The Full Wiki

city: Wikis

Advertisements
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

Advertisements

, the most populous metropolis in the world.]]

A city is a relatively large and permanent settlement, particularly a large urban settlement.[1][2] Although there are no agreed on technical definitions distinguishing a city from a town within general English language meanings, many cities have a particular administrative, legal, or historical status based on local law — for example an article of incorporation approved by the local cognizant (state) legislature separates towns from city government forms, rights, duties and privileges in Massachusetts — similar distinctions are made across the world, particularly in former colonies of the United Kingdom. Historically, in Europe, a city was understood to be an urban settlement with a cathedral; in later usages, especially in the United Kingdom and parts of Commonwealth of Nations, a city was a settlement with a royal charter.[1]

Cities generally have advanced systems for sanitation, utilities, land usage, housing, and transportation and more. This proximity greatly facilitates interaction between people and businesses, benefiting both parties in the process.

A big city, or metropolis, may have suburbs and regions. Such cities are usually associated with metropolitan areas and urban sprawl, creating large numbers of business commuters. Once a city sprawls far enough to reach another city, this region can be deemed a conurbation or megalopolis.

The birth of cities

There is insufficient evidence to assert what conditions in world history spawned the first cities. Theorists, however, have offered arguments for what the right conditions might have been and have identified some basic mechanisms that might have been the important driving forces.

Cities or agriculture first?

from Cerro El Ávila in Venezuela]]

The conventional view holds that cities first formed after the Neolithic revolution. The Neolithic revolution brought agriculture, which made denser human populations possible, thereby supporting city development (Bairoch 1988, p. 3-4). The advent of farming encouraged hunter-gatherers to abandon nomadic lifestyles and to choose to settle near others who lived off of agricultural production. The increased population density encouraged by farming and the increased output of food per unit of land, created conditions that seem more suitable for city-like activities. In his book, Cities and Economic Development, Paul Bairoch takes up this position as he provides a seemingly straightforward argument, which makes agricultural activity appear necessary before true cities can form.

According to Vere Gordon Childe, for a settlement to qualify as a city, it must have enough surplus of raw materials to support trade (Pacione 2001, p. 16). Bairoch points out that, due to sparse population densities that would have persisted in pre-Neolithic, hunter-gatherer societies, the amount of land that would be required to produce enough food for subsistence and trade for a large population would make it impossible to control the flow of trade. To illustrate this point, Bairoch offers an example: "Western Europe during the pre-Neolithic, [where] the density must have been less than 0.1 person per square kilometer" (Bairoch 1988, p. 13). Using this population density as a base for calculation, and allotting 10% of food towards surplus for trade and assuming that there is no farming taking place among the city dwellers, he calculates that "in order to maintain a city with a population of 1,000, and without taking the cost of transportation into account, an area of 100,000 square kilometers would have been required. When the cost of transportation is taken into account, the figure rises to 200,000 square kilometers..." (Bairoch 1988, p. 13). Bairoch noted that 200,000 square kilometers is roughly the size of Great Britain.

In her book The Economy of Cities, Jane Jacobs makes the controversial claim that city-formation preceded the birth of agriculture. Jacobs does not lend her theory to any strict definition of a city, but her account suggestively contrasts what could only be thought of as primitive city-like activity to the activity occurring in neighboring hunter-gatherer settlements. To argue this view, Jacobs suggests a fictitious scenario where a valued natural resource leads to primitive economic activity—in her example, the resource is obsidian. The stock of obsidian is controlled and traded with neighboring hunting groups. Hunters that do not control the stock travel great distances to barter what they have, valuing obsidian because it "makes the sharpest tools to be had" (Jacobs 1969, p. 23). This activity brings more people to the center as jobs are created and goods are being traded. Among the goods traded are seeds of all different sorts, stored in unprecedented combinations. In various ways, some accidental, the seeds are sown, and the variation in yields are observed more readily than they would be in the wild. The seeds that yield the most grain are noticed and trading them begins to occur within the city. Owing to this local dealing, the city dwellers find that their grain yields are the best and for the first time there is deliberate and conscious selection. The choices made now are purposeful, and they are made among various strains of already cultivated crosses, and their crosses, mutants and hybrids (Jacobs 1969, p. 23).

Why do cities form?

Theorists have suggested many possible reasons for why people would have originally decided to come together to form dense populations. In his book City Economics, Brendan O'Flaherty asserts "Cities could persist—as they have for thousands of years—only if their advantages offset the disadvantages" (O'Flaherty 2005, p. 12). O'Flaherty illustrates two similar attracting advantages known as increasing returns to scale and economies of scale, which are concepts normally associated with firms, but their applications are seen in more basic economic systems as well. Increasing returns to scale occurs when "doubling all inputs more than doubles the output [and] an activity has economies of scale if doubling output less than doubles cost" (O'Flaherty 2005, p. 572-573). To offer an example of these concepts, O'Flaherty makes use of "one of the oldest reasons why cities were built: military protection" (O'Flaherty 2005, p. 13). In this example, the inputs are anything that would be used for protection (e.g.: a wall) and the output is the area protected and everything of value contained in it. O'Flaherty then asks that we suppose that the area to be protected is square and each hectare inside it has the same value of protection. The advantage is expressed as: (O'Flaherty 2005, p. 13)

(1) O = s^2, where O is the output (area protected) and s stands for the length of a side. This equation shows that output is proportional to the square of the length of a side.

The inputs depend on the length of the perimeter:

(2) I = 4s, where I stands for the quantity of inputs. This equation shows that the perimeter is proportional to the length of a side.

So there are increasing returns to scale:

(3) O = I^2/16. This equation (algebraically, combining (1) and (2)) shows that with twice the inputs, you produce quadruple the output.

Also, economies of scale:

(4) I = 4O^{1/2}. This equation (combining (1) and (2)) shows that the same output requires less input.

"Cities, then, economize on protection, and so protection against marauding barbarian armies is one reason why people have come together to live in cities..." (O'Flaherty 2005, p. 13).

Similarly, "Are Cities Dying?", a paper by Edward L. Glaeser, delves into similar reasons for city formation: reduced transport costs for goods, people, and ideas. An interesting piece from Glaeser's article is his argument about the benefits of proximity. He claims that if you double a city size, workers have a ten percent increase in earnings. Glaeser furthers his argument by logically stating that bigger cities don't pay more for equal productivity in a smaller city, so it is reasonable then to assume that workers actually become more productive if you move them to a city twice the size than they initially worked in. However, the workers don't really benefit from the ten percent wage increase because it is recycled back into the higher cost of living in a bigger city.

Geography

, the Netherlands, of around 1550. The city is completely surrounded by a city wall and defensive canal. The square shape was inspired by Jerusalem.]]

Modern city planning has seen many different schemes for how a city should look. The most commonly seen pattern is the grid, favoured by the Romans, almost a rule in parts of the Americas, and used for thousands of years in China. Derry was the first ever planned city in Ireland, begun in 1613, with the walls being completed five years later. The central diamond within a walled city with four gates was thought to be a good design for defence. The grid pattern chosen was widely copied in the colonies of British North America. However, the grid has been around for far longer than the British Empire. The Ancient Greeks often gave their colonies around the Mediterranean a grid plan. One of the best examples is the city of Priene. This city even had its different districts, much like modern city planning today. Fifteen centuries earlier the Indus Valley Civilization was using grids in such cities as Mohenjo-Daro. Grid plans were popular among planners in the 19th century; such plans were typical in the American West, in places such as Salt Lake City and San Francisco. Also in Medieval times we see a preference for linear planning. Good examples are the cities established in the south of France by various rulers and city expansions in old Dutch and Flemish cities.

Other forms may include a radial structure in which main roads converge on a central point, often the effect of successive growth over long time with concentric traces of town walls and citadels - recently supplemented by ring-roads that take traffic around the edge of a town. Many Dutch cities are structured this way: a central square surrounded by concentric canals. Every city expansion would imply a new circle (canals + town walls). In cities like Amsterdam and Haarlem, and elsewhere, such as in Moscow, this pattern is still clearly visible.

History

Towns and cities have a long history, although opinions vary on whether any particular ancient settlement can be considered to be a city. A city formed as central places of trade for the benefit of the members living in close proximity to others facilitates interaction of all kinds. These interactions generate both positive and negative externalities between other’s actions. Benefits include reduced transport costs, exchange of ideas, sharing of natural resources, large local markets, and later in their development, amenities such as running water and sewage disposal. Possible costs would include higher rate of crime, higher mortality rates, higher cost of living, worse pollution, traffic and high commuting times. Cities will grow when the benefits of proximity between people and firms are higher than the cost. The first true towns are sometimes considered to be large settlements where the inhabitants were no longer simply farmers of the surrounding area, but began to take on specialized occupations, and where trade, food storage and power was centralized. In 1950 Gordon Childe attempted to define a historic city with 10 general metrics.[3] These are:

  1. Size and density of the population should be above normal.
  2. Differentiation of the population. Not all residents grow their own food leading to specialists.
  3. Payment of taxes to a deity or king.
  4. Monumental public buildings.
  5. Those not producing their own food are supported by the king.
  6. Systems of recording and practical science.
  7. A system of writing.
  8. Development of symbolic art.
  9. Trade and import of raw materials.
  10. Specialist craftsmen from outside the kin-group.

This categorisation is descriptive, and not all ancients cities fit into this well, but it is used as a general touchstone when considering ancient cities.

One characteristic that can be used to distinguish a small city from a large town is organized government. A town accomplishes common goals through informal agreements between neighbors or the leadership of a chief. A city has professional administrators, regulations, and some form of taxation (food and other necessities or means to trade for them) to feed the government workers. The governments may be based on heredity, religion, military power, work projects (such as canal building), food distribution, land ownership, agriculture, commerce, manufacturing, finance, or a combination of those. Societies that live in cities are often called civilizations. A city can also be defined as an absence of physical space between people and firms.

Ancient times

Early cities developed in a number of regions of the ancient world. Mesopotamia can claim the earliest cities, particularly Eridu, Uruk, and Ur. Although it has sometimes been claimed that ancient Egypt lacked urbanism, in fact several types of urban settlements were found in ancient times. The Indus Valley Civilization and China are two other areas of the Old World with major indigenous urban traditions. Among the early Old World cities, Mohenjo-daro of the Indus Valley Civilization in present-day Pakistan, existing from about 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE, was one of the largest, with an estimated population of 40,000 or more.[4] Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, the large Indus capitals, were among the first cities to use grid plans, drainage, flush toilets, urban sanitation systems, and sewage systems. At a somewhat later time, a distinctive urban tradition developed in the Khmer region of Cambodia, where Angkor grew into one of the largest cities (in area) the world has ever seen.

In the ancient Americas, early urban traditions developed in Mesoamerica and the Andes. Mesoamerica saw the rise of early urbanism in several cultural regions, including the Classic Maya, the Zapotec of Oaxaca, and Teotihuacan in central Mexico. Later cultures such as the Aztec drew on these earlier urban traditions. In the Andes, the first urban centers developed in the Chavin and Moche cultures, followed by major cities in the Huari, Chimu and Inca cultures.

This roster of early urban traditions is notable for its diversity. Excavations at early urban sites show that some cities were sparsely-populated political capitals, others were trade centers, and still other cities had a primarily religious focus. Some cities had large dense populations whereas others carried out urban activities in the realms of politics or religion without having large associated populations. Theories that attempt to explain ancient urbanism by a single factor such as economic benefit fail to capture the range of variation documented by archaeologists (Smith 2002).

The growth of the population of ancient civilizations, the formation of ancient empires concentrating political power, and the growth in commerce and manufacturing led to ever greater capital cities and centres of commerce and industry, with Alexandria, Antioch and Seleucia of the Hellenistic civilization, Pataliputra (now Patna) in India, Chang'an (now Xi'an) in China, Carthage, ancient Rome, its eastern successor Constantinople (later Istanbul), and successive Chinese, Indian and Muslim capitals approaching or exceeding the half-million population level.

Keith Hopkins estimates that ancient Rome had a population of about a million people by the end of the first century BCE, after growing continually during the 3rd, 2nd, and 1st centuries BCE.[5] Alexandria's population was also close to Rome's population at around the same time, the historian Rostovtzeff estimates a total population close to a million based on a census dated from 32 CE that counted 180,000 adult male citizens in Alexandria.[6] Similar administrative, commercial, industrial and ceremonial centres emerged in other areas, most notably medieval Baghdad, which according to George Modelski, later became the first city to exceed a population of one million by the 8th century instead of Rome.[7]

The growth of ancient and medieval empires led to ever greater capital cities and seats of provincial administration, with Pataliputra (in India), Changan (in China), ancient Rome, its eastern successor Constantinople (later Istanbul), and successive Chinese, Islamic, and Indian capitals approaching or exceeding the half-million population level. It is estimated that ancient Rome had a population of around 450,000 people by the end of the last century BCE, which is considered the only European city to reach that number until the Industrial Revolution, although Constantinople came close. Alexandria's population was also close to Rome's population at around the same time. Similar large administrative, commercial, industrial and ceremonial centres emerged in other areas, most notably Baghdad, which became the first city to exceed a population of one million, followed by Beijing also exceeding one million.

While David Kessler and Peter Temin consider ancient Rome to be the largest city before 19th century London,[8] George Modelski considers medieval Baghdad, with an estimated population of 1.2 million at its peak, to be the largest city before 19th century London.[7] Others estimate that Baghdad's population may have been as large as 2 million in the 9th century.[9]

Agriculture was practiced in sub-Saharan Africa since the third millennium BCE. Because of this, cities were able to develop as centers of non-agricultural activity. Exactly when this first happened is still a topic of archeological and historical investigation. Western scholarship has tended to focus on cities in Europe and Mesopotamia, but emerging archeological evidence indicates that urbanization occurred south of the Sahara in well before the influence of Arab urban culture. The oldest sites documented thus far are from around 500 CE including Awdaghust, Kumbi-Saleh the ancient capital of Ghana, and Maranda a center located on a trade rout between Egypt and Gao.[10]

Middle Ages

During the European Middle Ages, a town was as much a political entity as a collection of houses. City residence brought freedom from customary rural obligations to lord and community: "Stadtluft macht frei" ("City air makes you free") was a saying in Germany. In Continental Europe cities with a legislature of their own were not unheard of, the laws for towns as a rule other than for the countryside, the lord of a town often being another than for surrounding land. In the Holy Roman Empire some cities had no other lord than the emperor. In Italy, Medieval communes had quite a statelike power.

In exceptional cases like Venice, Genoa or Lübeck, cities themselves became powerful states, sometimes taking surrounding areas under their control or establishing extensive maritime empires. Similar phenomena existed elsewhere, as in the case of Sakai, which enjoyed a considerable autonomy in late medieval Japan.

Early Modern

While the city-states, or poleis, of the Mediterranean and Baltic Sea languished from the 16th century, Europe's larger capitals benefited from the growth of commerce following the emergence of an Atlantic trade. By the late 18th century, London had become the largest city in the world with a population of over a million, while Paris rivaled the well-developed regionally-traditional capital cities of Baghdad, Beijing, Istanbul and Kyoto. During the Spanish colonization of the Americas the old Roman city concept was extensively used. Cities were founded in the middle of the newly conquered territories, and were bound to several laws about administration, finances and urbanism.

Most towns remained far smaller places, so that in 1500 only some two dozen places in the world contained more than 100,000 inhabitants: as late as 1700 there were fewer than forty, a figure which would rise thereafter to 300 in 1900. A small city of the early modern period might contain as few as 10,000 inhabitants, a town far fewer still.[citation needed]

Industrial Age

The growth of modern industry from the late 18th century onward led to massive urbanization and the rise of new great cities, first in Europe and then in other regions, as new opportunities brought huge numbers of migrants from rural communities into urban areas. In the United States from 1860 to 1910, the invention of railroads reduced transportation costs, and large manufacturing centers began to emerge, thus allowing migration from rural to city areas. However, cities during those periods of time were deadly places to live in, due to health problems resulting from contaminated water and air, and communicable diseases. In the Great Depression of the 1930s cities were hard hit by unemployment, especially those with a base in heavy industry. In the U.S. urbanization rate increased forty to eighty percent during 1900-1990. Today the world's population is slightly over half urban,[11] with millions still streaming annually into the growing cities of Asia, Africa and Latin America. There has also been a shift to suburbs, perhaps to avoid crime and traffic, which are two costs of living in an urban area.

External effects

Modern cities are known for creating their own microclimates. This is due to the large clustering of heat absorbent surfaces that heat up in sunlight and that channel rainwater into underground ducts.

Waste and sewage are two major problems for cities, as is air pollution coming from various forms of combustion,[12] including fireplaces, wood or coal-burning stoves, other heating systems,[13] and internal combustion engines. The impact of cities on places elsewhere, be it hinterlands or places far away, is considered in the notion of city footprinting (ecological footprint). Other negative external effects include health consequences such as communicable diseases, crime, and high traffic and commuting times. Cities cause more interaction with more people than rural areas, thus a higher probability to contracting contagious diseases. However, many inventions such as inoculations, vaccines, and water filtration systems have also lowered health concerns. Crime is also a concern in the cities. Studies have shown that crime rates in cities are higher and the chance of punishment after getting caught is lower. In cases such as burglary, the higher concentration of people in cities create more items of higher value worth the risk of crime. The high concentration of people also makes using auto mobiles inconvenient and pedestrian traffic is more prominent in metropolitan areas than a rural or suburban one.

Cities also generate positive external effects. The close physical proximity facilitates knowledge spillovers, helping people and firms exchange information and generate new ideas.[14] A thicker labor market allows for better skill matching between firms and individuals. Another positive external effect of cities comes from the diverse social opportunities created when people of different backgrounds are brought together. Larger cities typically offer a wider variety of social interests and activities, letting people of all backgrounds find something they can be involved in.

Cities may however also have a positive influence on the environment. UN Habitat stated in its reports that city living can be the best solution for dealing with the rising population numbers (and thus still be a good approach on dealing with overpopulation).[15] This is because cities concentrate human activity into one place, making the environmental damage on other places smaller.[16] Letting the cities have a positive influence however, can only be achieved if urban planning is improved[17] and if the city services are properly maintained.

The difference between towns and cities

The difference between towns and cities is differently understood in different parts of the world. Indeed, many languages other than English often use a single word for both concepts (German Stadt, Swedish stad, Danish/Norwegian by, etc.). Iberian languages typically use a three-way designation (Catalan: poble, vila, ciutat; Galician: aldea, vila, cidade; Portuguese: aldeia, vila, cidade; Spanish: pueblo, villa, ciudad — respectively “village”, “town”, “city”), but other romance languages don’t (French: village, ville; Italian: “villaggio, città — respectively “village”, “city”). Even within the English-speaking world there is no one standard definition of a city: the term may be used either for a town possessing city status; for an urban locality exceeding an arbitrary population size; for a town dominating other towns with particular regional economic or administrative significance. Although city can refer to an agglomeration including suburban and satellite areas, the term is not usually applied to a conurbation (cluster) of distinct urban places, nor for a wider metropolitan area including more than one city, each acting as a focus for parts of the area. And the word "town" (also "downtown") may mean the center of the city.

Australia and New Zealand

In Australia, city in its broadest terms refers simply to any town that is large enough. Narrower usage can refer to a local government area, or colloquially to the central business district (CBD) of a large urban area.[citation needed] For instance the City of South Perth[18] is a local government area within the wider urban area known as Perth, commonly called Australia's fourth largest city. Residents of Sydney might speak of travelling to the CBD as "going to the city". Australia's largest cities are Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide.

In New Zealand, according to Statistics New Zealand (the government statistics agency), "A city [...] must have a minimum population of 50,000, be predominantly urban in character, be a distinct entity and a major centre of activity within the region.".[19] For example Gisborne, purported to be the first city to see the sun, has a population of only 44,500 (2006) and is therefore administered by a district council, not a city council. At the other extreme, Auckland, although it is usually referred to as a single city, is actually four cities: Auckland City, Waitakere City, North Shore City, and Manukau City.

Belarus

In the Belarusian language two words mean "city" or "town" - "горад" (horad) and "места" (miesta), where "horad" translated as "fortifying miesta", or "stronghold". The term "miesta" translated as "town without fortifying" [20] and meaning modern town. In the contemporary Belarusian language term "horad" is used more often, in spite of lexical inexactitude of this term. The smallest population of a city of Belaruse officially not named "horad" or "miesta" it is used a name "urban-type settlement" ("паселішча гарадскога тыпу", "paselyscha haradskoha typu") and also (informal or with historical sense) "мястэчка" ("miastechka").

Belgium

Brazil

Brazil is divided into states (Portuguese: estados) and these into municipalities (municípios); there is no county or equivalent level. Brazilian law defines a "city" (cidade) as the urban seat of a municipality and establishes no difference between cities and towns; all it takes for an urban area to be legally called a "city" is to be the seat of a municipality, and some of them are semi-rural settlements with a very small population. Municipalities always have the same name as their corresponding cities, and the terms município and cidade are often used interchangeably, even by the government itself, although this is not technically correct. However, except for the Federal District (the area of the national capital city, Brasília), which has special status and no municipalities, all land in Brazil is in the territory of some municipality. Thus, even in the country's remotest wilderness areas, one is still technically under the jurisdiction of a "city," or at least of its government. Brazil's largest cities are São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, both located on the heavily urbanized South East coast.

Bulgaria

Canada

In Canada the granting of city status is handled by the individual provinces and territories, so that the definitions and criteria vary widely across the country. In British Columbia and Saskatchewan towns can become cities after they reach a population of 5,000 people, but in Alberta and Ontario the requirement is 10,000.

Although it has numerous cities in the traditional sense of the term, Ontario also sometimes confers city status on primarily rural areas whose municipalities have been merged into a former county government. Nova Scotia has abolished the title of city altogether, with all local government taking place at the regional municipality level.

In Quebec, there is no legal distinction between a city and a town, as both have the legal status of ville. The province formerly differentiated between ville (town) and cité (city), but no longer does so.

China

There is a formal definition of city in China provided by the Chinese government. For an urban area that can be defined as a city, there should be at least 100,000 non-agricultural population. City with less than 200,000 non-agricultural population refers to a Small city, 200,000-500,000 non-agricultural population is a Medium city, 500,000-1,000,000 non-agricultural population is a Large city and >1,000,000 non-agricultural population is an Extra-large city. Also, there is an administrative definition based on the city boundary too and a city has its legal city limits. In 1998, there were 668 cities in China - China has the largest urban population in the world although most of its population still lives in rural settlements. Shanghai and Beijing are the country's largest cities but many others such as Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Chongqing have experienced rapid population growth as migrants seek new work in a rapidly developing manufacturing and service industry.

Chile

Chile's Department of National Statistics defines a city (ciudad in Spanish) as an urban entity with more than 5,000 inhabitants.[21] A town (pueblo), is an urban entity with 2,001 to 5,000 persons, however, if the area has some economic activity, the designation may include populations as small as 1,001. The department also defines Major Cities as provincial or regional capitals with populations of 100,001 to 500,000; Great Urban Areas which comprise several entities without any appreciable limit between them and populations which total between 500,001 and 1,000,000. A Metropolis is the largest urban area in the country where there are more than one million inhabitants. The "urban entity" is defined as a concentration of habitations with more than 2,000 persons living in them, or more than 1,000 persons if more than half of those persons are in some way gainfully employed. Tourist and recreation areas with more than 250 living units may be considered as urban areas.[22]

Venezuela

Venezuela's Department of National Statistics defines a city (ciudad in Spanish) as an urban entity with more than 5,000 inhabitants. A town (pueblo), is an urban entity with 2,001 to 5,000 persons.

Germany

The German word for both "town" and "city" is Stadt, while a city with more than 100,000 inhabitants is called a Großstadt (big city). On the other hand, most towns are communities belonging to a Landkreis (county or rural district), but there are some cities, usually with at least 50,000 inhabitants, that are counties by themselves (kreisfreie Städte). Germany's largest cities are Berlin, Hamburg and Munich although the largest urban area is in the Rhine-Ruhr region around such cities as Dortmund and Essen.

Italy

In Italy a city is called città, an uncount noun derived from the Latin civitas. The status of "city" is granted by the President of the Republic with Presidential Decree Law. The largest and most important cities in the country, such as Rome, Milan, Naples and Turin, are called aree metropolitane (metropolitan areas) because they include several minor cities and towns in their areas. There is no population limit for a city. In the coat of arms, a golden crown tower stands for a city.

Norway

In Norway a city is called by and is derived from the Norse word býr meaning "a place with many buildings". Both cities and towns are referred to as by. The status of "city" is granted by the local authorities if a request for city status has been made and the area has a population of at least 5000. Since 1997, cities no longer have special administrative functions. If the area has not been granted the status of a city it is called tettsted or bygd. The terms differ in that a tettsted has more concentrated population than a bygd. A bygd is in many ways similar to a village, but the Norwegian term for village, landsby, is not used for places in Norway.

Pakistan

There has traditionally been no formal distinction between "City" or "Town" in Pakistan, although informal distinctions and status has been as common as in any other country. Several cities in what is now Pakistan were traditionally recognized as cities; in some cases for centuries; Lahore, Multan and Peshawar are examples. After independence and the rapid increase in population that followed caused Karachi to become the nations largest city, whie the rapid industrialisation in the north of the country resulted in new towns increasing greatly in population; such as Sialkot and Faisalabad, whilst Rawalpindi, traditionally a garrison town became a large city due to the decision to build a new capital nearby. In 2001, a new Act formalised the distinction, by granting the 10 largest cities and metropolitan areas the statis of city district, which for the first time gave areas the status of cities.

Poland

In Poland the word miasto serves for both town and city. Miasto is the term applied purely on the basis of the administrative decision of the central government, and specifically means either:

  • a county (gmina or powiat) with a city charter;
  • a city within a county, created by granting a city charter to a smaller town within a county.[23]

These formal distinctions may differentiate larger towns from smaller ones (such as status as a separate powiat, or the conferring of the title prezydent on the mayor rather than burmistrz), but none of these is universally recognized as equivalent to the English city/town distinction.

Portugal

Like other Iberian languages, in Portuguese there is a traditional distinction between cities — cidades — and towns — vilas. The difference is defined by law[24], and a city must have:

  • at least 8,000 electors (more or less 10,000 inhabitants)
  • at least half of the following services:
    • hospital
    • pharmacy
    • fire department
    • theatre / cultural house
    • museum
    • library
    • hotel services
    • basic and secondary schools
    • public transport
    • gardens / urban parks

In special cases, some towns may be granted the status of city if they possess historical, cultural or architectonic importance.

The Portuguese urban settlements heraldry reflects the difference between cities, towns and villages[25], with the coat of arms of a city bearing a crown with 5 towers, the coat of arms of a town bearing a crown with 4 towers, while the coat of arms of a village bears a crown with 3 towers. This difference between cities, towns and villages is still in use in other Portuguese speaking countries, but in Brazil is no longer in use.

There is also the notion of “Grande Área Metropolitana” and “Comunidade Urbana”. A Grande Área Metropolitana is a wide urban area with at least 350,000 inhabitants and is composed by at least 9 municipalities. A Comunidade Urbana must have more than 150,000 inhabitants. There are two main metropolitan areas — Lisbon (the capital), in the centre of the country and Porto in the North. Lisbon Metropolitan Area has a population that exceeds 3 million, being one of the most important western European cities. A city deeply connected with the sea, history, tourism and other services. Greater Metropolitan Area of Porto has over 2 million inhabitants developing a considerable part of the Portuguese economy nowadays.

South Korea

South Korea has a system of dividing into metropolitan cities, provinces, a special city (Seoul) and one specially self-governing province (Jeju-do). In South Korea, cities should have a population of more than 150,000, and if a city has more than 500,000, it would be divided into 2 districts and then sub-communities follow as a name of dong with similar system of normal cities. Additionally, if a city's population is over 1,000,000, then it would be promoted to metropolitan city.[26]

Ukraine

There is no difference in the Ukrainian language between the notions of "town" and "city". Both these words are translated into Ukrainian as "місто" ("misto"). In articles of Wikipedia only the term "city" is used for every Ukrainian locality named "місто". The smallest population of a city of Ukraine can be about 10,000. For towns which officially are not named "місто" it is used a name "urban-type settlement" ("селище міського типу", "selyshche mis'koho typu") and also (informal) "містечко" ("mistechko"), the latter Ukrainian word is related to the word "місто" and can be translated as "small town".

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom (UK), a city is a town which has been known as a city since time immemorial, or which has received city status by letters patent — which is normally granted on the basis of size, importance or royal connection (the traditional test was whether the town had a cathedral) to gain city status. For example the small town of Ripon was granted city status in 1836 to coincide with the creation of the Diocese of Ripon, but also in recognition of its long-standing role as a supplier of spurs to royalty. In the United Kingdom, when people talk about cities, they generally include the suburbs in that. Some cathedral cities, such as St David's in Wales and Wells in England, are quite small, and may not be known as cities in common parlance. Preston became England's newest city in the year 2002 to mark the Queen's jubilee, as did Newport in Wales, Stirling in Scotland, and Lisburn and Newry in Northern Ireland. However, major towns such as Reading, Northampton, Swindon, Warrington and Milton Keynes all harbour populations between 170,000 and 215,000 inhabitants but are not officially cited as cities.

A Review of Scotland's Cities led to the Fair City of Perth, Scotland, losing city status. By both legal and traditional definition, a town may be of any size, but must contain a market place. A village must contain a church[citation needed]. A small village without a church is called a hamlet.[27]

The UK's five largest cities are generally considered to be London, Birmingham, Leeds, Manchester and Glasgow due mainly to their high conurbation population[28][29]. In terms of city proper, the largest include Bristol,Cardiff Edinburgh, Liverpool and Sheffield.

United States

.]] In the United States (USA), the definition of cities (and town, villages, townships, etc.) is a matter of state laws and the definitions vary widely by state. A city may, in some places, be run by an elected mayor and city council, while a town is governed by people, select board (or board of trustees), or open town meeting. There are some very large towns (such as Hempstead, New York, with a population of 755,785 in 2004) and some very small cities (such as Lake Angelus, Michigan, with a population of 326 in 2000), and the line between town and city, if it exists at all, varies from state to state. Cities in the United States do have many oddities, like Maza, North Dakota, the smallest city in the country, has only 5 inhabitants, but is still incorporated (note that all incorporated locations in North Dakota are called "cities" regardless of size). It does not have an active government, and the mayoral hand changes frequently (due to the lack of city laws). California has both towns and cities but the terms "town" and "city" are considered synonymous. The nation's largest cities are New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, and Houston.

In some U.S. states, any incorporated town is also called a city. If a distinction is being made between towns and cities, exactly what that distinction is often depends on the context. The context will differ depending on whether the issue is the legal authority it possesses, the availability of shopping and entertainment, and the scope of the group of places under consideration. Intensifiers such as "small town" and "big city" are also common, though the flip side of each is rarely used.

Some states make a distinction between villages and other forms of municipalities. In some cases, villages combine with larger other communities to form larger towns; a well-known example of an urban village is New York City's famed Greenwich Village, which started as a quiet country settlement but was absorbed by the growing city. The word has often been co-opted by enterprising developers to make their projects sound welcoming and friendly.

In Illinois, cities must have a minimum population of 2,500 but in Nebraska, cities must have a minimum of only 800 residents. In Idaho, Oregon, Kansas, Kentucky, North Dakota, Minnesota, and Iowa, all incorporated municipalities are cities. In Ohio, a municipality automatically becomes a city if it has 5,000 residents counted in a federal census but it reverts to a village if its population drops below 5,000.[30] In Nebraska, 5,000 residents is the minimum for a city of the first class while 800 is the minimum for a city of the second class.

In all the New England states, city status is conferred by the form of government, not population. Town government has a board of selectmen or Town Council for the executive branch, and a town meeting for the legislative branch, but unlike the US Government, the executive acts only as an administrative body and cannot override the will of town meeting. New England cities, on the other hand, have a mayor for the executive, and a legislature referred to as either the city council or the board of aldermen.

In Virginia, all incorporated municipalities designated as cities are independent of the adjacent or surrounding county while a town is an incorporated municipality which remains a part of an adjacent or surrounding county. The largest incorporated municipalities by population are all cities, although some smaller cities have a smaller population than some towns. For example, the smallest city of Norton has a population of 3,904 and the largest town of Blacksburg has a population of 39,573. The other U.S. independent cities are Baltimore, Maryland; St. Louis, Missouri; and Carson City, Nevada.[31]

In Pennsylvania any municipality with more than 10 persons can incorporate as a borough. Any township or borough with a population of at least 10,000 can ask the state legislature to charter as a city. In Pennsylvania, a village is simply an unincorporated community within a township.

Global cities

, often include large central business districts that serve as hubs for economic activity.]]

A global city, also known as a world city, is a prominent centre of trade, banking, finance, innovation, and markets. The term "global city", as opposed to megacity, was coined by Saskia Sassen in a seminal 1991 work.[citation needed] Whereas "megacity" refers to any city of enormous size, a global city is one of enormous power or influence. Global cities, according to Sassen, have more in common with each other than with other cities in their host nations. Examples of such cities include London, New York City, Paris, Sao Paulo, Singapore and Tokyo. The notion of global cities is rooted in the concentration of power and capabilities within all cities. The city is seen as a container where skills and resources are concentrated: the better able a city is to concentrate its skills and resources, the more successful and powerful the city. This makes the city itself more powerful in the sense that it can influence what is happening around the world. Following this view of cities, it is possible to rank the world's cities hierarchically.[32]

Critics of the notion point to the different realms of power. The term global city is heavily influenced by economic factors and, thus, may not account for places that are otherwise significant. For example, cities like Rome, Delhi, Mumbai, Istanbul, Mecca, Mashhad, Karbala, Karachi, Lahore, Jerusalem and Lisbon are powerful in religious and historical terms but would not be considered "global cities." Additionally, it has been questioned whether the city itself can be regarded as an actor.

In 1995, Kanter argued that successful cities can be identified by three elements: good thinkers (concepts), good makers (competence) or good traders (connections). The interplay of these three elements, Kanter argued, means that good cities are not planned but managed.

Inner city

]] ]]

In the United States, United Kingdom and Ireland, the term "inner city" is sometimes used with the connotation of being an area, perhaps a ghetto, where people are less wealthy and where there is more crime. These connotations are less common in other Western countries, as deprived areas are located in varying parts of other Western cities. In fact, with the gentrification of some formerly run-down central city areas the reverse connotation can apply. In Australia, for example, the term "outer suburban" applied to a person implies a lack of sophistication. In Paris, the inner city is the richest part of the metropolitan area, where housing is the most expensive, and where elites and high-income individuals dwell. In the developing world, economic modernization brings poor newcomers from the countryside to build haphazardly at the edge of current settlement (see favelas, shacks and shanty towns).

The United States, in particular, has a culture of anti-urbanism that dates back to colonial times. The American City Beautiful architecture movement of the late 1800s was a reaction to perceived urban decay and sought to provide stately civic buildings and boulevards to inspire civic pride in the motley residents of the urban core. Modern anti-urban attitudes are to be found in America in the form of a planning profession that continues to develop land on a low-density suburban basis, where access to amenities, work and shopping is provided almost exclusively by car rather than on foot.

However, there is a growing movement in North America called "New Urbanism" that calls for a return to traditional city planning methods where mixed-use zoning allows people to walk from one type of land-use to another. The idea is that housing, shopping, office space, and leisure facilities are all provided within walking distance of each other, thus reducing the demand for road-space and also improving the efficiency and effectiveness of mass transit.

New 21st Century Cities

There is a debate about whether technology and instantaneous communications are making cities obsolete, or reinforcing the importance of big cities as centres of the knowledge economy.[33][34][35] Some companies are building brand new masterplanned cities from scratch on greenfield sites.

See also

Lists

Social problems in the city

References

  1. ^ a b Goodall, B. (1987) The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography. London: Penguin.
  2. ^ Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) The Social Science Encyclopedia. 2nd edition. London: Routledge.
  3. ^ Childe, V. Gordon (April). "The Urban Revolution". Town Planning Review 21 (1): 3–19. doi:10.1068/d5307. 
  4. ^ Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark (1998) Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization. Oxford University Press, Karachi and New York.
  5. ^ On The Political Economy of the Roman Empire, Keith Hopkins
  6. ^ Rostovtzeff 1941: 1138-39)
  7. ^ a b George Modelski, World Cities: –3000 to 2000, Washington DC: FAROS 2000, 2003. ISBN 2-00309-499-4. See also Evolutionary World Politics Homepage.
  8. ^ The organization of the grain trade in the early Roman Empire, David Kessler and Peter Temin
  9. ^ Trudy Ring, Robert M. Salkin, K. A. Berney, Paul E. Schellinger (1996), International dictionary of historic places, Volume 4: Middle East and Africa, Taylor and Francis, p. 116 
  10. ^ History of African Cities South of the Sahara By Catherine Coquery -Vidrovitch. 2005. ISBN 1558763031
  11. ^ "Mayday 23: World Population Becomes More Urban Than Rural". News.ncsu.edu. http://news.ncsu.edu/releases/2007/may/104.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-07. 
  12. ^ "Indoor Air Quality — American Lung Association of Alaska". Aklung.org. http://www.aklung.org/air-quality/indoor-air-quality/. Retrieved on 2009-02-07. 
  13. ^ "newsminer.com; EPA to put Fairbanks on air pollution problem list". Newsminer.com. 2008-08-20. http://newsminer.com/news/2008/aug/20/epa-put-fairbanks-air-pollution-problem-list/. Retrieved on 2009-02-07. 
  14. ^ Knowldege Spillovers
  15. ^ "UN Habitat calling urban living 'a good thing". BBC News. 2007-06-27. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/6244496.stm. Retrieved on 2009-02-07. 
  16. ^ "National Geographic Magazine; Special report 2008: Changing Climate (Village Green-article by". Michelle Nijhuis. 2008-08-26. http://www.michellenijhuis.com/. Retrieved on 2009-02-07. 
  17. ^ "Un Habitat calling to rethink urban planning". Un-Habitat.. http://www.unhabitat.org/content.asp?cid=2523&catid=5&typeid=6&subMenuId=0. Retrieved on 2009-02-07. 
  18. ^ "City of South Perth". http://www.southperth.wa.gov.au. Retrieved on 2007-06-03. 
  19. ^ "Geographic Definitions, 2006 Census Information About Data, 2006 Census, Statistics New Zealand". http://www.stats.govt.nz/census/2006-census-information-about-data/2006-definitions-questionnaires/definitions/geographic-definitions.htm. Retrieved on 2007-10-26. 
  20. ^ Гісторыя Беларусі. Энцыклапедыя. Том 5
  21. ^ Political Divisions Chile National Institute of Statistics
  22. ^ Political Divisions Chile National Institute of Statistics
  23. ^ "Definition of city in Poland" (in (Polish)). Stat.gov.pl. http://www.stat.gov.pl/gus/definicje_PLK_HTML.htm?id=POJ-4689.htm. Retrieved on 2009-02-07. 
  24. ^ Law n.° 11/82 (Lei das designações e determinação de categoria das povoações), of June, 2nd
  25. ^ Flags of the World
  26. ^ Korea.net - Administrative Units
  27. ^ Dictionary of British Social History; L W Cowrie: Wordsworth reference: ISBN 1-85326-378-8
  28. ^ http://www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/theme_compendia/fom2005/03_FOPM_UrbanAreas.pdf
  29. ^ http://www.urbanaudit.org/CityProfiles.aspx
  30. ^ Ohio Revised Code 703.01
  31. ^ "Chapter 4: States, Counties, and Statistically Equivalent Entities" (PDF). Geographic Areas Reference Manual. United States Census Bureau. 4-9, 4-11. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/GARM/Ch4GARM.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-09-16. 
  32. ^ John Friedmann and Goetz Wolff, "World City Formation: An Agenda for Research and Action," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 6, no. 3 (1982): 319
  33. ^ Castells, M. (ed) (2004). The network society: a cross-cultural perspective. London: Edward Elgar. (ebook)
  34. ^ Flew, T. (2008). New media: an introduction, 3rd edn, South Melbourne: Oxford University Press
  35. ^ Harford, T. (2008) The Logic of Life. London: Little, Brown.
  • Bairoch, Paul (1988), Cities and Economic Development: From the Dawn of History to the Present, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0226034658 
  • Chandler, T. Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth: An Historical Census. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1987.
  • Geddes, Patrick, City Development (1904)
  • Jacobs, Jane (1969), The Economy of Cities, New York: Random House Inc 
  • Modelski, G. World Cities: –3000 to 2000. Washington, DC: FAROS 2000, 2003.
  • Monti, Daniel J., Jr., The American City: A Social and Cultural History. Oxford, England and Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 1999. 391 pp. ISBN 978-1-55786-918-0.
  • Mumford, Lewis, The City in History (1961)
  • O'Flaherty, Brendan (2005), City Economics, Cambridge Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-01918-0 
  • Pacione, Michael (2001), The City: Critical Concepts in The Social Sciences, New York: Routledge, ISBN 0415252709 
  • Reader, John (2005) Cities. Vintage, New York.
  • Robson, W.A., and Regan, D.E., ed., Great Cities of the World, (3d ed., 2 vol., 1972)
  • Rybczynski, W., City Life: Urban Expectations in a New World, (1995)
  • Smith, Michael E. (2002) The Earliest Cities. In Urban Life: Readings in Urban Anthropology, edited by George Gmelch and Walter Zenner, pp. 3–19. 4th ed. Waveland Press, Prospect Heights, IL.
  • Thernstrom, S., and Sennett, R., ed., Nineteenth-Century Cities (1969)
  • Toynbee, Arnold J. (ed), Cities of Destiny, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967. Pan historical/geographical essays, many images. Starts with "Athens", ends with "The Coming World City-Ecumenopolis".
  • Weber, Max, The City, 1921. (tr. 1958)

External links

Find more about City on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Definitions from Wiktionary

Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource

Error creating thumbnail: sh: convert: command not found
Images and media from Commons

News stories from Wikinews

Learning resources from Wikiversity


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also City

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Most common English words: several « either « whether « #339: city » held » help » number

Alternative forms

  • cyte (13th - 16th centuries)

Etymology

From Middle English cite < Old French cité < Latin civitas ("a union of citizens", "a citizenry").

Pronunciation

Adjective

city

  1. public; belonging to a city; of a city
  2. urban

Synonyms

Translations

Noun

Singular
city

Plural
cities

city (plural cities)

  1. A large settlement, bigger than a town. In Europe a city is a place that had succeeded in obtaining the right to build a city wall, a belfort, etc., from the nobility.

Derived terms

Look at pages starting with city.

Related terms

Translations

Proper noun

Singular
the city

Plural
-

the city

  1. (in Northern California, US) San Francisco.
  2. (in New York City, US) Manhattan.

See also


Italian

Etymology

English

Noun

city f. inv.

  1. city (financial district of a city)

Derived terms

  • city bike
  • city car
  • city manager

Simple English

with its town square and magnificent town hall. A modern suburb can be seen in the background.]]

A city is a place where many people live together. A city has many buildings and streets. It has houses or apartments for many people to live, shops where they may buy things, places for people to work and a government organisation to run the city, and to keep law and order in the city. Many people live in cities because it is easy for them to find and do the things they want there. A city usually has a "city centre" where government and business take place, and places called suburbs where people live around the outside of the centre.

Contents

Definition

]] There is no rule that is used all over the world to decide why some places are called "city" and other places are called "town".

Some things that make a city are:

  • A long history.
  • A large population. In modern Europe a town of over 10,000 people is a city.
  • A centre where business and local government takes place.
  • Special powers called town privileges which have been given by the government of the country, or its ruler. This was done especially during the Middle Ages. In Europe there are cities with less than 10.000 people that have town privileges, for example Valence-sur-Baïse in France. In 1999, 1.100 people lived there.
  • Having a cathedral or an university. This rule is found in the United Kingdom. The smallest "cathedral cities" are St. David's and St Asaph's which are both in Wales, and Ripon and Wells which are in England.

In American English, people often call all places cities.[1] (See below: Size of cities)

Size of cities

The sizes of cities can be very different. This depends on the type of city that it is. Cities that were built hundreds of years ago and which have not changed much, are very much smaller than modern cities. There are two main reasons. One reason is that old cities often have a city wall, and most of the city is inside it. Another important reason is that the streets in old cities are often narrow. If the city got too big, it was hard for a cart carrying food to get to the market place. People in cities need food, and the food always has to come from outside the city. Cities that were on a river like London could grow much bigger than cities that were on a mountain like Siena in Italy, because the river made a transport route for carrying food and other goods, as well as for transporting people. London has been changing continually for hundreds of years, while Siena, which was a very important city in the 1300s has changed very little in 700 years. Modern cities with modern transport systems can grow very large, because the streets are wide enough for cars, buses and trucks, and there are often railway lines as well.

In the US, the word city is often used for towns that are not very big. When the first European people went to America, they gave the name "city" to new places. They hoped the places would be great cities in the future. For example, Salt Lake City was the name given to a village of 148 people. When they started building the town they made street plans and called it Great Salt Lake City (for the nearby Great Salt Lake). Now, 150 years later, it really is a big city.

In modern times many cities have grown bigger and bigger. The whole area is often called a "metropolis" and can sometimes includes several small ancient towns and villages. The metropolis of London includes the City of London, the City of Westminster and many old villages such as Notting Hill, Southwark, Richmond, Greenwich and etc. The part that is officially known as the "City of London" only takes up one square mile. (See the picture [witch picture?]) The rest is known as "Greater London". Many other cities have grown in the same way.

These giant cities can be exciting places to live, and many people can find good jobs there, but modern cities also have many problems. Many people cannot find jobs in the cities and have to get money by begging or by crime. Cars, factories, and garbage create a lot of pollution that makes people sick.

Urban history

.]]

Urban History is history of civilization. The first cities were made in ancient times, as soon as people began to create civilization. Famous ancient cities which fell to ruins included Babylon, Troy, Mycenae and Mohenjo Daro.

Benares in northern India is one among the ancient cities which has a history of more 3000 years. Other cities that have existed since ancient times are Athens in Greece, Rome and Volterra in Italy, Alexandria in Egypt and York in England.

In Europe, in the Middle Ages, being a city was a special privilege, granted by nobility. Cities that fall into this category, usually had (or still have) city walls. The people who lived in the city were privileged over those who did not. Medieval cities that still have walls include Carcassonne in France, Tehran in Iran, Toledo in Spain and Canterbury in England.

In the United Kingdom, a city is a town which people have always called a city, or which has got the name "city" status by royal charter (a special paper from the king or queen). Cities usually get this because they have a special number of people or are important. In the past, cities got that name if they had a cathedral or an university. Some cathedral cities, for example St David's, are small, and people do not normally think of them as cities. Cities that became cities because of their university generally grow because more people move there to be educated at the university colleges. The university cities of Oxford and Cambridge are famous throughout the world.

In modern Europe, any town with at least 10,000 people in it can call itself city. Many cities that have their status from the Middle Ages are actually smaller than 10,000 people.

World's largest cities

is famous for its tall buildings called "skyscrapers".]] 

, a city famous for its beauty, large slums lie between the richest districts.]]

In the world today, there are twenty cities with more than 10 million people:

Gallery of cities

References

krc:Шахарrue:Місто


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message