs, and beliefs. The Abrahamic religions condemn blasphemy vehemently. Some countries have laws to punish blasphemy,[2] while others have laws to give recourse to those who are offended by blasphemy. Those laws may discourage blasphemy as a matter of blasphemous libel,[3] vilification of religion,[4][5] religious insult,[6] or hate speech.[7]

History

The word "blasphemy" came via Middle English blasfemen and Old French blasfemer and Late Latin blasphemare from Greek βλασφημέω, from βλάπτω = "I injure" and φήμη = "reputation". From blasphemare also came Old French blasmer, from which English "blame" came.

Blasphemy laws

Countries use blasphemy laws to victimize non-members of, and dissident members of, the ruling sect or cult. Countries with a state religion are the most punitive users of blasphemy laws.[8][9][9][10][11][12][13][14]

Blasphemy in Judaism

In the third book of the Torah, Leviticus 24:16 states that those who speak blasphemy "shall surely be put to death". See also List of capital crimes in the Torah. The Seven laws of Noah which Judaism sees as applicable to all of humankind prohibits blasphemy.

Blasphemy in Christianity

File:Jesus
The satirical Alexamenos graffito is believed to be the earliest known representation of Jesus.

Christian theology condemns blasphemy. One verse from the Bible that directly concerns the sin reads as follows:

Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain. (Exodus 20:7 KJV)
In addition, it is spoken of in the Mark 3:29, where blaspheming the Holy Spirit is spoken of as unforgivable - the eternal sin. However, there is dispute over what form this blasphemy may take and whether it qualifies as blasphemy in the conventional sense.

Blasphemy has been condemned as a serious, or even the most serious, sin by the major creeds and Church theologians.

  • Thomas Aquinas says that “it is clear that blasphemy, which is a sin committed directly against God, is more grave than murder, which is a sin against one's neighbor. … it is called the most grievous sin, for as much as it makes every sin more grievous.”[15]
  • The Book of Concord calls blasphemy “the greatest sin that can be outwardly committed”.[16]
  • The Baptist Confession of Faith says: “Therefore, to swear vainly or rashly by the glorious and awesome name of God…is sinful, and to be regarded with disgust and detestation. …For by rash, false, and vain oaths, the Lord is provoked and because of them this land mourns.”[17]
  • The Heidelberg Catechism answers question 100 about blasphemy by stating that “no sin is greater or provokes God's wrath more than the blaspheming of His Name”.[18]
  • The Westminster Larger Catechism explains that “The sins forbidden in the third commandment are, the abuse of it in an ignorant, vain, irreverent, profane...mentioning...by blasphemy...to profane jests, ...vain janglings, ...to charms or sinful lusts and practices.”[19]
  • Calvin found it intolerable “when a person is accused of blasphemy, to lay the blame on the ebullition of passion, as if God were to endure the penalty whenever we are provoked.”[20]

The Catholic Encyclopedia has a more extensive article on blasphemy.

Catholic prayers and reparations for blasphemy

In the Catholic Church, there are specific prayers and devotions as Acts of Reparation for blasphemy.[21] For instance, The Golden Arrow Holy Face Devotion (Prayer) first introduced by Sister Marie of St Peter in 1844 is recited "in a spirit of reparation for blasphemy". This devotion (started by Sister Marie and then promoted by the Venerable Leo Dupont) was approved by Pope Leo XIII in 1885.[22] The Raccolta Catholic prayer book includes a number of such prayers.[23] The Five First Saturdays devotions are done with the intention in the heart of making reparation to the Blessed Mother for blasphemies against her, her name and her holy initiatives.

The Holy See has specific "Pontifical organizations" for the purpose of the reparation of blasphemy through Acts of Reparation to Jesus Christ, e.g. the Pontifical Congregation of the Benedictine Sisters of the Reparation of the Holy Face.[24] [[File:|thumb|Writer Salman Rushdie was accused of blasphemy and subject of a fatwā issued by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the Supreme Leader of Iran, in February 1989.]]

Death sentence

Blasphemy against God and the Church was a crime punishable by death in much of the world, and remains punishable by death in some parts to this day. (Lesser forms of punishment are also utilized.)

In Britain's last blasphemy execution, 18-year-old Thomas Aikenhead was executed for the crime in 1697. He was prosecuted for saying on a cold Edinburgh night, "I wish I were in that place Ezra calls hell so I could warm myself." George Rosie wrote in the newspaper The Scotsman, "The killing of Thomas Aikenhead, like the hounding of Salman Rushdie for the same 'offence,' was a disgrace. . . a prime example of a God-fixated state killing a man in an attempt to stop the spread of an idea."[25]

Blasphemy in Islam

Blasphemy in Islam is irreverent behavior toward holy personages, religious artifacts, customs, and beliefs that Muslims respect.

The Qur'an says "Revile not ye those whom they call upon besides Allah, lest they out of spite revile Allah in their ignorance." (6:108)

In Muslim countries, the penalties for such behavior vary by jurisdiction, and can include fines, imprisonment, flogging, amputation, or beheading.[26][27]

Blasphemy and the United Nations

In the early 21st century, blasphemy became an issue for the United Nations. The General Assembly passed several resolutions which called upon the world to take action against the "defamation of religions."[28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35]

Colloquial usage

Blasphemy has been used to mean "irreverence" in a non-religious context. Sir Francis Bacon uses "blasphemy" in this way in Advancement of Learning, where he speaks of "blasphemy against teaching".

"Blasphemy" may be used as a substitute for "profanity" or "cursing" as it is used in this sentence: "With much hammering and blasphemy, the locomotive's replacement spring was finally fitted."

In contemporary language, the notion of blasphemy is often used hyperbolically. This usage has garnered some interest among linguists recently, and the word 'blasphemy' is a common case used for illustrative purposes.[36][37]

See also

References

  1. ^ http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/blasphemy
  2. ^ See Blasphemy law.
  3. ^ Kerr, ine (9 July 2009). "Libel and blasphemy bill passed by the Dail". Independent.ie. http://www.independent.ie/national-news/libel-and-blasphemy-bill-passed-by-the-dail-1813479.html. Retrieved 17 November 2009. 
  4. ^ http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/qld/consol_act/aa1991204/s124a.html
  5. ^ http://www.police.vic.gov.au/content.asp?document_id=23370
  6. ^ European Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission), Report on the relationship between freedom of expression and freedom of religion: the issue of regulation and prosecution of blasphemy, religious insult and incitement to religious hatred, 17-18 October 2008, Doc. No. CDL-AD(2008)026
  7. ^ See Blasphemy law and Hate speech.
  8. ^ http://www.religiouswatch.com/rwworld.htm
  9. ^ a b http://www.christianpost.com/article/20091113/100-groups-oppose-u-n-defamation-of-religions-proposals/index.html
  10. ^ http://www.iheu.org/united-nations-will-violate-human-rights-says-new-report-religious-freedoms
  11. ^ "Muslim scholar says Scrap blasphemy laws which bring shame on Islam and Pakistan". Herald Malaysia Online. 11 August 2009. http://www.heraldmalaysia.com/news/storydetails.php/Muslim-scholar-says-Scrap-blasphemy-laws-which-bring-shame-on-Islam-and-Pakistan/2058-1-1. Retrieved 3 September 2009. [dead link]
  12. ^ http://www.uscirf.gov/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1414&Itemid=1 Annual Report of the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom May 2009 (Pakistan, etc.).
  13. ^ http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/TestFrame/af783bb51170854380256739004faac4?Opendocument A call upon states to work toward abolishing the juvenile death penalty
  14. ^ http://report2009.amnesty.org/en/regions/asia-pacific/indonesia
  15. ^ Thomas Aquinas: Summa Theologica 2:2, q. 13.
  16. ^ The Book of Concord The Large Catechism, §55.
  17. ^ The Baptist Confession of Faith Ch. 23, §2-3.
  18. ^ The Heidelberg Cathechism Q. 100.
  19. ^ Westminster Larger Cathechism Q. 113.
  20. ^ Jean Calvin: Harmony of the Law vol. 4. Lev. 24:10.
  21. ^ Act of Reparation for Blasphemies Uttered Against the Holy Name, Righting Wrongs Through Prayer By Scott P. Richert, About.com
  22. ^ * Dorothy Scallan. The Holy Man of Tours. (1990) ISBN 0895553902
  23. ^ Joseph P. Christopher et al., 2003 The Raccolta, St Athanasius Press ISBN 978-0970652669
  24. ^ Letter for 50th anniversary of the Benedictine Sisters of Reparation of the Holy Face, 2000 Vatican archives
  25. ^ Thomas Aikenhead
  26. ^ See the articles about Islamic jurisdictions under Blasphemy law.
  27. ^ http://www.islamicvoice.com/April2006/QuestionHour-DrZakirNaik/
  28. ^ http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?Open&DS=A/RES/60/150&Lang=E A/RES/60/150
  29. ^ http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?Open&DS=A/60/PV.64&Lang=E Vote on 16 December 2005 (A/60/PV.64)
  30. ^ http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?Open&DS=A/RES/61/164&Lang=E A/RES/61/164
  31. ^ http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?Open&DS=A/61/PV.81&Lang=E Vote on 19 December 2006
  32. ^ http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?Open&DS=A/RES/62/154&Lang=E A/RES/62/154
  33. ^ http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?Open&DS=A/62/PV.76&Lang=E Vote on 18 December 2007
  34. ^ http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?Open&DS=A/RES/63/171&Lang=E A/RES/63/171
  35. ^ http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?Open&DS=A/63/PV.70&Lang=E Vote on 18 December 2008
  36. ^ Recanati 1995; Carston 1997, 1999, 2000; Sperber & Wilson 1998; Glucksberg 2001; Wilson & Sperber 2002.
  37. ^ "Relevance and Lexical Pragmatics" (DOC). UCL Dept of Phonetics and Linguistics. http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/deirdre/papers/Relevance%20Theory%20and%20Lexical%20Pragmatics.doc. Retrieved 2008-05-12. [dead link]

Further reading

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia

Etymology

Old French blasfemie, from Late Latin blasphēmia, from Ancient Greek βλασφημία (blasphēmia), profanity), from βλασφημέω (blasphēmeō), to slander).

Pronunciation

  • IPA: ˈblæs.fə.mɪ, SAMPA: 'bl{s.f@.mi

Noun

Singular
blasphemy

Plural
blasphemies

blasphemy (plural blasphemies)

  1. Irreverence toward something considered sacred or inviolable.
  2. The act of insulting or showing contempt or lack of reverence for any religion's deity or deities.
  3. The act of claiming the attributes of a deity.

Synonyms

Antonyms

Derived terms

Translations


Simple English

The English Wiktionary has a dictionary definition (meanings of a word) for:

(The Ship of Fools); woodcut attributed to Albrecht Dürer]] Blasphemy is a word that means speaking badly about a religion, or insulting a god. In many countries blasphemy is a crime.[1]

Other pages

References

  • Maledicta: The International Journal of Verbal Aggression (ISSN US 0363-3659)
  • Levy, L. Blasphemy. Chapel Hill, 1993.
  • Dartevelle, P., S Borg, Denis, Ph., Robyn, J. (eds.). Blasphèmes et libertés. Paris: CERF, 1993
  • Plate, S. Brent Blasphemy: Art that Offends (London: Black Dog Publishing, 2006) [ISBN 1904772536]

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