error: Wikis

  

Encyclopedia

at Montparnasse, France, 1895 ]]

The word error has different meanings and usages relative to how it is conceptually applied. The concrete meaning of the Latin word error is "wandering" or "straying". To the contrary of an illusion, an error or a mistake can sometimes be dispelled through knowledge (knowing that one is looking at a mirage and not at real water doesn't make the mirage disappear). However, some errors can occur even when individuals have the required knowledge to perform a task correctly. Examples include forgetting to collect change after buying chocolate from a vending machine, forgetting the original document after making photocopies, and forgetting to turn the gas off after cooking a meal. These slip errors can occur when an individual is distracted by something else.

Contents

Human behavior

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One reference differentiates between "error" and "mistake" as follows:

An ‘error' is a deviation from accuracy or correctness. A ‘mistake' is an error caused by a fault: the fault being misjudgment, carelessness, or forgetfulness. Now, say that I run a stop sign because I was in a hurry, and wasn't concentrating, and the police stop me, that is a mistake. If, however, I try to park in an area with conflicting signs, and I get a ticket because I was incorrect on my interpretation of what the signs meant, that would be an error. The first time it would be an error. The second time it would be a mistake since I should have known better.[1]

In human behavior the norms or expectations for behavior or its consequences can be derived from the intention of the actor or from the expectations of other individuals or of a social grouping or from social norms. (See deviance.) Gaffes and faux pas can be labels for certain instances of this kind of error. More serious departures from social norms carry labels such as misbehavior and labels from the legal system, such as misdemeanor and crime. Departures from norms connected to religion can have other labels, such as sin.

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Oral and written language

An individual language user's deviations from standard language norms in grammar, syntax, pronunciation and punctuation are sometimes referred to as errors. However in light of the role of language usage in everyday social class distinctions, many feel that linguistics should be descriptive rather than prescriptive to avoid reinforcing dominant class value judgments about what linguistic forms should and should not be used. See also Error analysis.

(Israel) Runway location and Traffic Pattern chart (left) was erroneously printed as a result of "black layer" 180° misplacement. The corrected chart is on the right.]]

Gaffe

A gaffe is a verbal mistake, usually made in a social environment. The mistake may come from saying something that is true, but inappropriate. It may also be an erroneous attempt to reveal a truth. Finally, gaffes can be malapropisms, grammatical errors or other verbal and gestural weaknesses or revelations through body language. Actually revealing factual or social truth through words or body language, however, can commonly result in embarrassment or, when the gaffe has negative connotations, friction between people involved.

As used by some journalists, particularly sportswriters, "gaffe" becomes an imagined synonym for any kind of mistake, e.g., a dropped ball by a player in a baseball game. Philosophers and psychologists interested in the nature of the gaffe include Freud and Gilles Deleuze. Deleuze, in his Logic of Sense, places the gaffe in a developmental process that can culminate in stuttering.

Medicine

See medical error for a description of error in medicine.

Science and engineering

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In statistics, an error (or residual) is not a "mistake" but rather a difference between a computed, estimated, or measured value and the accepted true, specified, or theoretically correct value.

In science and engineering in general an error is defined as a difference between the desired and actual performance or behavior of a system or object. (In computational mechanics, when solving a system such as Ax = b there is a distinction between the "error" — the inaccuracy in x — and residual—the inaccuracy in Ax.)

Engineers seek to design devices, machines and systems and in such a way as to mitigate or preferably avoid the effects of error, whether unintentional or not.

One type of error is human error which includes cognitive bias. Human factors engineering is often applied to designs in an attempt to minimize this type of error by making systems more forgiving or error-tolerant.

Errors in a system can also be latent design errors that may go unnoticed for years, until the right set of circumstances arises that cause them to become active. See also Observational error.

Cybernetics

The word cybernetics stems from the Greek Κυβερνήτης (kybernētēs, steersman, governor, pilot, or rudder — the same root as government). In applying corrections to the trajectory or course being steered Cybernetics can be seen as the most general approach to error and its correction for the achievement of any goal. The term was suggested by Norbert Wiener to describe a new science of control and information in the animal and the machine. Wiener's early work was on noise.

The cybernetician Gordon Pask held that the error that drives a servomechanism can be seen as a difference between a pair of analogous concepts in a servomechanism: the current state and the goal state). Later he suggested error can also be seen as an innovation or a contradiction depending on the context and perspective of interacting (observer) participants. The founder of management cybernetics, Stafford Beer, applied these ideas most notably in his Viable System Model.

Biology

In biology, an error is said to occur when perfect fidelity is lost in the copying of information. For example, in an asexually reproducing species, an error (or mutation) has occurred for each DNA nucleotide that differs between the child and the parent. Errors in this sense are not judged as "good" or "bad", although an error may make an organism either more or less adapted to its environment.

Baseball

In baseball, an error is judged by the official scorer when a runner advances a base because of a fielding mistake, and perfect play would have prevented the advancement, and the mistake was physical. Mental misjudgments are not errors. Failing to get more than one out on a given play is not an error. Application of this rule is necessarily subjective. See error (baseball).

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Philately

In philately, an error refers to a postage stamp or piece of postal stationery that exhibits a printing or production mistake that differentiates it from a normal specimen or from the intended result. Examples are stamps printed in the wrong color or missing one or more colors, printed with a vignette inverted in relation to its frame, produced without any perforations on one or more sides when the normal stamps are perforated, or printed on the wrong type of paper. Legitimate errors must always be produced and sold unintentionally. Such errors may or may not be scarce or rare. A design error may refer to a mistake in the design of the stamp, such as a mislabeled subject, even if there are no printing or production mistakes.

Governmental policy

Within United States government intelligence agencies, such as Central Intelligence Agency agencies, error refers to intelligence error, as previous assumptions that used to exist at a senior intelligence level within senior intelligence agencies, but has since been disproven, and is sometimes eventually listed as unclassified, and therefore more available to the American public and citizenry of the United States. The Freedom of information act provides American citizenry with a means to read intelligence reports that were mired in error. Per United States Central Intelligence Agency's website (as of August, 2008) intelligence error is described as:

"Intelligence errors are factual inaccuracies in analysis resulting from poor or missing data; intelligence failure is systemic organizational surprise resulting from incorrect, missing, discarded, or inadequate hypotheses."[2]

Numismatics

In numismatics, an error refers to a coin or medal that has a minting mistake, similar to errors found in philately. Because the U.S. Bureau of the Mint keeps a careful eye on all potential errors, errors on U.S. coins are very few and usually very scarce. Examples of numismatic errors: extra metal attached to a coin, a clipped coin caused by the coin stamp machine stamping a second coin too early, double stamping of a coin. A coin that has been overdated, eg: 1942/41, is considered an error.

Error correction

Norman (1986, 1988) argued that because error is inevitable, ‘designers’ should minimize the causes of error, make it possible to undo erroneous actions and make it easier to discover and correct errors. Edmondson’s research focuses on pinpointing specific conditions on group levels which can influence the degree of errors caught and corrected. Although her study was in a specific sector (medicine) some of her conditions can be generalized: a) Unit Leader behaviours. b) Unit performance outcomes c) Unit shared beliefs.

Unit leader behaviours are crucial in creating a culture in which openness of discussing errors, through their open and stimulating behaviour, are used as an example for the others. The unit performance outcomes consist of factors such as quality of interpersonal relations, unit performance and detected error rates. The leader behaviour and the performance outcomes result in shared beliefs. The shared beliefs of error report that first of all, everybody should accept that making mistakes is normal and that it will not be used against one (Helmreich, 1988). Further, the more errors are reported and discussed, the bigger the incentive should be to report and solve other errors.

Jones (1999) adds that technocratic movements have a positive influence on error correction due improved communication. Technological improvements stimulate collaborate thinking and striving for optimalization of systems. Through this, error correction is maximalized. Tsuvijek (1988) implies how technology on one hand can improve error correction, but on the other hand cause more errors due to decreased human intervention.

In mathematics, computer science, telecommunication, and information theory, error correction has a very precise meaning discussed in the article about error detection and correction.

See also

Psychology of error
Error in reasoning
Errors in language
Errors on the Web
Error diagnosis and prevention
Production quality terminology

References

  1. ^ Robinson, P. "In the Matter of:The Gatekeeper: The Gate Contracts"
  2. ^ United States Central Intelligence Agency. Analytic Culture in the U.S. Intelligence Community. Retrieved August 30, 2008.

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Wikipedia

Contents

English

Etymology

From Latin error (wandering about)

Pronunciation

Noun

Singular
error

Plural
countable and uncountable; plural errors

error (countable and uncountable; plural errors)

  1. (countable) A mistake; an accidental wrong action or a false statement not made deliberately.
  2. (computing, countable) A failure to complete a task, usually involving a premature termination.
  3. (statistics, countable) The difference between a measured or calculated value and a true one.
  4. (baseball, countable) A play which is scored as having been made incorrectly.
  5. (appellate law, uncountable) One or more mistakes in a trial that could be grounds for review of the judgement.

Synonyms

Related terms

Derived terms

Translations

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Verb

Infinitive
to error

Third person singular
errors

Simple past
errored

Past participle
errored

Present participle
erroring

to error (third-person singular simple present errors, present participle erroring, simple past and past participle errored)

  1. (computing) To function improperly due to an error, especially accompanied by error message.
    The web-page took a long time to load and errored out.
    Remove that line of code and the script should stop erroring there.
    This directory errors with a "Permission denied" message.
  2. (telecommunications) To show or contain an error or fault.
    The block transmission errored near the start and could not be received.
  3. (nonstandard) To err.
    • 1993 December, Arie Kaufman (editor), Rendering, Visualization, and Rasterization Hardware, Springer-Verlag New York LLC
      Pixels which are mathematically outside of a triangle, but which are included for anti-aliasing purposes can be generated with colour and depth information outside of the valid range. The ADE should identify these cases and clamp the output to the minimum or maximum value depending on the direction it has errored in.
    • 2000 December, Randy W. Kamphaus, Clinical Assessment of Child And Adolescent Intelligence, Allyn & Bacon
      By doing so examiners are erroring in the direction of drawing hypotheses based on greater evidence of reliability and validity.
    • 2001 November, Daniel D. Dancer, Shards and Circles: Artistic Adventures in Spirit and Ecology, Trafford Publishing
      Error is not just permitted by diversity; it is what permits diversity.... The beetle had “errored” beautifully
    • 2002 May, Sylvain Beauregard, Passion Celine Dion the Book: The Ultimate Guide for the Fan!, Trafford Publishing
      Many other celebrities errored in the political comments area...

Synonyms

Translations

Derived terms

  • error out

See also


Spanish

Pronunciation

Noun

error m. (plural errores)

Singular
error m.

Plural
errores m.

  1. An error

Synonyms

Related terms


Simple English

Simple English Wiktionary has the word meaning for:

The word error can mean different things. In Latin, error means "wondering" or "going away", but it is used more often to mean "mistake".

In statistics

In statistics, an error does not mean a mistake. A statistical error is the amount by which a sample differs from its expected value. The expected value is based on the whole population from which the individual was chosen.

A tricky point is the following:

  • The difference between a value in the sample and the (unobservable) population mean is a statistical error, whereas
  • The difference between a value in the sample and the observable sample mean is a residual.

Computer programming

The word error can be used to describe a computer program that was not written in the right way. A syntax error is a bit of source code that does not make sense to the computer. A logic error is a mistake in the algorithm used, which might result in problems with the output.

An error may also be an exception, which is something that happens unexpectedly. For example, it is an error to try to write more files onto a disk that is full. Careful programmers write code that can deal with errors that may happen; they can do this by labeling each error with an error code and using exception handling. Continuing to run a program when an error has not been dealt with can cause error avalanche, which means errors pile up and behavior becomes more difficult to predict.

[[File:|thumb|right|A command panel with errors.|300px]]


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 02, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Insect, which are similar to those in the above article.








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