e: Wikis

  

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Encyclopedia

Basic Latin alphabet
  Aa Bb Cc Dd  
Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj
Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp
Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv
  Ww Xx Yy Zz  

E is the fifth letter in the Latin alphabet. Its name in English (pronounced /iː/) is spelled e; the plural is ees, though this is rare.[1] The letter E is the most commonly used letter in the Czech,[2] Danish,[2] Dutch,[2] English,[3] French,[4] German,[5] Hungarian,[2] Latin,[2] Norwegian,[2] Spanish,[6] and Swedish languages.[2]

Contents

History

Egyptian hieroglyph
E’
Proto-Semitic
H
Phoenician
H
Etruscan
E
Greek
Epsilon
Roman/Cyrillic
E
A28 [[File:]] [[File:|64x64px]] File:Alfabeto File:Epsilon uc [[File:|Roman E]]

E is derived from the Greek letter epsilon which is much the same in appearance (Ε, ε) and function. In etymology, the Semitic probably first represented a praying or calling human figure (hillul jubilation), and was probably based on a similar Egyptian hieroglyph that was pronounced and used quite differently. In Semitic, the letter represented /h/ (and /e/ in foreign words), in Greek became Εψιλον (Epsilon) with the value /e/. Etruscans and Romans followed this usage. Arising from the Great Vowel Shift, English usage is rather different, namely /iː/ (derived from /eː/ in "me" or "bee") whereas other words like "bed" are closer to Latin and other languages in usage.

Usage

Like other Latin vowels, E came in a long and a short variety. Originally, the only difference was in length but later on, short e represented /ɛ/. In other languages that use the letter E or e, it represents various other phonetic values, sometimes with accents to indicate contrasts (e ê é è ë ē ĕ ě ẽ ė ẹ ę ẻ).

Digraphs starting with E are common in many languages to indicate diphthongs and monophthongs, such as EA or EE for /iː/ or /eɪ/ in English, EI for /aɪ/ in German, or EU for /ø/ in French or /ɔɪ/ in German.

At the end of a word, E is very often silent in English (silent e), where old noun inflections have been dropped, although even when silent at the end of a word, it often causes vowels in the word to be pronounced as diphthongs, conventionally called long vowels (compare as a noun rat and as a verb rate).

The letter 'E' is the most common (or highest frequency) letter in the English language (starting off the typographer's phrase ETAOIN SHRDLU) and many other related languages, which has implications in both cryptography and data compression. This makes it a difficult and popular letter to use when writing lipograms. Ernest Vincent Wright's Gadsby (1939), is considered a "dreadful" novel, and that "at least part of Wright's narrative difficulties were caused by language restrictions imposed by the lack of E."[7] Both Georges Perec's novel A Void (La Disparition) (1969) and its English translation by Gilbert Adair omit the letter E and are considered better works.[8]

Codes for computing

Alternative representations of E
NATO phonetic Morse code
Echo ·
Signal flag Flag semaphore Braille

In Unicode the capital E is codepoint U+0045 and the lower case e is U+0065.

The ASCII code for capital E is 69 and for lower case e is 101; or in binary 01000101 and 01100101, respectively.

The EBCDIC code for capital E is 197 and for lowercase e is 133.

The numeric character references in HTML and XML are "E" and "e" for upper and lower case, respectively.

In British Sign Language (BSL), the letter 'e' is represented as extended index of right hand touching the tip of index on the left hand. All fingers of left hand should be open.

See also

See E (disambiguation) for uses of the letter E

Similar Latin letters:

  • Ɛɛ : Latin epsilon

Similar non-Latin letters:

Similar phonetic symbols:

Special symbols similar to the letter E:

References

  1. ^ "E" Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993). Ees is the plural of the name of the letter; the plural of the letter itself is E's, Es, e's, or es.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Kelk, Brian. "Letter frequencies". UK Free Software Network. http://www.bckelk.ukfsn.org/words/etaoin.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-25. 
  3. ^ Lewand, Robert. "Relative Frequencies of Letters in General English Plain text". Cryptographical Mathematics. Central College. http://pages.central.edu/emp/LintonT/classes/spring01/cryptography/letterfreq.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-25. 
  4. ^ "Frequency of Occurrence of Letters in French". Santa Cruz Public Libraries. http://www.santacruzpl.org/readyref/files/g-l/ltfrqfr.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-06-25. 
  5. ^ "Frequency of Occurrence of Letters in German". Santa Cruz Public Libraries. http://scplweb.santacruzpl.org/readyref/files/g-l/ltfrqger.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-06-25. 
  6. ^ "Frequency of Occurrence of Letters in Spanish". Santa Cruz Public Libraries. http://www.santacruzpl.org/readyref/files/g-l/ltfrqsp.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-06-25. 
  7. ^ Ross Eckler, Making the Alphabet Dance: Recreational Word Play. New York: St. Martin's Press (1996): 3
  8. ^ Eckler (1996): 3. Perec's novel "was so well written that at least some reviewers never realized the existence of a letter constraint."
The Basic modern Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letter E with diacritics
ÉéÈèĔĕÊêẾếỀềỄễỂểĚěËëẼẽĖėȨȩḜḝĘęĒēḖḗḔḕẺẻȄȅȆȇẸẹỆệḘḙḚḛɆɇ
Two-letter combinations
Ea Eb Ec Ed Ee Ef Eg Eh Ei Ej Ek El Em En Eo Ep Eq Er Es Et Eu Ev Ew Ex Ey Ez
EA EB EC ED EE EF EG EH EI EJ EK EL EM EN EO EP EQ ER ES ET EU EV EW EX EY EZ
Letter-digit & Digit-letter combinations
    E0 E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7 E8 E9     0E 1E 2E 3E 4E 5E 6E 7E 8E 9E    

history palaeography derivations diacritics punctuation numerals Unicode list of letters ISO/IEC 646



Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

The Universal Character Set
Letter e.svg
Unicode name LATIN SMALL LETTER E
Basic Latin U+0065

Contents

Translingual

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Wikipedia

Etymology

Approximate form of upper case letter E that was the source for lower case e Modification of capital letter E, from Ancient Greek letter Ε (E), Epsilon).

Letter

e lower case (upper case E)

  1. The fifth letter of the basic modern Latin alphabet.

See also

Symbol

e

  1. (mathematics) The base of natural logarithms, a transcendental number with a value of approximately 2.718281828459

See also

Other representations of E:


English

Etymology

From Middle English and Old English lower case letter e and split of æ, ea, eo, and œ, from five 7th century replacements of Anglo-Saxon Futhorcs by Latin letters:

  • Anglo-Saxon Futhorc ᛖ (e) Old English lower case letter e, from replacement by Latin letter e of the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter  (e).
  • Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter ᚫ (æ) Old English lower case letter æ from replacement by Latin ligature æ of the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter  (æ).
  • Anglo-Saxon Futhorc ᛠ (ea) Old English lower case digraph ea, from replacement by Latin digraph ea of the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter  (ea).
  • Anglo-Saxon Futhorc ᛇ (ēo) Old English lower case digraph eo from replacement by Latin digraph eo of Anglo-Saxon Futhorc  (ēo).
  • Anglo-Saxon Futhorc ᛟ (œ) Old English lower case letter œ from replacement by Latin ligature œ of the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter  (œ).

Pronunciation

  • (letter name): IPA: /iː/
 Audio (US)help, file
 Audio (BR)help, file
  • (phoneme): IPA: /E/, /iː/, /ə/, /ei/

Letter

e (lower case, upper case E)

  1. The fifth and most common letter of the English alphabet.

See also

  • Previous letter: d
  • Next letter: f

Noun

Singular
e

Plural
ees

e (plural ees)

  1. The name of the letter E.

Translations


Anglo-Norman

Etymology

Latin et.

Conjunction

e

  1. and

Breton

Pronoun

e

  1. his

Preposition

e

  1. in

Usage notes

It contracts with the articles, see el, en and er.


Catalan

Noun

e f. (plural es)

  1. The Latin letter E (lowercase e).

Dutch

Pronunciation

  • (letter name): IPA: /eː/

Letter

e (lower case, upper case E)

  1. The fifth letter of the Dutch alphabet.

See also

  • Previous letter: d
  • Next letter: f

Esperanto

Pronunciation

  • (letter name): IPA: /e/
  • (phoneme): IPA: /e/

Letter

e (lower case, upper case E)

  1. The sixth letter of the Esperanto alphabet.

See also

  • Previous letter: d
  • Next letter: f

Noun

e (plural e-oj, accusative singular e-on, accusative plural e-ojn)

  1. The name of the letter E/e.

Galician

Conjunction

e

  1. and

Hungarian

Etymology

From the same Uralic root *e as Finnish että and Estonian et.

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /ˈɛ/
  • (letter name): IPA: /ˈɛː/

Pronoun

e

  1. (archaic) this (used as a pronoun, that is, instead of a noun phrase, with postpositions taking nouns with cases)
    • 1836: Vörösmarty Mihály, Szózat
      A nagy világon e kivűl (modern spelling: kívül)
      Nincsen számodra hely;

Determiner

e (demonstrative)

  1. this
    E házban lakott Petőfi Sándor - Petőfi Sándor lived in this house.

Synonyms

Usage notes

A rarer substitute of ez, but unlike ez, it does not take the case of the noun it is attached to, and no definite article is used:

ezen a helyen - e helyen (at this place)
ebben a házban - e házban (in this house)

Interjection

e

  1. look!, hey! (expressing surprise or wanting to get attention)
    E! Hát Józsi meg hová tűnt? - Hey! Where is Joe?
    Itt van, e! - Here it is. (informal, not polite)

Letter

e (lower case, upper case E)

  1. The ninth letter of the Hungarian alphabet.

See also

  • Previous letter: dzs
  • Next letter: é

See also

  • -e (suffix)

Ido

Alternative forms

  • (before a vowel) ed

Conjunction

e

  1. and

Interlingua

Alternative forms

  • (rare) et

Conjunction

e

  1. and

Italian

Etymology

From Latin et.[1]

Alternative forms

  • (before a vowel) ed

Pronunciation

Conjunction

e

  1. and

References

  • Notes:
  1. ^ Angelo Prati, "Vocabolario Etimologico Italiano", Torino, 1951

Japanese

Noun

e (hiragana )

  1. : bait, lure
  2. : handle, shaft, gripe, helve
  3. , : picture, painting, drawing, illustration, tableau
  4. : inlet, bay
  5. : hiragana letter e
  6. : katakana letter e

Particle

e (hiragana )

  1. : particle indicating direction

Latin

Letter

e

  1. A letter of the Latin alphabet.

Preposition

ē (short form of ex)

  1. out of, from

Derived terms


Lojban

Conjunction

e

  1. and; logically joins two sumti

Mandarin

Pinyin syllable

e

  1. A transliteration of any of a number of Chinese characters properly represented as having one of four tones, ē, é, ě, or è.

Usage notes

English transcriptions of Chinese speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Chinese language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.


Navajo

Letter

E e

  1. The eighth letter of the Navajo alphabet:
    e = /ɛ˨/
    ę = /ɛ̃˨/
    é = /ɛ˥/
    ę́ = /ɛ̃˥/
    ee = /ɛː˨˨/
    ęę = /ɛ̃ː˨˨/
    ée = /ɛː˥˨/
    ę́ę = /ɛ̃ː˥˨/
    eé = /ɛː˨˥/
    ęę́ = /ɛ̃ː˨˥/
    éé = /ɛː˥˥/
    ę́ę́ = /ɛ̃ː˥˥/

Old French

Alternative forms

Conjunction

e

  1. and

Portuguese

Pronunciation

Conjunction

e

  1. and

Romanian

Pronunciation 1

  • (letter name) IPA: /e/
  • (phoneme, generally) IPA: /e/

Letter

e (lower case, upper case E)

  1. The seventh letter of the Romanian alphabet.
See also
  • Previous letter: d
  • Next letter: f
Usage notes

See E for pronunciation notes and details.

Interjection

e

  1. expression of annoyance, irritation
  2. expression of boredom, indifference
  3. (when prolonged...eee) surprise, satisfaction, admiration

Pronunciation 2

Verb

e

  1. (informal) third-person singular present tense form of fi.
    El e un copil.
    "He is a child."
Synonyms

Scottish Gaelic

Etymology

From Old Irish é.

Pronoun

e

  1. he
  2. him
  3. (referring to a masculine noun) it

Related terms

See also


Serbian

Pronunciation

  • (phoneme) IPA: /e/

Letter

e (lower case, upper case E)

  1. The 9th letter of the Serbian Latin alphabet.

Usage notes

Its name is е /ɛ/ and it has the sound of e in net.

See also

  • Previous letter: đ
  • Next letter: f

Etymology

Variant of ej or hej

Interjection

e (Cyrillic spelling е)

  1. (rare) well, now
  2. (informal, at the beginning of the sentence) hey
  3. (informal, at the beginning of the sentence) Used to emphasize the sentence
    E, šta ima? — “Hey, what's up?”
  4. (informal, at the beginning of the sentence) Used to express surprise
    E, otkud ti? — “Hey, where did you come from?”
  5. (informal, at the beginning of the sentence) Used to get attention or change the topic of conversation, especially if followed by a (and, but)
    E, a vidi ovo. — “And look at this.”

Spanish

Etymology 1

Letter

e (lower case, upper case E)

  1. The sixth letter of the Spanish alphabet.

Noun

e f. (plural es)

Singular
e f.

Plural
es f.

  1. Name of the letter E.

Etymology 2

Alternative spellings

Conjunction

e

  1. and
Usage notes

Used instead of y when the following word starts with the vowel sound /i/.

See also


Welsh

Pronoun

e

  1. he, him.

Usage notes

E is used predominantly in the south of Wales, while o is used in the north. fe and fo are variants of e and o respectively.


Simple English

The Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd
Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj
Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp
Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv
Ww Xx Yy Zz

For the drug sometimes referred to E, see Ecstasy.

E is the fifth (number 5) letter in the English alphabet.

Meanings for E








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