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is the most widely used psychotropic beverage in the world. In 1999 the average consumption of coffee was 3.5 cups per day per U.S. citizen.[1]]]
is a common alcoholic beverage.[2]]]
Pharmacy and Pharmacology portal

A drug, broadly speaking, is any substance that, when absorbed into the body of a living organism, alters normal bodily function.[3] There is no single, precise definition, as there are different meanings in drug control law, government regulations, medicine, and colloquial usage.[4]

In pharmacology, Dictionary.com defines a drug as "a chemical substance used in the treatment, cure, prevention, or diagnosis of disease or used to otherwise enhance physical or mental well-being."[4] Drugs may be prescribed for a limited duration, or on a regular basis for chronic disorders.[5]

Recreational drugs are chemical substances that affect the central nervous system, such as opioids or hallucinogens.[5] They may be used for perceived beneficial effects on perception, consciousness, personality, and behavior.[5][6] Some drugs can cause addiction and habituation.[6]

Drugs are usually distinguished from endogenous biochemicals by being introduced from outside the organism.Template:Fact For example, insulin is a hormone that is synthesized in the body; it is called a hormone when it is synthesized by the pancreas inside the body, but if it is introduced into the body from outside, it is called a drug.Template:Fact

Many natural substances such as beers, wines, and some mushrooms, blur the line between food and drugs, as when ingested they affect the functioning of both mind and body.

Contents

Medication

A medication or medicine is a drug taken to cure and/or ameliorate any symptoms of an illness or medical condition, or may be used as preventive medicine that has future benefits but does not treat any existing or pre-existing diseases or symptoms.

Dispensing of medication is often regulated by governments into three categories — over-the-counter (OTC) medications, which are available in pharmacies and supermarkets without special restrictions, behind-the-counter (BTC), which are dispensed by a pharmacist without needing a doctor's prescription, and Prescription only medicines (POM), which must be prescribed by a licensed medical professional, usually a physician.Template:Fact

In the UK, BTC medicines are called pharmacy medicines which can only be sold in registered pharmacies, by or under the supervision of a pharmacist, these medications are designated by the letter P on the label,[7] the precise distinction between OTC and prescription drugs depends on the legal jurisdiction.Template:Fact

Medications are typically produced by pharmaceutical companies and are often patented to give the developer exclusive rights to produce them, but they can also be derived from naturally occurring substance in plants called herbal medicine.Template:Fact Those that are not patented (or with expired patents) are called generic drugs since they can be produced by other companies without restrictions or licenses from the patent holder.

Drugs, both medicinal and recreational, can be administered in a number of ways:

Many drugs can be administered in a variety of ways.

Recreation

is the common pharmaceutical form of tobacco – one of the world’s best selling drugs.[8]]]
is another commonly used recreational drug.[9]]]

Recreational drugs use is the use of psychoactive substances to have fun, for the experience, or to enhance an already positive experience. National laws prohibit the use of many different recreational drugs and medicinal drugs that have the potential for recreational use are heavily regulated. Many other recreational drugs on the other hand are legal, widely culturally accepted, and at the most have an age restriction on using and/or purchasing them. These include alcohol, tobacco, betel nut, and caffeine products.

Spiritual and religious use

The spiritual and religious use of drugs has been occurring since the dawn of our species. Drugs that are considered to have spiritual or religious use are called entheogens. Some religions are based completely on the use of certain drugs. Entheogens are mostly hallucinogens, being either psychedelics or deliriants, but some are also stimulants and sedatives.

Nootropics

Nootropics, also commonly referred to as "smart drugs", are drugs that are claimed to improve human cognitive abilities. Nootropics are used to improve memory, concentration, thought, mood, learning, and many others things. Some nootropics are now beginning to be used to treat certain diseases such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. They are also commonly used to regain brain function lost during aging.

Legal definition of drugs

Some governments define the term drug by law. In the United States, the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act definition of "drug" includes "articles intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease in man or other animals" and "articles (other than food) intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or other animals."[10] Consistent with that definition, the U.S. separately defines narcotic drugs and controlled substances, which may include non-drugs, and explicitly excludes tobacco, caffeine and alcoholic beverages.[11]

Governmental controls

In Canada the government has moved to remove the influence of drug companies on the medical system. The influence that the pharmaceutical companies, the for-profits, are having on every aspect of medicine ... is so blatant now you'd have to be deaf, blind and dumb not to see it, said Journal of the American Medical Association editor Dr. Catherine DeAngelis.[12]

Etymology

Drug is thought to originate from Old French "drogue", possibly deriving later into "droge-vate" from Middle Dutch meaning "dry barrels", referring to medicinal plants preserved in them.[13]

See also

References

  1. Deutscher Kaffeeverband (2001-05-04). "Kaffee-Text 1/99" (in German) (PDF). http://www.kaffeeverband.de/pdf/kt1-99.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-12-14. 
  2. In Germany ca. 118 l beer, 20 l wine, 4 l sparkling wine and 6 l distilled beverages are consumed per person and year.Template:Fact
  3. World Health Organization. (1969). WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence. Sixteenth report. (Technical report series. No. 407).Geneva:World Health Organization.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Drug." Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1), Random House, Inc., via dictionary.com. Retrieved on 2007-09-20.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 "Drug." The American Heritage Science Dictionary, Houghton Mifflin Company, via dictionary.com. Retrieved on 2007-09-20.
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Drug." Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, Inc., via dictionary.com. Retrieved on 2007-09-20.
  7. "Glossary of MHRA terms - P". MHRA. http://www.mhra.gov.uk/SearchHelp/Glossary/GlossaryP. Retrieved on 2008-11-05. 
  8. According to the statistic of the Food and Agriculture Organization the production quantity in 2006 of coffee was 7.8 million tonnes and of tobacco was 6.7 million tonnes.
  9. Lingeman, Drugs from A-Z A Dictionary, Penguin ISBN 0 7139 0136 5
  10. "Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act" (Website.) U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved on 2007-09-24.
  11. "21 USC Sec. 802." (Website.) U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved on 2007-09-24.
  12. Linda A. Johnson (2008-09-11). "Medical schools and journals fight drug industry influence". CBC.ca. http://www.cbc.ca/cp/health/080911/x091102A.html. Retrieved on 2008-11-05. 
  13. Harper, Douglas. "drug". Online Etymology Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=drug. 

External links

Template:Major Drug Groups


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From French drogue, probably from Dutch droog; akin to English dry; thus origin, “dry substance”, “herbs”, “plants”, or “wares”.

Noun

Singular
drug

Plural
drugs

drug (plural drugs)

  1. (pharmacology) A substance used to treat an illness, relieve a symptom, or modify a chemical process in the body for a specific purpose.
  2. (pharmacology) A substance, often addictive, which affects the central nervous system.
  3. A chemical or substance, not necessarily for medical purposes, which alters the way the mind or body works.
  4. A substance, especially one which is illegal, ingested for recreational use.
    • 1971, Hunter S. Thompson, Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas, Harper Perennial 2005 edition, p. 3,
      We were somewhere around Barstow on the edge of the desert when the drugs began to take hold.
Synonyms
Translations
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.
Derived terms

Verb

Infinitive
to drug

Third person singular
drugs

Simple past
drugged

Past participle
drugged

Present participle
drugging

to drug (third-person singular simple present drugs, present participle drugging, simple past and past participle drugged)

  1. (transitive) To administer intoxicating drugs to, generally without the recipient's knowledge or consent.
    She suddenly felt strange, and only then realized she'd been drugged.
  2. (transitive) To add intoxicating drugs to with the intention of drugging someone.
    She suddenly felt strange. She realized her drink must have been drugged.
Translations
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Etymology 2

Germanic ablaut formation, cognate to German trug.

Verb

drug

  1. (Southern US) Simple past tense and past participle of drag.
    You look like someone drug you behind a horse for half a mile.
Usage notes
  • Random House says that drug is "nonstandard" as the past tense of drag. Merriam-Webster once ruled that drug in this construction was "illiterate" but have since upgraded it to "dialect". The lexicographers of New World, American Heritage, and Oxford make no mention of this word.
References
  • drug in Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam, 1913

Bosnian

Etymology

From Proto-Slavic *drugъ, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰrowgʰos.

Noun

drȗg m.

  1. friend
  2. comrade (term of address in the Communist party and elsewhere 1945 – 1990)

Declension

Derived terms

  • drȕžbenīk
  • druželjùbiv
  • drùžica
  • drùžina
  • drúžiti

Related terms

  • drugàrica, drúga, drùžica f.

Synonyms


Croatian

Etymology

From Proto-Slavic *drugъ, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰrowgʰos.

Noun

drȗg m.

  1. friend
  2. comrade (term of address in the Communist party and elsewhere 1945 – 1990)

Declension

Derived terms

  • drȕžbenīk
  • druželjùbiv
  • drùžica
  • drùžina
  • drúžiti

Related terms

  • drugàrica, drúga, drùžica f.

Synonyms

Usage notes

Rarely used in its original meaning friend after 1990.


Romanian

Noun

drug m. (plural drugi)

  1. pole, stick

Noun

drug n. (plural druguri)


Serbian

Etymology

From Proto-Slavic *drugъ, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰrowgʰos.

Noun

drȗg m. (Cyrillic spelling друг)

  1. friend
  2. comrade (term of address in the Communist party and elsewhere 1945 – 1990)

Declension

Derived terms

  • drȕžbenīk
  • druželjùbiv
  • drùžica
  • drùžina
  • drúžiti

Related terms

  • drugàrica, drúga, drùžica f.

Synonyms


Serbo-Croatian

Etymology

From Proto-Slavic *drugъ, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰrowgʰos.

Noun

drȗg m. (Cyrillic spelling: дру̑г)

  1. friend
  2. comrade

Declension

Derived terms

  • drȕžbenīk
  • druželjùbiv
  • drùžica
  • drùžina
  • drúžiti

Related terms

  • drugàrica, drúga, drùžica f.

Synonyms


Slovene

Adjective

drug (not comparable)

  1. other

Simple English


According to the WHO, a drug is a substance that can change how a a living organism works. Food is generally not seen as a drug, even though some foods may have such properties. Most of the time drugs are taken to treat a disease, or other medical condition. An example for such drugs may be Aspirin or Paracetamol, which are usually given to treat fever, as well as certain infections. If such drugs are taken over a longer time, they are usually prescribed by a doctor. Other drugs are taken for fun, because of the effect they have. Some of these drugs taken for fun are better accepted by society than others. Having or taking certain drugs may be illegal, in certain countries.

Drugs that are taken to treat a disease or condition are usually called "therapeutic", drugs that are taken for fun are called "recreational" drugs.

Drugs may have other effects than those wanted. Such effects are generally known as side-effects.

Drugs act differently in different amounts. It is therefore important to take the right amount. The amount of the drug taken is called a dose. Aspirin is often prescribed against fever, or as an analgesic. One of the side-effects of Aspirin is that it makes the blood thinner. For this reason, it can also be used to prevent strokes, or heart attacks - in a much lower dose than the one used to treat fever, though.

Taking too much of a drug ("too high a dose") can cause sickness or even death. When a doctor says how much of a drug (the right dose) to take, only that amount should be taken. It is very important to keep taking the drug until the doctor says to stop because someone can feel better but still be sick. When a doctor says what drug to take, how much of it, and for how long, it is called a prescription. Drugs may cause addiction. Some drugs are illegal because they are very addictive. These drugs are really expensive, too.

Recreational drugs

Recreational drugs can sometimes be bad for someone's health even if they make them feel good. Alcohol can also be dangerous if the person drinking it drives a vehicle after drinking. This is called drunk driving. Many countries make this against the law. Common recreational drugs include:

Certain recreational drugs also have uses as a therapeutic drug. Heroin can be used as an analgesic (a painkiller) and methamphetamine is used to treat narcolepsy or ADHD. Recreational drugs can be dangerous, certain countries have made it illegal to have or take them outside a medical context. Most of the time, this is because they can be addictive or that they are very dangerous when combined with other drugs. That way, Cannabis-based products are legal in the Netherlands, but illegal in many other countries.

Alcohol and Nicotine are legal almost everywhere, but there are a lot of taxes on the sale of these. In other words, they are expensive to buy. Being expensive to buy because of taxes has two benefits; one is that the taxes collected from the sale of the drugs goes into helping to pay for assistance the drug user may experience later. A smoker, for example, may develop cancer later in life and need treatment at a place that is granted a certain amount of tax money from the government to keep it operating. Another benefit to the taxing of "legal" drugs, is that the high price may stop people from beginning the habit in the first place, which will help them avoid the negative medical or addictive side effects of the drug. In some cases, not everyone is allowed to buy these drugs unless they are a minimal age to do so. The age at which someone is allowed to buy a legal drug is most often decided by the government of a country, state or province, and is usually the age where a person is considered by the law to be an "adult". Some of the most common ages this happens is at 18, 19 or 21 years of age.

Therapeutic drugs

Therapeutic drugs are also called medicinal drugs, medicine, or medication. Doctors will give therapeutic drugs to someone who is ill to make you better. You can buy these drugs at a pharmacy. Some drugs need a prescription to be bought, other drugs do not. Drugs that do not require a prescription are called "over the counter" medications. There are lots of these drugs for different illnesses. These include:

References


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 12, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Disease, which are similar to those in the above article.








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