The Full Wiki

feng shui: Wikis

  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

This article contains Chinese text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.
Feng shui

File:Fengshui

A Luopan, Feng shui compass.
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese: 風水
Simplified Chinese: 风水
Literal meaning: wind-water
Filipino name
Tagalog: pungsoy
Japanese name
Kanji: 風水
Hiragana: ふうすい
Korean name
Hangul: 풍수
Hanja: 風水
Thai name
Thai: ฮวงจุ้ย (Huang Jui)
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese: Phong thủy

Feng shui (English pronunciation: /ˌfʌŋˈʃweɪ/ fung′-shway′,[1] formerly /ˈfʌŋʃuː.i/ fung′-shoo-ee;[2] traditional Chinese: 風水; simplified Chinese: 风水; pinyin: fēng shuǐ, pronounced [fə́ŋʂwèi]) is an ancient Chinese system of aesthetics believed to use the laws of both Heaven (astronomy) and Earth (geography) to help one improve life by receiving positive qi.[3] The original designation for the discipline is Kan Yu (traditional Chinese: 堪輿; simplified Chinese: 堪舆; pinyin: kānyú; literally: Tao of heaven and earth).[4]

The term feng shui literally translates as "wind-water" in English. This is a cultural shorthand taken from the following passage of the Zhangshu (Book of Burial) by Guo Pu of the Jin Dynasty:[5]

Qi rides the wind and scatters, but is retained when encountering water.[5]

Traditional feng shui practice always requires an extremely accurate Chinese compass, or luo pan, in order to determine the directions in finding any auspicious sector in a desired location.

Contents

History

Origins

Currently Yangshao and Hongshan cultures provide the earliest evidence for the practice of feng shui. Until the invention of the magnetic compass, feng shui apparently relied on astronomy to find correlations between humans and the universe.[6]

In 4000 BCE, the doors of Banpo dwellings were aligned to the asterism Yingshi just after the winter solstice—this sited the homes for solar gain.[7] During the Zhou era, Yingshi was known as Ding and used to indicate the appropriate time to build a capital city, according to the Shijing. The late Yangshao site at Dadiwan (c. 3500-3000 BCE) includes a palace-like building (F901) at the center. The building faces south and borders a large plaza. It is on a north-south axis with another building that apparently housed communal activities. The complex may have been used by regional communities.[8]

A grave at Puyang (c. 3000 BCE) that contains mosaics of the Dragon and Tiger asterisms and Beidou (the Big Dipper, Ladle or Bushel) is oriented along a north-south axis.[9] The presence of both round and square shapes in the Puyang tomb, at Hongshan ceremonial centers and the late Longshan settlement at Lutaigang,[10] suggests that gaitian cosmography (heaven-round, earth-square) was present in Chinese society long before it appeared in the Zhou Bi Suan Jing.[11]

Cosmography that bears a striking resemblance to modern feng shui devices and formulas was found on a jade unearthed at Hanshan and dated around 3000 BCE. The design is linked by archaeologist Li Xueqin to the liuren astrolabe, zhinan zhen, and Luopan.[12]

Beginning with palatial structures at Erlitou,[13] all capital cities of China followed rules of feng shui for their design and layout. These rules were codified during the Zhou era in the Kaogong ji (traditional Chinese: 考工記; simplified Chinese: 考工记; "Manual of Crafts"). Rules for builders were codified in the carpenter's manual Lu ban jing (traditional Chinese: 魯班經; simplified Chinese: 鲁班经; "Lu ban's manuscript"). Graves and tombs also followed rules of feng shui, from Puyang to Mawangdui and beyond. From the earliest records, it seems that the rules for the structures of the graves and dwellings were the same.

Early instruments and techniques

at LA Chinatown's Metro station.]]

The history of feng shui covers 3,500+ years[14] before the invention of the magnetic compass. It originated in Chinese astronomy.[15] Some current techniques can be traced to Neolithic China,[16] while others were added later (most notably the Han dynasty, the Tang, the Song, and the Ming).[17]

The astronomical history of feng shui is evident in the development of instruments and techniques. According to the Zhouli the original feng shui instrument may have been a gnomon. Chinese used circumpolar stars to determine the north-south axis of settlements. This technique explains why Shang palaces at Xiaotun lie 10° east of due north. In some cases, as Paul Wheatley observed,[18] they bisected the angle between the directions of the rising and setting sun to find north. This technique provided the more precise alignments of the Shang walls at Yanshi and Zhengzhou. Rituals for using a feng shui instrument required a diviner to examine current sky phenomena to set the device and adjust their position in relation to the device.[19]

The oldest examples of instruments used for feng shui are liuren astrolabes, also known as shi. These consist of a lacquered, two-sided board with astronomical sightlines. The earliest examples of liuren astrolabes have been unearthed from tombs that date between 278 BCE and 209 BCE. Along with divination for Da Liu Ren[20] the boards were commonly used to chart the motion of Taiyi through the nine palaces.[21] The markings on a liuren/shi and the first magnetic compasses are virtually identical.[22]

The magnetic compass was invented for feng shui[23] and has been in use since its invention. Traditional feng shui instrumentation consists of the Luopan or the earlier south-pointing spoon (zhinan zhen)—though a conventional compass could suffice if one understood the differences. A feng shui ruler (a later invention) may also be employed.

Foundation theories

The goal of feng shui as practiced today is to situate the human built environment on spots with good qi. The "perfect spot" is a location and an axis in time.[citation needed]

Qi (ch'i)

Qi (roughly pronounced as the sound 'chi' in English) is a movable positive or negative life force which plays an essential role in feng shui. In Chinese martial arts, it refers to 'energy', in the sense of 'life force' or élan vital. A traditional explanation of qi as it relates to feng shui would include the orientation of a structure, its age, and its interaction with the surrounding environment including the local microclimates, the slope of the land, vegetation, and soil quality.

According to researcher Stephen L. Field, one use for a Luopan is to detect the flow of qi. Field views feng shui as a form of divination that assesses the quality of the local environment and the effects of space weather, and coined the term qimancy for the concept.[24]

Professor Max Knoll suggested in a 1951 lecture that qi is a form of solar radiation.[25] Compasses reflect local geomagnetism which includes geomagnetically induced currents caused by space weather.[26]

Polarity

Polarity is expressed in feng shui as Yin and Yang Theory. Polarity expressed through yin and yang is similar to a bipolar magnetic field.[citation needed] That is, it is of two parts: one creating an exertion and one receiving the exertion. Yang acting and yin receiving could be considered an early understanding of chirality[citation needed]. The development of Yin Yang Theory and its corollary, Five Phase Theory (Five Element Theory), have also been linked with astronomical observations of sunspots.[27]

The five elements of feng shui (water, wood, fire, earth/soil, metal) are made of yin and yang in precise amounts (Greater wood has less yin than lesser wood, but not as much yin as water, and so forth).[citation needed] Earth is a buffer, or an equilibrium achieved when the polarities cancel each other.[citation needed] While the goal of Chinese medicine is to balance yin and yang in the body, the goal of feng shui has been described as aligning a city, site, building, or object with yin-yang force fields.[28]

Bagua (eight trigrams)

Two diagrams known as bagua (or pa kua) loom large in feng shui, and both predate their mentions in the Yijing (or I Ching). The Lo (River) Chart (Luoshu, or Later Heaven Sequence) was developed first.[29] The Luoshu and the River Chart (Hetu, or Early Heaven Sequence) are linked to astronomical events of the sixth millennium BCE, and with the Turtle Calendar from the time of Yao.[30] The Turtle Calendar of Yao (found in the Yaodian section of the Shangshu or Book of Documents) dates to 2300 BCE, plus or minus 250 years.[31]

Sources[who?] indicate that time, in the form of astronomy and calendars, is at the heart of feng shui.

In Yaodian, the cardinal directions are determined by the marker-stars of the mega-constellations known as the Four Celestial Animals.

East: the Green Dragon (Spring equinox)—Niao (Bird), α Hydrae

South: the Red Phoenix (Summer solstice)—Huo (Fire), α Scorpionis

West: the White Tiger (Autumn equinox)—Xu (Emptiness, Void), α Aquarii, β Aquarii

North: the Dark Turtle (Winter solstice)—Mao (Hair), η Tauri (the Pleiades)

The diagrams are also linked with the sifang (four directions) method of divination used during the Shang dynasty.[32] The sifang is much older, however. It was used at Niuheliang, and figured large in Hongshan culture's astronomy. And it is this area of China that is linked to Huangdi, the Yellow Emperor, who allegedly invented the south-pointing spoon.[33]

with a hollow middle hole, maximizing on fengshui benefits]]

School

A school or stream is a set of techniques or methods. The term should not be confused with an actual school—there are many masters who run schools.

Some claim[34] that authentic masters impart their genuine knowledge only to selected students, such as relatives.

Techniques

Feng shui is typically associated with the following techniques. This is not a complete list; it is merely a list of the most common techniques.[35][36][37]

Forms Theory

  • Luan Dou (Observing mountains and waters without using compass)
  • Xing Xiang (Imaging forms)

Qi Theory

School of San Yuan

  • Dragon Gate Eight Formation
  • Xuan Kong (time and space methods)
  • Xuan Kong Fei Xing (Flying Stars methods of time and directions)
  • Xuan Kong Da Gua ("Secret Decree" or 64 gua relationships)

School of San He

  • Accessing Dragon Methods
  • Ba Zhai (Eight Mansions)
  • Water Methods
  • Local Embrace

Others

Modern developments

One of the grievances mentioned when the anti-Western Boxer Rebellion erupted was that Westerners were violating the basic principles of feng shui in their construction of railroads and other conspicuous public structures throughout China. At the time, Westerners had little idea of, or interest in, such Chinese traditions. After Richard Nixon journeyed to the People's Republic of China in 1972, feng shui became somewhat of an industry in the USA.

It has since been reinvented by New Age entrepreneurs for Western consumption. Feng shui speaks to the profound role of magic, mystery, and order in American life.[38] The following list does not exhaust the modern varieties.

Black Sect—also called BTB Feng Shui—does not match documentary or archaeological evidence, or what is known of the history of Tantra in China.[39] It relies on "transcendental" methods, the concept of clutter as metaphor for life circumstances, and the use of affirmations or intentions to achieve results. The BTB bagua was developed by Lin Yun. Each of the eight sectors that were once aligned to compass points now represent a particular area of one's life.

In contemporary China, practitioners of the divination systems of Qi Men Dun Jia and Da Liu Ren adopt these modes of divination for highly detailed and analytic problem-solving in Feng Shui.

Feng shui today

Today, feng shui is practiced not only by the Chinese, but also by Westerners. However, with the passage of time and feng shui's popularization in the West, much of the knowledge behind it has been lost in translation, not paid proper attention to, frowned upon, or scorned.

Robert T. Carroll sums up what feng shui has become in some cases:

"… feng shui has become an aspect of interior decorating in the Western world and alleged masters of feng shui now hire themselves out for hefty sums to tell people such as Donald Trump which way his doors and other things should hang. Feng shui has also become another New Age "energy" scam with arrays of metaphysical products … offered for sale to help you improve your health, maximize your potential, and guarantee fulfillment of some fortune cookie philosophy."[40]
Others have noted how, when feng shui is not applied properly, or rather, without common sense, it can even harm the environment, such as was the case of people planting "lucky bamboo" in ecosystems that could not handle them.[41] Still others are simply skeptical.

Nevertheless, even modern feng shui is not always looked at as a superstitious scam. Many people[who?] believe it is important and very helpful in living a prosperous and healthy life either avoiding or blocking negative energies that might otherwise have bad effects. Many of the higher-level forms of feng shui are not so easily practiced without either connections, or a certain amount of wealth because the hiring of an expert, the great altering of architecture or design, and the moving from place to place that is sometimes necessary requires a lot of money. Because of this, some people of the lower classes lose faith in feng shui, saying that it is only a game for the wealthy.[42] Others, however, practice less expensive forms of Feng Shui, including hanging special (but cheap) mirrors, forks, or woks in doorways to deflect negative energy.[43]

Even today feng shui is so important to some people[who?] that they use it for healing purposes, separate from western medical practice, in addition to using it to guide their businesses and create a peaceful atmosphere in their homes.[44] In 2005, even Disney acknowledged feng shui as an important part of Chinese culture by shifting the main gate to Hong Kong Disneyland by twelve degrees in their building plans, among many other actions suggested by the master planner of architecture and design at Walt Disney Imagineering, Wing Chao, in an effort to incorporate local culture into the theme park.[45]

At Singapore Polytechnic and other institutions like the New York College of Health Professions, many students (including engineers and interior designers) take courses on feng shui every year and go on to become feng shui (or geomancy) consultants.[46]

Feng Shui in the News

Some articles concerning feng shui that have made the news are listed below; in addition, feng shui has its own page in the New York Time's "Times Topics.":

Criticism

Modern criticism

Feng shui today is widely considered a pseudoscience, and has been criticised by many organisations devoted to investigating paranormal claims. For example, James Randi describes feng shui as "an ancient form of claptrap"[47], while SkepticsSA describe it as "complete nonsense, nothing more than ancient Chinese superstitions". Evidence for its effectiveness is based on anecdote, and there is a lack of a plausible method of action; this leads to conflicting advice from different practitioners of feng shui. Feng shui practitioners use this as evidence of variations or different schools; critical analysts have described it thus: "Feng shui has always been based upon mere guesswork."[48]

Penn & Teller did an episode of their television show Bullshit! that featured several feng shui practitioners in the US, and was highly critical of the inconsistent (and frequently odd) advice. In the show, the entertainers argue that if feng shui is a science (as the American Institute of Feng Shui, for example, claim[49]), it should feature a consistent method.[50]

A travelogue-type article from the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry explained feng shui initially as "a commonsense alignment of structures to conform to the shape of the land, an idea shared by any sensible architect in a land fraught with typhoons and torrential rains." However, after reading two books (one by field researcher Ole Bruun), the writer's conclusion was that feng shui "is more of a mystical belief in cosmic harmony."[51]

Modern criticism differentiates between feng shui as a traditional proto-religion and the modern practice: "A naturalistic belief, it was originally used to find an auspicious dwelling place for a shrine or a tomb. However, over the centuries it... has become distorted and degraded into a gross superstition."[52] There has been little systematic scientific research into feng shui, since the general scientific consensus is that it is superstition.

Historical criticism

Victorian-era commentators on feng shui were generally ethnocentric, and as such skeptical and derogatory of what they knew of feng shui.[53]

In 1896 at a meeting of the Educational Association of China, Rev. P.W. Pitcher railed at the "rottenness of the whole scheme of Chinese architecture," and urged fellow missionaries "to erect unabashedly Western edifices of several stories and with towering spires in order to destroy nonsense about fung-shuy."[54] -shaped incense used in feng shui]] Some modern Christians have a similar opinion of feng shui.[55]

It is entirely inconsistent with Christianity to believe that harmony and balance result from the manipulation and channeling of nonphysical forces or energies, or that such can be done by means of the proper placement of physical objects. Such techniques, in fact, belong to the world of sorcery.[56]

After the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, feng shui has been officially deemed as a "feudalistic superstitious practice" and a "social evil" according to the state's ideology and discouraged or even banned outright at times.[57][58]

Persecution was the most severe during the Cultural Revolution, when feng shui was classified as a custom under the so-called Four Olds to be wiped out. Feng shui practitioners were beaten and abused by Red Guards and their works burned. After the death of Mao Zedong and the end of the Cultural Revolution, the official attitude became more tolerant but restrictions on feng shui practice are still in place in today's China. It is illegal in the PRC today to register feng shui consultation as a business and similarly advertising feng shui practice is banned, and there have been frequent crackdowns on feng shui practitioners on the grounds of "promoting feudalistic superstitions" such as one in Qingdao in early 2006 when the city's business and industrial administration office shut down an art gallery converted into a feng shui practice.[59] Communist officials who had consulted feng shui were sacked and expelled from the Communist Party.[60]

Partly because of the Cultural Revolution, in today's mainland China less than one-third of the population believe in feng shui, and the proportion of believers among young urban Chinese is said to be much lower.[61] Learning feng shui is still somewhat considered taboo in today's China.[62] Nevertheless, it is reported that feng shui has gained adherents among Communist Party officials according to a BBC Chinese news commentary in 2006,[63] and since the beginning of Chinese economic reforms the number of feng shui practitioners are increasing. A number of Chinese academics permitted to research on the subject of feng shui are anthropologists or architects by trade, studying the history of feng shui or historical feng shui theories behind the design of heritage buildings, such as Cao Dafeng, the Vice-President of Fudan University,[64] and Liu Shenghuan of Tongji University.

Feng shui practitioners have been skeptical of claims and methods in the "cultural supermarket."[65] Mark Johnson[66] made a telling point:

This present state of affairs is ludicrous and confusing. Do we really believe that mirrors and flutes are going to change people's tendencies in any lasting and meaningful way? ... There is a lot of investigation that needs to be done or we will all go down the tubes because of our inability to match our exaggerated claims with lasting changes.

Current developments

, Taiwan]] A growing body of research exists on the traditional forms of feng shui used and taught in Asia.

Landscape ecologists find traditional feng shui an interesting study.[67] In many cases, the only remaining patches of old forest in Asia are "feng shui woods,"[68] often associated with cultural heritage, historical continuity, and the preservation of species.[69] Some researchers interpret the presence of these woods as indicators that the "healthy homes,"[70] sustainability[71] and environmental components of ancient feng shui should not be easily dismissed.[72][73]

Environmental scientists and landscape architects have researched traditional feng shui and its methodologies.[74][75]

Architectural schools study the principles as they applied to ancient vernacular architecture.[76][77][78]

Geographers have analyzed the techniques and methods to help locate historical sites in Victoria, Canada,[79] and archaeological sites in the American Southwest, concluding that ancient Native Americans considered astronomy and landscape features.[80]

Whether it is data on comparisons to scientific models, or the design and siting of buildings,[81] graduate and undergraduate students have been accumulating solid evidence on what researchers call the "exclusive Chinese cultural achievement and experience in architecture"[82] that is feng shui.

See also

References

  1. ^ Random House, American Heritage, Merriam Webster
  2. ^ "feng-shui". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2nd ed. 1989.
  3. ^ Tina Marie (2007-2009). "Feng Shui Diaries". Esoteric Feng Shui. http://fengshuidiaries.tinamariestinnett.com/?page_id=161. 
  4. ^ "Baidu Baike". Huai Nan Zi. http://baike.baidu.com/view/1401.htm. 
  5. ^ a b Field, Stephen L.. "The Zhangshu, or Book of Burial.". http://fengshuigate.com/zangshu.html. 
  6. ^ Sun, X. (2000) Crossing the Boundaries between Heaven and Man: Astronomy in Ancient China. In H. Selin (ed.), Astronomy Across Cultures: The History of Non-Western Astronomy. 423-454. Kluwer Academic.
  7. ^ David W. Pankenier. 'The Cosmo-Political Background of Heaven's Mandate.' Early China 20 (1995):121-176.
  8. ^ Li Liu. The Chinese Neolithic: Trajectories to Early States. Cambridge University Press (2004) 85-88.
  9. ^ Zhentao Xu, David W. Pankenier, and Yaotiao Jiang. East Asian Archaeoastronomy. 2000: 2
  10. ^ Li Liu. The Chinese Neolithic: Trajectories to Early States. Cambridge University Press (2004) 248–249.
  11. ^ Sarah M. Nelson, Rachel A. Matson, Rachel M. Roberts, Chris Rock and Robert E. Stencel. (2006) Archaeoastronomical Evidence for Wuism at the Hongshan Site of Niuheliang. Page 2.
  12. ^ Chen Jiujin and Zhang Jingguo. 'Hanshan chutu yupian tuxing shikao,' Wenwu 4, 1989:15
  13. ^ Li Liu. The Chinese Neolithic: Trajectories to Early States. Cambridge University Press (2004) 230-237.
  14. ^ Aihe Wang. Cosmology and Political Culture in Early China. 2000: 55
  15. ^ Feng Shi. Zhongguo zhaoqi xingxiangtu yanjiu. Zhiran kexueshi yanjiu, 2 (1990).
  16. ^ Aihe Wang. Cosmology and Political Culture in Early China. 2000: 54-55
  17. ^ Cheng Jian Jun and Adriana Fernandes-Gonçalves. Chinese Feng Shui Compass: Step by Step Guide. 1998: 21
  18. ^ The Pivot of the Four Quarters (1971: 46)
  19. ^ Mark Edward Lewis (2006). The Construction of Space in Early China. p. 275
  20. ^ Marc Kalinowski (1996). "The Use of the Twenty-eight Xiu as a Day-Count in Early China." Chinese Science 13 (1996): 55-81.
  21. ^ Yin Difei. "Xi-Han Ruyinhou mu chutu de zhanpan he tianwen yiqi." Kaogu 1978.5, 338-43; Yan Dunjie, "Guanyu Xi-Han chuqi de shipan he zhanpan." Kaogu 1978.5, 334-37.
  22. ^ Marc Kalinowski. 'The Xingde Texts from Mawangdui.' Early China. 23-24 (1998-99):125-202.
  23. ^ Wallace H. Campbell. Earth Magnetism: A Guided Tour Through Magnetic Fields. Academic Press, 2001.
  24. ^ Stephen L. Field (1998). Qimancy: The Art and Science of Fengshui.
  25. ^ Max Knoll. "Transformations of Science in Our Age." In Joseph Campbell (ed.). Man and Time. Princeton UP, 1957, 264-306.
  26. ^ Lui, A.T.Y., Y. Zheng, Y. Zhang, H. Rème, M.W. Dunlop, G. Gustafsson, S.B. Mende, C. Mouikis, and L.M. Kistler, Cluster observation of plasma flow reversal in the magnetotail during a substorm, Ann. Geophys., 24, 2005-2013, 2006
  27. ^ Sarah Allan. The Shape of the Turtle: Myth, Art and Cosmos in Early China. 1991:31–32.
  28. ^ Frank J. Swetz (2002). The Legacy of the Luoshu. pp. 31, 58.
  29. ^ Frank J. Swetz (2002). Legacy of the Luoshu. p. 36-37
  30. ^ Deborah Lynn Porter. From Deluge to Discourse. 1996:35–38.
  31. ^ Sun and Kistemaker. The Chinese Sky During the Han. 1997:15–18.
  32. ^ Aihe Wang. Cosmology and Political Structure in Early China. 2000:107-128
  33. ^ Sarah M. Nelson, Rachel A. Matson, Rachel M. Roberts, Chris Rock, and Robert E. Stencel. Archaeoastronomical Evidence for Wuism at the Hongshan Site of Niuheliang. 2006
  34. ^ Jacky Cheung Ngam Fung (2007). "History of Feng Shui.". http://www.fengshui-liufa.com/history.html. 
  35. ^ Cheng Jian Jun and Adriana Fernandes-Gonçalves. Chinese Feng Shui Compass Step by Step Guide. 1998:46-47
  36. ^ Jack Sweeney. Da Liu Ren Feng Shui. 2008:11-14
  37. ^ Jack Sweeney. Qi Men Dun Jia Feng Shui. 2008:1-7
  38. ^ H. L. Goodall, Jr. Writing the American Ineffable, or the Mystery and Practice of Feng Shui in Everyday Life. Qualitative Inquiry, 7:1, 3–20 (2001).
  39. ^ Chou Yi-liang. Tantrism in China. Harvard J. of Asiatic Studies, 8:3/4 (Mar., 1945), 241–332.
  40. ^ Robert T. Carroll, "feng shui - The Skeptic’s Dictionary"
  41. ^ Elizabeth Hilts, "Fabulous Feng Shui: It's Certainly Popular, But is it Eco-Friendly?"
  42. ^ Laura M. Holson, "The Feng Shui Kingdom"
  43. ^ AsiaOne, "Feng Shui course gains popularity"
  44. ^ http://www.randi.org/jr/200510/100705as.html
  45. ^ Edwin Joshua Dukes, The Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics, T & T Clark, Edinburgh, 1971, p 834
  46. ^ American Institute of Feng Shui website: http://www.amfengshui.com/faq.htm#Related%20to%20Buddhism%20or%20Taoism?
  47. ^ Penn and Teller Bullshit! Season 1, Episode 7 Feng Shui / Bottled Water (Aired March 7, 2003)
  48. ^ Monty Vierra. Harried by "Hellions" in Taiwan. Sceptical Briefs newsletter, March 1997.
  49. ^ Dukes, op cit, p 833
  50. ^ Andrew L. March. 'An Appreciation of Chinese Geomancy' in The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 27, No. 2. (February 1968), pp. 253-267.
  51. ^ Jeffrey W. Cody. Striking a Harmonious Chord: Foreign Missionaries and Chinese-style Buildings, 1911-1949. Architronic. 5:3 (ISSN 1066-6516)
  52. ^ Mah, Y.-B. Living in Harmony with One's Environment: A Christian Response to Feng Shui. Asia J. of Theology. 2004, 18; Part 2, pp 340-361.
  53. ^ Marcia Montenegro. Feng Shui" New Dimensions in Design. Christian Research Journal. 26:1 (2003)
  54. ^ Chang Liang (pseudoym), 14 January 2005, What Does Superstitious Belief of 'Feng Shui' Among School Students Reveal? http://zjc.zjol.com.cn/05zjc/system/2005/01/14/003828695.shtml
  55. ^ Tao Shilong, 3 April 2006, The Crooked Evil of 'Feng Shui' Is Corrupting The Minds of Chinese People http://blog.csdn.net/taoshilong/archive/2006/04/03/649650.aspx
  56. ^ Chen Xintang Art Gallery Shut by the Municipality's Business and Industrial Department After Converting to 'Feng Shui' Consultation Office Banduo Daoxi Bao, Qingdao, January 19, 2006 http://gwzz.blogbus.com/logs/2006/01/1854093.html
  57. '^ BBC, 9 March 2001, Feng Shui Superstitions' Troubles Chinese Authorities http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/chinese/news/newsid_1210000/12108792.stm
  58. ^ Debate on Feng Shui http://www.yuce49.com/showjs.asp?js_id=45
  59. ^ Beware of Scams Among the Genuine Feng Shui Practitioners http://jiugu861sohu.blog.sohu.com/58913151.html
  60. ^ Jiang Xun, From Voodoo Dolls to Feng Shui Superstitions, BBC Chinese service, 11 April 2006, http://news.bbc.co.uk/chinese/trad/hi/newsid_4870000/newsid_4872500/4872542.stm
  61. ^ Cao Dafeng http://www.fudan.edu.cn/new_genview/now_caidafeng.htm
  62. ^ Jane Mulcock. Creativity and Politics in the Cultural Supermarket: synthesizing indigenous identities for the r-evolution of spirit. Continuum. 15:2. July 2001, 169-185.
  63. ^ "Reality Testing in Feng Shui." Qi Journal. Spring 1997
  64. ^ Bo-Chul Whang and Myung-Woo Lee. Landscape ecology planning principles in Korean Feng-Shui, Bi-bo woodlands and ponds. J. Landscape and Ecological Engineering. 2:2, November, 2006. 147-162.
  65. ^ Bixia Chen (February 2008). "A Comparative Study on the Feng Shui Village Landscape and Feng Shui Trees in East Asia." PhD dissertation, United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Kagoshima University (Japan)
  66. ^ Marafa L. "Integrating natural and cultural heritage: the advantage of feng shui landscape resources." International Journal of Heritage Studies, Volume 9, Number 4, December 2003 , pp. 307-323(17)
  67. ^ Qigao Chen, Ya Feng, Gonglu Wang. Healthy Buildings Have Existed in China Since Ancient Times. Indoor and Built Environment, 6:3, 179-187 (1997)
  68. ^ Stephen Siu-Yiu Lau, Renato Garcia, Ying-Qing Ou, Man-Mo Kwok, Ying Zhang, Shao Jie Shen, Hitomi Namba. Sustainable design in its simplest form: Lessons from the living villages of Fujian rammed earth houses. Structural Survey. 2005, 23:5, 371-385
  69. ^ Xue Ying Zhuang, Richard T. Corlett. Forest and Forest Succession in Hong Kong, China. J. of Tropical Ecology, 13:6 (Nov., 1997), 857
  70. ^ Marafa, L. M. Integrating Natural and Cultural Heritage: the advantage of feng shui landscape resources. Intl. J. Heritage Studies. 2003, 9: Part 4, 307-324
  71. ^ Chen, B. X. and Nakama, Y. A summary of research history on Chinese Feng-shui and application of Feng-shui principles to environmental issues. Kyusyu J. For. Res. 57. 297-301 (2004).
  72. ^ Xu, Jun. 2003. A framework for site analysis with emphasis on feng shui and contemporary environmental design principles. Blacksburg, Va: University Libraries, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
  73. ^ Park, C.-P. Furukawa, N. Yamada, M. A Study on the Spatial Composition of Folk Houses and Village in Taiwan for the Geomancy (Feng-Shui). J. Arch. Institute of Korea. 1996, 12:9, 129-140.
  74. ^ Xu, P. Feng-Shui Models Structured Traditional Beijing Courtyard Houses. J. Architectural and Planning Research. 1998, 15:4, 271-282.
  75. ^ Hwangbo, A. B. An Alternative Tradition in Architecture: Conceptions in Feng Shui and Its Continuous Tradition. J. Architectural and Planning Research. 2002, 19:2, pp 110-130.
  76. ^ Chuen-Yan David Lai. A Feng Shui Model as a Location Index. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 64 (4), 506-513.
  77. ^ Xu, P. Feng-shui as Clue: Identifying Ancient Indian Landscape Setting Patterns in the American Southwest. Landscape Journal. 1997, 16:2, 174-190.
  78. ^ Lu, Hui-Chen. 2002. A Comparative analysis between western-based environmental design and feng-shui for housing sites. Thesis (M.S.). California Polytechnic State University, 2002.
  79. ^ Su-Ju Lu; Peter Blundell Jones. House design by surname in Feng Shui. J. of Architecture. 5:4 December 2000, 355-367.

Further reading

Popular Books

Websites With Further Articles

Academic works

  • Ole Bruun. “Fengshui and the Chinese Perception of Nature,” in Asian Perceptions of Nature: A Critical Approach, eds. Ole Bruun and Arne Kalland (Surrey: Curzon, 1995) 173-88
  • Ole Bruun. Fengshui in China: Geomantic Divination between State Orthodoxy and Popular Religion. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2003.
  • Ole Bruun. An Introduction to Feng Shui. Cambridge University Press, 2008.
  • Yoon, Hong-key. Culture of Fengshui in Korea: An Exploration of East Asian Geomancy, Lexington Books, 2006.
  • Magnetic alignment in grazing and resting cattle and deer, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences published ahead of print August 25, 2008, doi:10.1073/pnas.0803650105
  • Qi Men Dun Jia Feng Shui by Jack Sweeney
  • Da Liu Ren Feng Shui by Jack Sweeney
  • Xie, Shan Shan' 'Chinese Geographic Feng Shui Theories and Practices' National Multi-Attribute Institute Publishing, Oct. 2008, ISBN 978-159261-0048

New Age variants

  • Bender, Tom, "Building with the Breath of Life: Working with Chi Energy in Our Homes and Communities" Fire River Press, 2000.
  • Bender, Tom, "The Physics of Qi". DVD. Fire River Press, 2007.
  • Drews, Norbert, "Feng Shui Essentials" [1], 2000.
  • Rauch Carter, Karen, "Move Your Stuff, Change Your Life" [2], 2000.
  • Wu, Baolin, Lighting the Eye of the Dragon: Inner Secrets of Taoist Feng Shui, St. Martin's Press, 2000.
  • Xie, Shan Shan' 'Chinese Geographic Feng Shui Theories and Practices' National Multi-Attribute Institute Publishing, 2009


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Contents

English

Alternative spellings

Etymology

From Chinese 风水 (fēngshuǐ), wind and water)

Pronunciation

  • enPR: fo͝ong shwāʹ, fĕng shwāʹ, IPA: /fʊŋˈʃweɪ/, /fɛŋˈʃweɪ/, SAMPA: /fUN"SweI/, /fEN"SweI/
    Rhymes: -eɪ
  • (spelling pronunciation) IPA: /fɛŋˈʃu(ː).i/, SAMPA: /fEN"Su(:).i/
    Rhymes: -uːi

Usage notes

The spelling pronunciation may be regarded as incorrect, although it is acceptable when used jocularly in informal situations.

Noun

Singular
feng shui

Plural
uncountable

feng shui (uncountable)

  1. An ancient Chinese system of designing buildings and space arrangement according to special rules about the flow of energy, aimed at achieving harmony with the environment.
  2. In Chinese mythology, a system of spiritual energies, both good and evil, present in the natural features of landscapes.

Translations

Verb

Infinitive
to feng shui

Third person singular
feng shuis

Simple past
feng shuied

Past participle
feng shuied

Present participle
feng shuiing

to feng shui (third-person singular simple present feng shuis, present participle feng shuiing, simple past and past participle feng shuied)

  1. (transitive) To arrange a space according to the rules of feng shui.
    I'm going to have my bedroom feng shuied. Maybe this will finally bring me good luck.

See also








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message