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The term Charismatic Movement describes the adoption (circa 1960 onwards for Protestants, 1967 onwards for Roman Catholics) of certain beliefs typical of those held by Pentecostal Christians by those within the historic denominations.[1] The term "charismatic" was first coined by Harald Bredesen, a Lutheran minister, in 1962, to describe what was happening at that time in the older churches. Confronted with the term "neo-Pentecostal," he said "We prefer the title 'the charismatic renewal in the historic churches.'"[2] The genesis of the Charismatic Movement however is variously attributed to Father Dennis Bennett, an Episcopal priest, in 1960. His book Nine O'Clock in the Morning gives a personal account of this period.[3]

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Terminology and numbers

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Charismatic

The term "Charismatic Movement" is sometimes confused with the term "charismatic." The word "charismatic" is an umbrella term used to describe those Christians who believe that the manifestations of the Holy Spirit seen in the first century Christian church (see e.g. the book of Acts ), such as miracles, prophecy, and glossolalia (speaking in other tongues or languages), are available to contemporary Christians and may be experienced and practiced today. It is derived from the Greek word χάρισμα ("gift," itself derived from χάρις, "grace" or "favor") which is the term used in the Bible, 1 Corinthians 12-14. "Charismatic Movement," however, expresses the arrival of spiritual gifts in the historic mainline denominations.

Pentecostal

Pentecostals and Charismatics are characterized by their practice of speaking in other tongues and operating the gifts of the Spirit. A Pentecostal believer in an ecstatic religious experience may vocalize fluent unintelligible utterances (glossolalia) or articulate an alleged natural language previously unknown to the speaker (xenoglossy).

The Charismatic Movement has a relationship with Pentecostalism, in that it shares a commitment to the use of spiritual gifts. However, within the Charismatic Movement this commitment is embedded within the full variety of historic denominations, and so in each context theology, culture and acceptance can vary enormously. The term "Pentecostal" refers to that set of denominations that arose out of the 1906 Azusa Street Revival, whereas the Charismatic Movement refers to a different era, context and theological content. The term "neo-Pentecostal" is sometimes used to describe non-Pentecostal charismatics, who are either part of the Charismatic Movement, or neo-Charismatics.

Neocharismatics

An important characteristic of the Charismatic Movement was a willingness for the believer, after discovering the importance of spiritual gifts, to remain within their original denomination. From the late 1950s many charismatic Christians went on to form separate churches and denominations, for which the appropriate term is neocharismatic. Examples of this include the Vineyard Movement in the US (and elsewhere) and the British New Church Movement.

Numbers

In 2000 the Charismatic Movement numbered 176 million, neocharismatics 295 million and Pentecostals 66 million. This means that charismatics are the second largest branch of Christianity after the Roman Catholic Church (although charismatic Catholics do not see themselves as part of a separate non-Catholic ecclesial entity). They are 27 percent of all Christians. Charismatics are growing at the rate of 9 million per year making the total adherents around 618 million by 2009.[4]

Shared Beliefs

Pentecostals, the Charismatic Movement and Neocharismatics share major narratives. Among these are a common belief in the way God works in revival, and the power and presence of God evidenced in the daily life of the Christian believer. Charismatics and Pentecostals have a shared heritage in the Wesleyan-Holiness tradition.[citation needed]

Differences

Many churches influenced by the Charismatic Movement deliberately distanced themselves from Pentecostalism, however, for cultural and theological reasons. Foremost among theological reasons is the tendency of many Pentecostals to insist that speaking in tongues (as initial physical evidence) is necessary for Baptism in the Holy Spirit.[5] Pentecostals are also distinguished from the Charismatic Movement on the basis of style.[6] Additionally, many in the Charismatic Movement employ contemporary styles of worship and methods of outreach which differ from traditional Pentecostal practice.

Denominations in which the Charismatic Movement is active

Anglican Communion (Episcopalians)

Dennis Bennett, an American Episcopalian, is often cited as the Charismatic Movement's seminal influence.[7] Bennett was the Rector at St Mark's Episcopal Church in Van Nuys, California when he announced to the congregation in 1960 that he had received the outpouring of the Holy Spirit. Soon after this he was ministering in Vancouver where he ran many workshops and seminars about the work of the Holy Spirit.[8] This influenced tens of thousands of Anglicans worldwide and also began a renewal movement within the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches.

In the United Kingdom, Colin Urquhart, Michael Harper, David Watson and others were in the vanguard of similar developments.

The Massey conference in New Zealand, 1964 was attended by several Anglicans including, the Rev. Ray Muller who went on to invite Dennis Bennett to New Zealand in 1966, and played a leading role in developing and promoting the Life in the Spirit seminars.

Lutherans

Larry Christenson, Lutheran Charismatic theologian based in San Pedro, California, did much, in the 1960s and 1970's, to interpret the Charismatic Movement for Lutherans. A very large annual conference was held in Minneapolis during those years. Charismatic Lutheran congregations in Minnesota became especially large and influential; especially Hosanna! in Lakeville, and North Heights in St. Paul. The next generation of Lutheran Charismatics cluster around the Alliance of Renewal Churches. There is currently considerable Charismatic activity among young Lutheran leaders in California centered around an annual gathering at Robinwood Church in Huntington Beach. Most Lutheran congregations in the developing world would be considered "Charismatic" in their piety.

Orthodox

The Charismatic Movement in the Eastern Orthodox Church never exerted the influence that it did in other mainstream churches. Individual priests, such as Fr. James Tavralides, Fr. Constantine Monios and Fr. David Buss, Fr. Athanasius Emmert of the Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese, Fr. Eusebius Stephanou of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of North America, founder of the Brotherhood of St. Symeon the New Theologian and editor of "The Logos", and Fr. Boris Zabrodsky of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church in America, founder of the Service Committee for Orthodox Spiritual Renewal (SCOSR) which published "Theosis" Newsletter, were some of the more prominent leaders of the charismatic renewal in Orthodoxy.

Reformed Churches

A more recent trend is the inclusion of Charismatic elements in more traditionally Calvinist or Reformed Theology.[citation needed] Reformed Charismatics, on the whole, reject the 'prosperity gospel' and distance themselves from movements that display over-emotional tendencies such as Word of Faith, Toronto Blessing, Brownsville Revival and Todd Bentley revivals.[citation needed]

Reformed Charismatics, though convinced believers in the modern practice of all of the gifts of the Spirit, attempt to keep the primary focus on the cross of Christ, and the gospel.

Roman Catholicism

Since 1967 the Charismatic Movement has been active within the Roman Catholic Church.[citation needed]In the USA the Catholic Charismatic Renewal was focused in individuals like Kevin Ranaghan and others at the University of Notre Dame in South Bend, Indiana. Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, which was founded by the Congregation of the Holy Spirit, a Catholic religious community, began hosting charismatic revivals in 1977.

Pope John Paul II was reputed to have had a charismatic priest as his personal pastor[citation needed] although there is little evidence that the Pope himself was "charismatic" or spoke in tongues[citation needed]. On many occasions he was reported as saying "long life to the charismatics".[when?]

Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (now Pope Benedict XVI) has added his voice to Pope John Paul II in acknowledging the good occurring in the Charismatic Renewal and providing some cautions.[when?][citation needed]

In a forward to a 1983 book by Léon Joseph Cardinal Suenens, at that time the Pope's delegate to the Charismatic Renewal[clarification needed], the Prefect[clarification needed] comments on the Post-Conciliar[clarification needed] period stating,

At the heart of a world imbued with a rationalistic skepticism, a new experience of the Holy Spirit suddenly burst forth. And, since then, that experience has assumed a breadth of a worldwide Renewal movement. What the New Testament tells us about the Charisms - which were seen as visible signs of the coming of the Spirit - is not just ancient history, over and done with, for it is once again becoming extremely topical.
and
to those responsible for the ecclesiastical ministry - from parish priests to bishops - not to let the Renewal pass them by but to welcome it fully; and on the other (hand) ... to the members of the Renewal to cherish and maintain their link with the whole Church and with the Charisms of their pastors.[9]

In the Roman Catholic church, the movement became particularly popular in the Filipino, Korean, and Hispanic communities of the United States, in the Philippines itself, and in Latin America, mainly Brazil. Travelling priests and lay people associated with the movement often visit parishes and sing what are known as charismatic masses. It is thought to be the second largest distinct sub-movement (some 120 million members) within global Catholicism, along with Traditional Catholicism.[10] It presents a difficult situation for many Church authorities, who, as always, must be careful to admit innovation only where it is clear the innovation is consistent with the Bible and the teachings of the Church.

A further difficulty is the tendency for many charismatic Catholics to take on what others in their church might consider sacramental language and assertions of the necessity of "Baptism in the Holy Spirit," as a universal act. This causes difficulty as there is little to distinguish the "Baptism" from the sacrament of confirmation.[11] In this regard, a Study seminar organized jointly in Sao Paulo by the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity and the Bishops Conference of Brazil raised these issues. Technically, among Catholics, the "Baptism of the Holy Spirit" is neither the highest nor fullest manifestation of the Holy Spirit. It is one experience among many (as are the extraordinary manifestations of the Spirit in the lives of the saints, notably St. Francis of Assisi and St. Teresa of Avila, who levitated). Thus "Baptism of the Spirit" is one experience among many within Christianity, and thus less dogmatically held by Catholic charismatics (than by Pentecostals).[12]

The Compendium to the Catechism of the Catholic Church states:
160. What are Charisms? 799-801. Charisms are special gifts of the Holy Spirit which are bestowed on individuals for the good of others, the needs of the world, and in particular for the building up of the Church. The discernment of charisms is the responsibility of the Magisterium.

Seventh-day Adventist

A minority of Seventh-day Adventists today are charismatic. They are strongly associated with those holding more "progressive" Adventist beliefs. In the early decades of the church charismatic or ecstatic phenomena were commonplace.[13][14]

Theologians and scholars

Footnotes

  1. ^ D W Bebbington Evangelicals in Modern Britain: A History from the 1730s to the 1980s (London: Unwin, 1989) 229
  2. ^ Peter Hocken Streams of Renewal: The Origins and Early Development of the Charismatic Movement in Great Britain (Exeter; Paternoster, 1986) 184
  3. ^ Dennis J. Bennett Nine O'Clock in the Morning (Gainsville; 1970. Reprinted 2001, 2004)
  4. ^ Stanley M. Burgess: Introduction, Encyclopedia of Pentecostal and Charismatic Christianity. Routledge, 2005.
  5. ^ Baptism in the Holy Spirit, General Council of the Assemblies of God, http://www.ag.org/top/Beliefs/gendoct_02_baptismhs.cfm.
  6. ^ Teddy Saunders and Hugh Sansom David Watson, a Biography (Sevenoaks: Hodder, 1992) 71
  7. ^ Randall Balmer Encyclopedia of Evangelicalism: Revised and Expanded Edition 2nd Ed (Waco: Baylor, 2004) s.v. "Charismatic Movement"
  8. ^ "Anglican Pioneer in Renewal". http://www3.telus.net/st_simons/arm12.htm. Retrieved on 2008-01-31. 
  9. ^ Template:Cite book:
  10. ^ David Barrett, "Christian World Communions: Five Overviews of Global Christianity, AD 1800-2025," INTERNATIONAL BULLETIN OF MISSIONARY RESEARCH, Volume 33, No 1, 25-32
  11. ^ McDonnell, Killian & Montague, George T. Christian Initiation and Baptism in the Holy Spirit: Evidence from the First Eight Centuries. Michael Glazier Books: 1994, Collegeville, MN
  12. ^ "Study Seminar organized in Brazil," L'OSSERVATORE ROMANO Italian edition, November 4, 2005, p.4.
  13. ^ Patrick, Arthur (c. 1999). "Early Adventist worship, Ellen White and the Holy Spirit: Preliminary Historical Perspectives". Spiritual Discernment Conference. SDAnet AtIssue. http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/discern/holyspirit.htm. Retrieved on 2008-02-15. 
  14. ^ Patrick, Arthur (c. 1999). "Later Adventist Worship, Ellen White and the Holy Spirit: Further Historical Perspectives". Spiritual Discernment Conference. SDAnet AtIssue. http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/discern/flesh.htm. Retrieved on 2008-02-15. 
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