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Encyclopedia

Artist : Jolin Tsai (Tsai Yi Lin) Album : *CASTLE*

  • 城堡*

Released : 27 February 2004
Label : Sony BMG
Genre : Mandarin Pop


Track Listing :

1. 爱情三十六计 / Ai Qing San Shi Liu Ji

2. 就是爱 / Jiu Shi Ai
3. 柠檬草的味道 / Ning Meng Cao De Wei Dao
4. 海盗 / Hai Dao
5. 始作俑者 / Shi Zuo Yong Zhe
6. Love Love Love
7. 消失的城堡 / Xiao Shi De Cheng Bao
8. 乖猫 / Guai Mao
9. 第一优先 / Di Yi You Xi
10. 倒带 / Dao Dai


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

A castle

Contents

English

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Wikipedia

Etymology

From Latin castellum, literally little camp, from castrum, camp, from casa, hut or cottage

Pronunciation

  • enPR: käs'(ə)l, IPA: /ˈkɑːs(ə)l/, SAMPA: /"kA:s(@)l/
  •  Audio (US)help, file
    Rhymes: -ɑːs(ə)l
  • enPR: kăs'(ə)l, IPA: /ˈkæs(ə)l/, SAMPA: /"k{s(@)l/
    Rhymes: -æs(ə)l

Noun

Singular
castle

Plural
castles

castle (plural castles)

  1. A large building that is fortified and contains many defences; in previous ages often inhabited by a nobleman or king.
  2. A chess piece shaped like a castle tower which is also called a rook.
  3. (obsolete) A close helmet.
    • 1786, Francis Grose, A Treatise on Ancient Armour and Weapons, p. 12,
      The castle was perhaps a figurative name for a close headpiece deduced from its enclosing and defending the head, as a castle did the whole body; or a corruption from the Old French word casquetel, a small or light helmet.

Usage notes

For the chess piece, chess players prefer the term rook.

Synonyms

Derived terms

Translations

Verb

Infinitive
to castle

Third person singular
castles

Simple past
castled

Past participle
castled

Present participle
castling

to castle (third-person singular simple present castles, present participle castling, simple past and past participle castled)

  1. (chess) To perform the move of castling.

Translations

Anagrams


Simple English

File:Castle Bodiam1
Bodiam Castle in England surrounded by a water-filled moat.

A castle (from the Latin word castellum) is a fortified structure made in Europe and the Middle East during the Middle Ages. People argue about what the word castle means. However, it usually means a private structure of a lord or noble. This is different from a fortress, which is not a home, and from a fortified town, which was a public defence. For about 900 years that castles were built they had many different shapes and different details.

Castles began in Europe in the 9th and 10th centuries. They controlled the places surrounding them, and could both help in attacking and defending. Weapons could be fired from castles, or people could be protected from enemies in castles. However, castles were also a symbol of power. They could be used to control the people and roads around it.

Many castles were built with earth and wood at first often using manual labour, and then had their defences replaced by stone instead. Early castles often used nature for protection, and did not have towers. By the late 12th and early 13th centuries, though, castles became longer and more complex.

Europe began using gunpowder in the 14th century. It did not stop castle building at first. But by the 15th century, shots became powerful enough to break through stone walls. Castles were still built, but new ways to protect castles from cannons and guns made them uncomfortable places to live in. Because of this, people stopped building true castles. Instead, country houses or military forts were built. From the 18th century, people began building castles again from new interest in Gothic architecture, but they were not used for fighting.

Contents

Definition

Etymology

File:Tower of London, Traitors
The Norman "White Tower", has all the uses of a castle: city protection, a place to live in, and a safe place in dangerous times.

The word castle comes from the Latin word castellum, which is a diminutive of the word castrum, meaning "fortified place". The Old English castel, French château, Spanish castillo, Italian castello, and many other words in other languages also come from castellum.[1] The word castle became a part of the English language soon after the Norman Conquest to describe this new type of building.[2] However, though these words all came from the same basic meaning, they can describe different types of structures. For example, the French château can simply be used to describe a great country house in the middle of an estate.[3]

Important details

A castle is seen by most to be "a private fortified residence" (place to stay).[4] This makes it different from earlier fortifications, such as walled cities like Constantinople and Antioch in the Middle East. Castles were not made to protect the community. They were built and owned by lords, either for themselves or for their ruler.[5][6]

Wall

A castle's main defense was a wall. A wall was used to block the offensive side from breaking into a castle. The tops of the walls were cleverly made. Imagine a mouth smiling, but with every other tooth missing. The soldiers could hide behind the stone teeth and be safe, while they fired down at the soldiers attacking the castle. This feature was called battlements. The rooms inside the castle sometimes had small holes, or slits, cut in the walls, so the soldiers could fire out through them without being hit. These were called arrowloops. The way a person or thing got into a castle was through a gate. A gate was a mostly wooden structure with a heavy metal gate behind it. This was used for two purposes: To let allies in or out, To keep enemies out. If the offense did get past a gate, the offense would be littered with missiles and other objects through a murder hole in the upper part of the gate. The gate was also one of the most protected objects in a castle. Some castles also had moats which were water filled ditches encircling the whole castle where the only way in was over a drawbridge which was a heavy wooden door that could be pulled up by chains to protect the main gate and let down to act as a bridge over the moat to allow access to the castle. The soldiers attacking the castle sometimes tried to knock down the castle walls, or dig under them. A siege was when the attackers just sat outside and waited. When the people inside were starving they had to give up and come out, which is called surrender. A siege could go on for months, if the castle had plenty of food and water.

Castles were built for defense until about 500 years ago, at the end of the Middle Ages. After that people still built very big stone buildings. They looked like castles, but they had bigger windows and more fireplaces and were much more comfortable. Really they were just great big houses. When castles were built to be homes instead of fortresses, the word 'Castle' was often put at the front of the name. One example is Castle Oliver in Ireland. This had 215 windows and 65 chimneys, as well as dozens of bedrooms. It was built about 150 years ago. It is very light and bright inside, because it was built to have parties, not to keep out soldiers.

Many castles are very beautiful and are public. Sometimes you can see furniture and clothes, armour, musical instruments, carpets, cannon and other weapons that once belonged to the people who lived there. Some castles have legends of ghosts. Some had very famous owners, like mad King Ludwig of Bavaria. Some, only a very few, are still lived in by the families who built them. Many others have become hotels or museums.

Castles seem romantic and mysterious to us now, but they were cold, dark places to live, often damp. Because the walls were so thick, sometimes 12 feet (4 metres) or more, they never got warm. Their windows also had no glass in them. Castles might have been safe, but they were not very comfortable.

References

Notes
Bibliography
  • Allen Brown, Reginald (1976) [1954], [Expression error: Unexpected < operator Allen Brown's English Castles], Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, ISBN 1843830698 
  • Aurell, Martin (2006), Daniel Power, ed., [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Society"], The Central Middle Ages: Europe 950–1320, The Short Oxford History of Europe (Oxford: Oxford University Press), ISBN 0-19-925312-9 
  • Barthélemy, Dominique (1988), Georges Duby, ed., [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Civilizing the fortress: eleventh to fourteenth century"], A History of Private Life, Volume II: Revelations of the Medieval World (Belknap Press, Harvard University): 397–423, ISBN 978-0674400016 
  • Buse, Dieter (2005), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator The Regions of Germany: a reference guide to history and culture], Greenwood Press, ISBN 978-0313324000 
  • Cathcart King, David James (1983), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator Castellarium Anglicanum: An Index and Bibliography of the Castles in England, Wales and the Islands. Volume I: Anglessey–Montgomery], London: Kraus International Publications, ISBN 0-527-50110-7 
  • Cathcart King, David James (1988), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator The Castle in England and Wales: an Interpretative History], London: Croom Helm, ISBN 0-918400-08-2 
  • Chartrand, René (2005), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator French Fortresses in North America 1535–1763], Osprey Publishing, ISBN 978-1841767147 
  • Chartrand, René; Spedaliere, Donato (2006), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator The Spanish Main 1492–1800], Osprey Publishing, ISBN 978-1846030055 
  • Coulson, Charles (1979), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Structural Symbolism in Medieval Castle Architecture"], Journal of the British Archaeological Association (London: British Archaeological Association) 132: 73–90 
  • Coulson, Charles (2003), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator Castles in Medieval Society: Fortresses in England, France, and Ireland in the Central Middle Ages], Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-927363-4 
  • Creighton, Oliver (2002), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator Castles and Landscapes], London: Continuum, ISBN 0-8264-5896-3 
  • Creighton, Oliver; Higham, Robert (2003), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator Medieval Castles], Shire Archaeology, ISBN 0-7478-0546-6 
  • Cunliffe, Barry (ed) (1998), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator Prehistoric Europe: An Illustrated History], Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-288063-2 
  • Duffy, Christopher, [Expression error: Unexpected < operator Siege Warfare: The Fortress in the Early Modern World 1494–1660], London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, ISBN 0-7100-8871-X 
  • Erlande-Brandenburg, Alain (1995), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator The Cathedral Builders of the Middle Ages], Thames & Hudson Ltd, ISBN 0500300526 ISBN 978-0500300527 
  • Friar, Stephen (2003), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator The Sutton Companion to Castles], Stroud: Sutton Publishing, ISBN 978-0-7509-3994-2 
  • Gebelin, Francois (1964), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator The châteaux of France], H. Eaton Hart, Presses Universitaires de France 
  • Gies, Joseph; Gies, Frances (1974), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator Life in a Medieval Castle], New York: Harper & Row, ISBN 0-06-090674-X 
  • Herlihy, David (1970), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator The History of Feudalism], London: Humanities Press, ISBN 0-391-00901-X 
  • Higham, Robert; Barker, Philip (1992), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator Timber Castles], London: B. T. Batsford, ISBN 0-7132-2189-4 
  • Liddiard, Robert (2005), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator Castles in Context: Power, Symbolism and Landscape, 1066 to 1500], Macclesfield: Windgather Press Ltd, ISBN 0-9545575-2-2 
  • McNeill, Tom (1992), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator English Heritage Book of Castles], London: English Heritage and B. T. Batsford, ISBN 0-7134-7025-9 
  • Norris, John (2004), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator Welsh Castles at War], Stroud: Tempus, ISBN 0-7524-2885-3 
  • Schultz, James (2006), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator Courtly love, the love of courtliness, and the history of sexuality], Chicago: University of Chicago Press, ISBN 9780226740898 
  • Smail, R. C. (1973), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator The Crusaders in Syria and the Holy Land], London: Thames and Hudson, ISBN 0-500-02080-9 
  • Stephens, W.B. (ed) (1969), "The castle and castle estate in Warwick", A History of the County of Warwick 8, http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=16051 
  • Thompson, Michael (1987), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator The Decline of the Castle], Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-32194-8 
  • Turnbull, Stephen (2003), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator Japanese castles 1540–1640], Osprey Publishing, ISBN 978-1841764290 
  • Ward, Simon (2009), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator Chester: A History], Chichester: Phillimore, ISBN 978-1-86077-499-7 

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