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Schaffhausen
[[Image:|170px|none|Map of Switzerland highlighting the Canton of Schaffhausen]]
Capital Schaffhausen
Population (2007) 74527 (Ranked 19th)
  - Density 247 /km²
Area Coordinates: 47°43′N 8°34′E / 47.717°N 8.567°E / 47.717; 8.567 298 km² (Ranked 20th)
Highest point 912 m - Hagen
Lowest point 344 m - Rhine at Buchberg
Joined 1501
Abbreviation SH
Languages German
Executive Regierungsrat (5)
Legislative Kantonsrat (80)
Municipalities 34 municipalities
Districts n.a.
Website www.SH.ch
[[Image:|250px|none|Map of the Canton of Schaffhausen]]

The Canton of Schaffhausen is a canton of Switzerland. The principal city and capital of the canton is Schaffhausen.

Contents

Geography


The canton of Schaffhausen is the northernmost canton of Switzerland, located to the north of Zurich. It lies west of the Lake Constance and has a size of 298 km² (112 square miles).[1] Much of the canton is productive agricultural land, with 134.4 km² (51.9 sq mi) (about 45%) of the canton used for agriculture while an additional 128.7 km² (49.7 sq mi) (about 43%) is wooded. Most of the rest of the canton, 31.8 km² (12.3 sq mi) (about 10%), is developed while only 3.8 km² (1.5 sq mi) (1.3%) of the canton is unproductive (rivers, lakes or mountains).[2]

The land is almost entirely surrounded by Germany, which lies to the north, east and west of the canton. The canton of Schaffhausen is even divided by parts of Germany. There are three parts to the canton. The largest part includes the capital Schaffhausen. The small district of Rüdlingen-Buchberg lies in the south west of the canton, and the third part contains Ramsen and Stein am Rhein to the east. Furthermore the German exclave town of Büsingen am Hochrhein lies along part of the southern border of the main section of the canton.

Most of the canton lies on a plateau dominated by the Hoher Randen. The summit of this mountain is 912 m (2,992 ft). The slopes of the mountain are gentle towards the south where it reaches the Rhine valley. Short and narrow valleys intersect these gentle slopes. The Klettgau is one such valley.

The Rhine Falls are the largest waterfalls in Europe and lie on the border of the canton of Schaffhausen and the canton of Zurich.

History

Schaffhausen was a city-state in the Middle Ages, documented to have struck its own coins starting in 1045. It was then known as Villa Scafhusun.[3] Around 1049 Count Eberhard von Nellenburg founded a Benedictine monastery which lead to the development of a community. This community achieved independence in 1190. In 1330 the town not only lost all its lands but also its independence to the Habsburgs. Then, in 1415 the Habsburg Duke Frederick IV of Austria sided with the Antipope John XXIII at the Council of Constance, and was banned by the Emperor Sigismund. As a result of the ban and Frederick's need of money, Schaffhausen was able of buy it's independence from the Habsburgs in 1418. The city allied with six of the Swiss confederates in 1454 and allied with a further two (Uri and Unterwalden) in 1479. Schaffhausen became a full member of the Old Swiss Confederation in 1501.[3] The first railroad came to Schaffhausen in 1857. In 1944 Schaffhausen suffered from a bombing raid by United States Air Force planes that accidentally strayed from Germany to neutral Switzerland.

The cantonal constitution was written in 1876 and revised in 1895.

Economy

Well-regarded white Riesling wine is grown here as well as several other varieties.[4] The main industries, however, are the production of machinery and metal goods. There is also watch making and jewelery. Minor industrial branches are textiles, leather goods, glass, cement, paper and chemicals.[5] There is a brewery in the canton.

At Rheinau there is a hydro electrical power plant generating electricity for the canton and export. The largest demands of electricity are made by the chemical industry in Rheinfelden and the aluminium plant at Neuhausen am Rheinfall. The city of Schaffhausen also uses a large quantity of the electricity produced at Rheinau.

Schaffhausen lies on the busy Milan-Zurich-Stuttgart rail line which is serviced by trains from both the Swiss SBB-CFF-FFS and German Deutsche Bahn national railway companies.[6]

Demographics

]] In 2007 the population was 74,527 people of which 16,323 (or 21.9%) were foreigners[7]. The German language and Protestant faith predominate. The majority of the population (as of 2000) is Protestant (50%) while a large minority is Roman Catholic (24%)[8].

Former districts

Until July 1999, Canton Schaffhausen was divided into these 6 districts (Bezirke):

  • Oberklettgau
  • Reiat
  • Schaffhausen
  • Schleitheim
  • Stein
  • Unterklettgau.

Municipalities

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The municipality of Osterfingen was incorporated into Wilchingen in 2005.

External links

Template:Commonscat

References

  1. Canton Schaffhausen website, Geography (German) accessed 18 April 2009
  2. Bundesamt fur Statistik (Federal Department of Statistics) (2008). "Arealstatistik – Kantonsdaten nach 15 Nutzungsarten" (Microsoft Excel). http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/de/index/themen/02/03/blank/key/01/zustand_und_entwicklung__tabelle.html. Retrieved on 2009-01-15. (German)
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Schaffhausen (city)". Encyclopædia Britannica. 24. 1911. pp. 312. http://books.google.com/books?id=ajsEAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA312. Retrieved on 18-04-2009. 
  4. Canton Schaffhausen website, Wine Production (German) accessed 18 April 2009
  5. Canton Schaffhausen website- Economic Promotion accessed 18 April 2009
  6. Canton Schaffhausen website, Economic Promotion-Geographic Location accessed 18 April 2009
  7. Bundesamt fur Statistik (Federal Department of Statistics) (2008). "Ständige Wohnbevölkerung nach Staatsangehörigkeit, Geschlecht und Kantonen" (Microsoft Excel). http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/de/index/themen/01/02/blank/key/raeumliche_verteilung/kantone__gemeinden.html. Retrieved on November 5, 2008. 
  8. Bundesamt fur Statistik (Federal Department of Statistics) (2004). "Wohnbevölkerung nach Religion" (Interactive Map). http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/de/index/themen/01/05/blank/key/religionen.html. Retrieved on 2009-01-15. 

Template:Switzerland

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