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The Goud (Telugu: గౌడ్) are one of the largest castes in Andhra Pradesh comprising more than 17% of its population. Gouds were involved in Soma and Ayurvedic Medicine development in ancient days. They are historically classified as Somavansh Kshatriyas. At present, they are involved in Palm wine/Toddy tapping( 5 % ), farming( 50 % ) and modern professions( 45 %).
Regarding their origin, several legends are present. According to the Goud Puran, they are said to have come from Benares and other parts of Northern India, where they were originally engaged in the manufacture and sale of psychedelic liquors. Another legend represents them as having sprung from Koundinya Rishi, who was created by Parvati for the purpose of extracting and fermenting the sap of the wild date palm and thus supplying the wants of gods and men in the matter of intoxicating drinks. It is said that the gods and demons were so delighted with the pleasant beverage, that they conferred upon him the title of 'Gouda' or 'the head of mankind.'
It seems probable that the caste is a functional group, formed from the members of other castes under the pressure of the demand for intoxicating drinks. This view bears support from the internal structure of the caste, which shows that it comprises several independent groups. Internal Structure.---- The caste is divided into six endogamous groups. (1) Deva Goundala, (2) Shetti Goundala, (3) Mashti Goundala, (4)Goundala, (5) Idiga and (6) Laguwad. The above names are only historical. The different names are not known at least after the 18th century.
It is believed that they are dweep goundala. However the members of this sub-sect claim and is traditionally ascribed to the fact that the members of this sub-caste supplied toddy and arrack/liquor to the Devas(gods). At the Present day, they hold the highest rank among the Goundala castes.
They are numerous and also enjoy highest or slightly lesser rank along with Deva Goundalas. They assert that the distinctive title Shetti was conferred upon their ancestor by Raja Prataparudra of Warangal, for successfully meeting and overcoming an invincible gymnast in a wrestling match. Later many became good gymnasts, participated in wrestling matches and were also recruited into army.
Mashti Goundala occupy the lowest position among the Goundala sub-castes. They have five sub-divisions: (1) Tella Idiga, (2) Kulla Jain, (3) Kada, (4) Ayanotiwaru and (5) Jetti. The members of these sub-castes don’t inter-marry.
The word 'Idiga' comes from 'Ita' which means a Shendi tree, and who make incisions on the tree for its sap are called 'Ita Godlu' , the two words ultimately passing into the term 'Idiga'. The sub-caste is said to have been recruited from among members of other castes, especially from the Mutrasi, Munnur and Telega castes. The Idigas have a sub-division called 'Thala Idiga,'the word 'Thala' signifying 'the head.'
The Laguwad or Lagullawandlu are so called because they wear lagus i.e., short trousers.This sub-caste is also recruited from other castes.
Kingdoms are formed around 5000 years back or 3000BC. During these times, somavanshi Kshatriyas took over the profession of development & production of alcoholic beverage and ayurvedic medicine.
region of Godavari,Krishna and Guntur districts during the Eastern Chalukya Empire.
region. They constitute the single largest community in Godavari districts. Chalukya Bhima-I has constructed many Bimeshwar temples at Dhraksha Rama, Somarlakota( Present samalkot ). Chalukya kings constructed Someshwar temples at Nidadavole and Bhimavaram of West Godavari. This shows their liking towards soma.
There are lot of gouds residing around warangal or orugallu.The kakatiyas are belied to be of Racherla gotram kings. During the fall of Kakatiya empire, the musini surname families (Markandeya gotram) who ruled the kakatiya empire for 50 years got settled in Warangal,Nalgonda,Krishna and Godavari districts. There are lot of gouds with musini surname in the above districts. There are lot of villages like musinuri, musinipally, musinivari palem and musigampala. There are lot of other communities with these surnames.
The British also suppressed the gouds as the British wanted their products to be more used by the Indians.
Following independence, the community, fell prey to the sectarian nature of Indian politics. Goud leaders jumped on more powerful bandwagons of Reddys and Kammas, dividing the community, as well as limiting growth and development. Thus, the community was not given key ministerial positions, so the community development was not as good as Kammas or Reddies. Prior to Independence the community was not considered backward class nor was it selectively suppressed. Post-independence India as labeled Gouds as backward castes. The uneducated masses of the community do little to improve their situation, instead they await government handouts, which only happen when certain Goud politicians help Reddy and Kamma candidates win elections. It is important to note that in a true democracy like India, Gouds in Andhra Pradesh compromise one of the largest groups, yet the caste system makes them statistically minimal. They can easily form unions and campaign to get their leaders elected. However, since the contrary is occurring, many Goud leaders have formed into thug alliances and have joined into machine politics with senior Reddys and Kammas. Thus many prominent Gouds are involved in illegal and often notorious businesses which funnel money to and from political establishments.
The political parties and the media spread negative sentiments about alcohol consumption. They bring down the image of Gouds just because they were in palm wine production historically.Most advanced Countries like USA, Japan, France, China and Russia have per capita alcohol consumption of about 5 to 20 times that of India( http://www.who.int World health organisation data). These countries never spread negative sentiments about alcohol consumpion, but they warn against heavy drinkers.
They are divided into Tirmanidharis and Vibhutidharis, or the worshippers of Vishnu and Shiva, under the guidance of their respective sectarian gurus, Shri Vaishnava and Aradhi Brahmans. Preference is, however, given to the worship of Shiva, whom they adore under the peculiar name of someshwar, or "the god Shiva who heads soma."
The goddess somalamma who is considered to be the avatar of kali, is prayed by Hindus. There are lot of villages that were come up with the goddess somalamma. They celebrate the festival of Katamayya Panduga(Gouda’s festival) or bonalu in shravan masam of every year in Telangana.
Sardar Sarvayi Papanna Goud also called as Papadu was a Telugu King, who ruled Buvanagiri of Nalgonda, Thatikonda of Warangal, Kolanupaka, Cheriyala, Karimnagar, Huzurabad and Husnabad regions for 30 years. Papanna Goud born in 1650 A.D. Having seen the oppressions and atrocities committed by Mughals, during that time raised a small army out of warrior castes through guerilla attacks on them. He recruited followers from an array of idiga men and ritually warrior groups to form an army of several thousand. With it, he mounted successful assaults against several of the major towns in Telangana which were under Mughals and captured several towns and forts.
In Godavari districts, they are the most populous caste and have equal political status as the Kapu Caste.
Goud surnames will have the following suffixes:
Telangana(Gouni or Gowni or Goni).
Sathyagouni,Balagouni, Balagowni, Deshagouni, Deshagowni, Veeragowni, Madasu, Balagoni, Badagowni, Chalamalla, Gavini, Goda, Godishala,Gottiparthi, Jalagam, Macharla, Manda, Pogula, Sudagani, Godella,katagouni,Narsingi.etc
setti surnames mostly came from the business profession. Gani or goni or Gouni or Gowni surnames came from the profession of Ganadhipathi( leader of warriers).
Nellore Dt surnames: Parvatala, Kammiti, Nasina, Pandi, Mulam, Nadavati, Jana, Kosuri, Tata, Jampani
Krishna Dt:Undrakonda,chittibomma, Badugu, Pamarti, Murrala, Bolla, Naragam, Pallagani, Chalpati, Rajulapati, Vemula,Jogi, Chimata, Sonti, Mekapothula, Mareedhu, Palagani, Parise, Veeranki,parasa,matta,anagani,motapothula,ijjagani,pandi,
Guntur Dt: Padamati ,chittibomma, Reka రేకా, Addanki, Vaddemgunta, Veeranki, Kapparapu, Karpoorapu, Vemulakonda, Sreeram, Vaka, Suragani, Donta, Anagani, Pandi, Kukkala, Evuri,mekapothula, maadu,
Warangal Dt: Konne, Gandi,Gaddam,Gattu,Mettu,Balne, Tabeti,gurram,ponnam khammam dt: veeranki, mekapothula, pandhi, motapothula, pilli,parasa nalgonda dist: Konne, VAILLA,ponnam
gou== Community ==
It comes under BC-B section 4. The following castes are considered as Goud community under AP BC act. List of B.Cs and categorization (As per G.O.Ms. No. 1793 Education Dept., Dt : 23.9.1970 as modified from time to time).
|S.No.||Caste Name||S.No.||Caste Name||S.No.||Caste Name||S.No.||Caste Name||S.No.||Caste Name||S.No.||Caste Name|
The Gouds originally prospered around the Godavari River. The Goud community adopted alcoholic beverage production and sale as their trade. This trade is believed to be a gift from God. The people who serve toddy are considered God-like (Somanath, Madhusudhana, and Gandharvas).
Gouds also support themselves in farming and warrior profession which is a generalised trade being followed by all communities. From Kshatriyas to Schedule castes are allowed to do cultivation. Warrior position is also given to all communities in different positions. Before the British came every community has a specific trade to do.
Gouds prospered during Eastern chalukya empire( goud kings), Kakatiya empire( Goud kings ) and Vijaya nagar empire ( Golla/Yadav kings).During these empires, all communities have a good respect in society. After the British came, some trades like (warrior positions) are lost and some trades like hand loom, fishing, animal herding etc have become unprofitable. Due to the British Agricultural Revolution, only farming become more profitable.
A substantial body of educated Gouds constitute captains of the Information Technology enterprises and have established India's largest software outfits like Infosys and HCL Technologies.In Telangana, Gouds are mainly found in the brewing/liquor industry.
• They are identified by different names in different regions.
Kalwars are members of the subcaste of "distillers of alcohol" within the Indian caste system. In modern times, they may follow any occupation. Kalwars are Haihayavamshi.They are classified as Of Somavamshiya Sahasrarjun Kshatriyas. Haihaya is branch of Somavamshiya Kshatriyas.They claim lineage from one of the greatest Kings of all times Rajeshwara Sahasrarjuna also known as Kartavirya Arjuna, one of the great Chakarvarti Samrats of India. Common Surnames
Jayaswal Jaiswal Jayswal Choudhary Gopaliya Gupta Ahluwalia & Walia Karnwal Mahawar' Lohiya Batham Kharidaha Vyahut Shoundik (sudi) kshyatriya Martha Pardesi kalar (central India) Shivhare Somvanshi Pareta Mewada Tak Porwal Purviya Suwalka Rai Choukse Dadsena Malviya Jain Jaiswal Jain Kalar Survanshi Daharwal Neorgade Shione Jaisar' Sahu Nashine Pashine Khuble Patel Verma Gulhare Sugnadhi Aarya Tikkiwal Talwar' Lanjekar They number an estimated 3,500,000 worldwide and mostly live in: Western and Northern India, Nepal, Central and Western Pakistan, Eastern Afghanistan, Germany. There are similar communities in different parts of India involved in same profession and back ground.Ezhavas or Thiyyas of kerala,Billavas and Thiyya billavas of South Kannada region,Edigas of Karnataka,Bhandari of Maharastra,Nadars of Tamil Nadu,Gouds of Andhra,Durave and Nalaver of Srilanka are of the same lineage.
|S.No.||Caste Name||State||S.No.||Caste Name||State||S.No.||Caste Name||State|
|7||Ezhava||Kerala||8||Thiyya||Kerala||9||Nadar caste||Tamil Nadu|
|10||Shanars||Tamil Nadu||11||Iluvar||Tamil Nadu||12||Illathu Pillamar||Tamil Nadu|
|13||Jaiswal||North India||14||Kalal||Maharastra||15||Goud Kalal||Maharastra|
|16||Bhandari||Maharastra, Gujurat and Goa||17||Malayali Billava||Kerala , Karnataka|
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