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In grammar, the comparative is the form of an adjective or adverb which denotes the degree or grade by which a person, thing, or other entity has a property or quality greater or less in extent than that of another, and is used in this context with a subordinating conjunction, such as than, as...as, etc. [1]

Contents

Structure

The structure of a comparative in English consists normally of the positive form of the adjective or adverb, plus the suffix -er, or (in the case of polysyllabic words borrowed from foreign languages) the modifier "more" (or "less"/ "fewer") before the adjective or adverb. The form is usually completed by "than" and the noun which is being compared, e.g. "he is taller than his father is", or "the village is less picturesque than the town nearby". "Than" is used as a subordinating conjunction to introduce the second element of a comparative sentence while the first element expresses the difference ("our new house is larger than the old one"). There is less water in Saudi Arabia than there is in the United States; but however, there are fewer people in Canada than there are in California.

Two-clause sentences

For sentences with the two clauses other two-part comparative subordinating conjunctions may be used:[2][3]

  1. as...as ("The house was as large as two put together.")
  2. not so / not as ...as ("The coat of paint is not as [not so] fresh as it used to be.")
  3. the same ... as ("The market square is just the same as I remember it to be.")
  4. less / more ... than ("It cost me more than I had hoped.")

Adverbs

The adverb is determined by the -ly suffix as usual, and in a comparative phrase changes to -lier. However, adverbs with a greater number of syllables than two, require the use of more (or less), as in ("this sofa seats three people more comfortably than the other one"). Some irregular adverbs such as fast / often may be added without the suffix, ("My new car starts more quickly than the old one."), or ("My new car starts quicker/faster than the old one."), and ("I go into town more often than I used to.").

Null comparative

The null comparative is a comparative in which the starting point for comparison is not stated. These comparisons are frequently found in advertising. For example, in typical assertions such as "our burgers have more flavor", "our picture is sharper" or "50% more", there is no mention of what it is they are comparing to. In some cases it is easy to infer what the missing element in a null comparative is. In other cases the speaker or writer has been deliberately vague & weak in this regard, for example "Glasgow's miles better".

Greater/lesser

Scientific classification, taxonomy and geographical categorization conventionally include the adjectives greater and lesser, when a large or small variety of an item is meant, as in the greater celandine as opposed to the lesser celandine. These adjectives may at first sight appear as a kind of null comparative, when as is usual, they are cited without their opposite counterpart. It is clear however, when reference literature is consulted that an entirely different variety of animal, scientific or geographical object is intended. Thus it may be found, for example, that the lesser panda entails a giant panda variety, and a gazetteer would establish that there are the Lesser Antilles as well as the Greater Antilles.

It is in the nature of grammatical conventions evolving over time that it is difficult to establish when they first became widely accepted, but both greater and lesser in these instances have over time become mere adjectives (or adverbial constructs), so losing their comparative connotation.

When referring to metropolitan areas, Greater indicates that adjacent areas such as suburbs are being included. Although it implies a comparison with a narrower definition that refers to a central city only, such as Greater London versus the City of London, or Greater New York versus New York City, it is not part of the "comparative" in the grammatical sense this article describes. A comparative always compares something directly with something else.

It does not look for conceptual differences as "city" versus a concept such as a "named area" and has two clauses with subordinating conjunctions (than, etc.).

References

  1. ^ John Sinclair, (ed. in chief) (1987) "Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary", Collins ELT. ISBN 0-00-375021-3 for the definition subordinating conjunction
  2. ^ Tom McArthur (1992) "The Oxford Companion to the English Language", Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-214183-X
  3. ^ Marco Sucupira Language Materials for the forms of comparisons

See also

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Etymology

Originated 1400–50 from late Middle English comparative, from Latin comparativus, equivalent to comparatus from comparare (to compare) + -ive from Latin -ivus.

Pronunciation

Adjective

comparative (comparative more comparative, superlative most comparative)

Positive
comparative

Comparative
more comparative

Superlative
most comparative

  1. Of or related to comparison.
  2. Using comparison as a method of study, or founded on something using it.
  3. Approximated by comparison; relative.

Translations

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Noun

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Singular
comparative

Plural
comparatives

comparative (plural comparatives)

  1. (grammar) A construction showing a relative quality, in English usually formed by adding more or appending -er. For example, the comparative of green is greener; of evil, more evil.
  2. (grammar) A word in the comparative form.

Translations

Related terms

References

  • comparative” in The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000.
  • comparative” in Dictionary.com Unabridged, v1.0.1, Lexico Publishing Group, 2006.
  • "comparative" in WordNet 3.0, Princeton University, 2006.

Italian

Adjective

comparative f.

  1. Feminine plural form of comparativo

Anagrams


Simple English

Adjectives and Adverbs can be comparative in English and some other languages. When people are talking about two or more nouns, they can compare them (say the differences between them). The word which explains how they compare is called the comparative. They can also compare actions using adverbs.

Examples: (The comparative is in bold).

  • John is tall, but Mark is taller
  • An hour is longer than a minute.

Many words can be made into a comparative by adding er to the end of the word.

  • cool - cooler
  • big - bigger
  • wet - wetter
  • dark - darker

Words that end with the letter 'Y' can still be made into a comparative, but people change the 'Y' to an 'I' and then add 'ER'.

  • happy - happier
  • fluffy - fluffier
  • angry - angrier
  • costly - costlier

Some words cannot be made into a comparative by adding 'ER' Instead we use the word more in front. Most of these words have three or more syllables, such as beautiful, reliable.

If people are not sure about a word, it is always acceptable to say "more" (something), such as "more beautiful", "more expensive".

Warning: The 'ER' ending and the word "more" together cannot be used.

  • I am happier than you. - Correct.
  • I am more happy than you. - Correct.
  • I am more happier - WRONG.

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