f: Wikis


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Encyclopedia

Basic Latin alphabet
AaBbCcDd  
EeFfGgHh
IiJjKkLlMmNn
OoPpQqRrSsTt
UuVvWwXxYyZz

F ( /ˈɛf/; named ef, as a verb eff)[1] is the sixth letter in the basic modern Latin alphabet.

Contents

History

Proto-Semitic W Phoenician
waw
Etruscan W Greek
Digamma
Roman F

The origin of ‹f› is the Semitic letter vâv that represented the /v/, and originally probably represented either a hook or a club. It may have been based on a comparable Egyptian hieroglyph, such as that for the word mace: T3

F the Phoenician form of the letter was adopted into Greek as a vowel, upsilon (which resembled its descendant, ‹Y›, but was also ancestor to Roman letters ‹U›, ‹V›, and ‹W›); and with another form, as a consonant, digamma, which resembled ‹F›, but indicated the pronunciation /w/, as in Phoenician. (Later on, /w/ disappeared from Greek, resulting in digamma being used as a numeral only.)

In Etruscan, ‹F› also represented /w/; however, they formed the digraph ‹FH› to represent /f/; when the Romans adopted the letter, they had already borrowed ‹U› from Greek upsilon to stand for /w/. At this time, the Greek letter phi ‹Φ› represented an aspirated voiceless bilabial plosive, /pʰ/ though it has now come to approximate the sound of /f/ in Modern Greek.

The lower case ‹f› is not related to the visually similar long s, ‹ſ›. The use of the long s largely died out by the beginning of the 19th century, mostly to prevent confusion with ‹f›.

Usage

In English, ‹f› represents the voiceless labiodental fricative /f/. ‹F› represents the same sound in most other languages written in the Latin alphabet, provided they use the letter at all; some exceptions include Turkmen, where it represents the voiceless bilabial fricative /ɸ/, and Welsh, where it represents the voiced labiodental fricative /v/.

In formal typography, particularly for serifed fonts, minuscule ‹f› is one of the most commonly ligated letters. Unicode encodes several ligatures beginning with lowercase ‹f› (U+FB00 through U+FB04) for compatibility with old character code sets, but recommends that those should not be used.[2]

Codes for computing

Alternative representations of F
NATO phonetic Morse code
Foxtrot ··–·
Signal flag Flag semaphore Braille

In Unicode the capital ‹F› is codepoint U+0046 and the lower case ‹f› is U+0066.

The ASCII code for capital ‹F› is 70 and for lower case ‹f› is 102; or in binary 01000110 and 01100110, respectively.

The EBCDIC code for capital ‹F› is 198 and for lowercase ‹f› is 134.

The numeric character references in HTML and XML are "F" and "f" for upper and lower case, respectively.

See also

References

  1. ^ "F" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); "ef", "eff", "bee" (under bee eff) op. cit.
  2. ^ "The Unicode Standard, Version 5.0, chapter 7, page 236". Unicode Consortium. 2006-10-01. pp. 37. http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode5.0.0/ch07.pdf#page=14. Retrieved 2009-04-14. 
The basic modern Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letter F with diacritics
ḞḟƑƒ

history palaeography derivations diacritics punctuation numerals Unicode list of letters ISO/IEC 646


Basic Latin alphabet
  Aa Bb Cc Dd  
Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj
Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp
Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv
  Ww Xx Yy Zz  

F is the sixth letter in the basic modern Latin alphabet. Its name in English (pronounced /ɛf/) is spelled ef or eff.[1][2]

Contents

History

Proto-Semitic W Phoenician W Etruscan W Greek Digamma (W) Roman F

The origin of F is the Semitic letter vâv that represented the sound /v/, and originally probably represented either a "hook" or a "club". It may have been based on a comparable Egyptian hieroglyph, such as that for "mace": T3

The Phoenician form of the letter was adopted into Greek as a vowel, upsilon (which resembled its descendant, Y, but was also ancestor to Roman letters U, V, and W); and with another form, as a consonant, digamma, which resembled our letter F, but was pronounced /w/, as in Phoenician. (Later on, this /w/ phoneme disappeared from Greek, resulting in digamma being used as a numeral only.)

In Etruscan, F also stood for /w/; however, they came up with the innovation of using the digraph FH to represent the sound /f/, and the letter acquired this sound on its own when the Romans picked it up (since they had already borrowed U independently from Greek upsilon to stand for /w/). The letter phi (Φ φ) came to approximate the sound of /f/ in Greek.

The lower case f is not related to the visually similar long s, ſ. The use of the long s died out by the beginning of the 19th century, largely to prevent confusion with f.

Usage

In English, F represents the voiceless labiodental fricative; this sound is also represented by "f" in the International Phonetic Alphabet and X-SAMPA.

In formal typography, particularly for serifed fonts, minuscule f is one of the most commonly ligated letters. Unicode encodes several ligatures beginning with lowercase f (U+FB00 through U+FB04) for compatibility with old character code sets, but recommends that those should not be used.[3]

Codes for computing

Alternative representations of F
NATO phonetic Morse code
Foxtrot ··–·
Signal flag Flag semaphore Braille

In Unicode the capital F is codepoint U+0046 and the lower case f is U+0066.

The ASCII code for capital F is 70 and for lower case f is 102; or in binary 01000110 and 01100110, respectively.

The EBCDIC code for capital F is 198 and for lowercase f is 134.

The numeric character references in HTML and XML are "F" and "f" for upper and lower case, respectively.

See also

References

  1. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 1976.
  2. ^ "F" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); "ef", "eff", "bee" (under bee eff) op. cit.
  3. ^ "The Unicode Standard, Version 5.0, chapter 7, page 236". Unicode Consortium. 2006-10-01. 37. http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode5.0.0/ch07.pdf#page=14. Retrieved on 2009-04-14. 
The Basic modern Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letter F with diacritics
ḞḟƑƒ
Two-letter combinations
Fa Fb Fc Fd Fe Ff Fg Fh Fi Fj Fk Fl Fm Fn Fo Fp Fq Fr Fs Ft Fu Fv Fw Fx Fy Fz
FA FB FC FD FE FF FG FH FI FJ FK FL FM FN FO FP FQ FR FS FT FU FV FW FX FY FZ
Letter-digit & Digit-letter combinations
    F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9     0F 1F 2F 3F 4F 5F 6F 7F 8F 9F    

history palaeography derivations diacritics punctuation numerals Unicode list of letters ISO/IEC 646



Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

The Universal Character Set
Letter f.svg
Unicode name LATIN SMALL LETTER F
Basic Latin U+0066

Contents

Translingual

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Wikipedia

Etymology

Greek Ϝ, the source for Latin F Modification of upper case Latin letter F, from Greek Ϝ (W), Digamma), from Phœnician 𐤅 (W), waw), the ultimate source being probably Egyptian.

Letter

f lower case (upper case F)

  1. The sixth letter of the basic modern Latin alphabet.

See also

Symbol

f

  1. (music) forte

See also

Other representations of F:


English

Etymology

Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter ᚠ, which was replaced by Latin ‘f’

Old English lower case letter f, from 7th century replacement by Latin lower case f of the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter  (f), fe). f is most closely related to p, k, v, and b; as in English five from Greek πέντε (pente); English wolf, from Latin lupus, and Greek lykos; English fox, vixen; fragile, break; fruit, brook; English verb bear, from Latin ferre.

Pronunciation

  • (letter name): IPA: /ɛf/, SAMPA: /Ef/
 Audio (US)help, file
 Audio (UK)help, file
  • (phoneme): IPA: /f/
  • See Guide to Pronunciation, §§ 178, 179, 188, 198, 230 in the 1913 Webster dictionary

Letter

f (lower case, upper case F)

  1. Lower case form of F. The letter eff, the sixth letter of the English alphabet, a nonvocal labiodental fricative consonant.
  2. (music) The name of the fourth tone of the model scale, or scale of C. F sharp (F♯) is a tone intermediate between F and G.

Derived terms

F clef, the bass clef. See under Clef.

Abbreviation

f

  1. (printing) Folio, paper and book size (10"-12.5" x 15"-20")
  2. (euphemism) fuck
    What the f do you think you're doing ?
  3. Alternative form of f..

Derived terms

Synonyms

  • (folio paper and book size): F, fo

Translations

See also


Dutch

Pronunciation

  • (letter name): IPA: /ɛf/

Letter

f (lower case, upper case F)

  1. The sixth letter of the Dutch alphabet.

See also

  • Previous letter: e
  • Next letter: g

Italian

Noun

f m. and f. inv.

  1. See under F

Romanian

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /fe/, /ef/

Letter

f (lowercase, capital F)

  1. The eighth letter of the Romanian alphabet representing the phoneme /f/. Preceded by e and followed by g.

Serbian

Pronunciation

  • (phoneme) IPA: /f/

Letter

f (lower case, upper case F)

  1. The 10th letter of the Serbian Latin alphabet.

See also

  • Previous letter: e
  • Next letter: g

Spanish

Letter

f (lower case, upper case F)

  1. The seventh letter of the Spanish alphabet.

Simple English

The Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd
Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj
Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp
Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv
Ww Xx Yy Zz

F is the sixth letter in the English alphabet.

Meanings for F









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