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Sarvay Papanna Goud-17th century telugu monarch

The Goud (Telugu: గౌడ్) are one of the largest castes in Andhra Pradesh comprising more than 17% of its population. Gouds were involved in Soma and Ayurvedic Medicine development in ancient days. They are historically classified as Somavansh Kshatriyas. At present, they are involved in Palm wine/Toddy tapping( 5 % ), farming( 50 % ) and modern professions( 45 %).

Contents

Origin

Regarding their origin, several legends are present. According to the Goud Puran, they are said to have come from Benares and other parts of Northern India, where they were originally engaged in the manufacture and sale of psychedelic liquors. Another legend represents them as having sprung from Koundinya Rishi, who was created by Parvati for the purpose of extracting and fermenting the sap of the wild date palm and thus supplying the wants of gods and men in the matter of intoxicating drinks. It is said that the gods and demons were so delighted with the pleasant beverage, that they conferred upon him the title of 'Gouda' or 'the head of mankind.'

It seems probable that the caste is a functional group, formed from the members of other castes under the pressure of the demand for intoxicating drinks. This view bears support from the internal structure of the caste, which shows that it comprises several independent groups. Internal Structure.---- The caste is divided into six endogamous groups. (1) Deva Goundala, (2) Shetti Goundala, (3) Mashti Goundala, (4)Goundala, (5) Idiga and (6) Laguwad. The above names are only historical. The different names are not known at least after the 18th century.

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Deva Goundala

It is believed that they are dweep goundala. However the members of this sub-sect claim and is traditionally ascribed to the fact that the members of this sub-caste supplied toddy and arrack/liquor to the Devas(gods). At the Present day, they hold the highest rank among the Goundala castes.

The Shetti, or Chetti Goundala

They are numerous and also enjoy highest or slightly lesser rank along with Deva Goundalas. They assert that the distinctive title Shetti was conferred upon their ancestor by Raja Prataparudra of Warangal, for successfully meeting and overcoming an invincible gymnast in a wrestling match. Later many became good gymnasts, participated in wrestling matches and were also recruited into army.

Mashti Goundala

Mashti Goundala occupy the lowest position among the Goundala sub-castes. They have five sub-divisions: (1) Tella Idiga, (2) Kulla Jain, (3) Kada, (4) Ayanotiwaru and (5) Jetti. The members of these sub-castes don’t inter-marry.

Idigas

The word 'Idiga' comes from 'Ita' which means a Shendi tree, and who make incisions on the tree for its sap are called 'Ita Godlu' , the two words ultimately passing into the term 'Idiga'. The sub-caste is said to have been recruited from among members of other castes, especially from the Mutrasi, Munnur and Telega castes. The Idigas have a sub-division called 'Thala Idiga,'the word 'Thala' signifying 'the head.'

Laguwad

The Laguwad or Lagullawandlu are so called because they wear lagus i.e., short trousers.This sub-caste is also recruited from other castes.

Kingdoms are formed around 5000 years back or 3000BC. During these times, somavanshi Kshatriyas took over the profession of development & production of alcoholic beverage and ayurvedic medicine.

Mythological Origins

  • According to Gowd legend, they originated from the Great Sage Kaundinya who lived in kurnool district (around 1300 AD), who they believe originally invented toddy tapping. They believe that many kings came from their community including the Chalukya, and the Satavahana kings. The community is derived branch of somavamsha kshatriyas( Haihaya kshatriyas) who lived at the time of Parashurama. They pray the deity Renuka who is a kshatriya and mother of parashurama. She is also wife of jamadagni who is a brahmin.

At those times, the community needed a kshatriya type warrior position to spread soma to the people. They needed brahminical help to do different types of soma liquids.

  • Alcohol, Madhu or Nectar is first given to Demi Gods by Lord Vishnu in Mohini Avatar along with Kalpavriksha (present day coconut tree or palm tree). These trees may be 60 million years old. The timing also coincides with the timing of kurma avatar. Lord Vishnu is also called as Madhu or Madhusudhan. In the initial days, Gouds got patronized by Amrutham and started distilling different types of liquor. They used to serve liquor to the people to relieve them from different types of diseases and pains. They invented lot of ayurvedic medicines to sabotage different types of illnesses. They tried most of the trees and fruits to get different types of wines. Finally they invented toddy (only having 1 to 5 % alcohol) which is considered to be the best food as well as medicine, even today. Toddy is drunk mostly in the rural parts which is relatively low in price( of about ¼ the cost of Beer of same alcoholic content). Toddy is available only during February to May month of every year. The community will live like farmers during the rest of the year.
  • The Setti Balija’s and Sri Sayana’s original name was Goud. Their surnames Gudala,Gubbala, Geddada, Gouthu suggests that their original name was Goud - these adaptations first became known in the 18th and 19th centuries[citation needed]. Sri Dommeti Venkat Garu (A Goud), had a chief status and changed the community name to Setti Balija. Sri Dommeti Venkat Garu lived in Bodasakurru village near Kakinada of East Godavari District. The gouds are also called as Delta kings because they occupied the Delta

region of Godavari,Krishna and Guntur districts during the Eastern Chalukya Empire.

  • Kerala was considered be the origin of the Goud ,they also called Chetty in Kerala,but Ezhava are not Goud as early as Ramayana and Mahabharata times.
  • The Eastern Chalukyas ruled Andhra region from 7th century to 1189 CE. They had their capital originally at Vengi near Nidadavole of the West Godavari district and later changed to Rajamahendravaram (Rajamundry). During this period Gouds prospered around this

region. They constitute the single largest community in Godavari districts. Chalukya Bhima-I has constructed many Bimeshwar temples at Dhraksha Rama, Somarlakota( Present samalkot ). Chalukya kings constructed Someshwar temples at Nidadavole and Bhimavaram of West Godavari. This shows their liking towards soma.

  • Gundaya (950 CE) was the first known historical figure among the Kakatiyas.

There are lot of gouds residing around warangal or orugallu.The kakatiyas are belied to be of Racherla gotram kings. During the fall of Kakatiya empire, the musini surname families (Markandeya gotram) who ruled the kakatiya empire for 50 years got settled in Warangal,Nalgonda,Krishna and Godavari districts. There are lot of gouds with musini surname in the above districts. There are lot of villages like musinuri, musinipally, musinivari palem and musigampala. There are lot of other communities with these surnames.

  • During Vijayanagara Empire, the Gouds and Nadars were having dominant position in the society because of their huge population (Single largest community of South India) and the society dependency on toddy (a beverage which was called as mandhu (medicine). The rayana(surname is common in gouds residing in Ananthapur, Kurnool, Prakasham, Guntur, Krishna, and Godavari districts) families got settled during the fall of Vijayanagara empire. All the trading castes were having equal respect to the farming communities,as the income from farming was just below the income from different trades. Earlier to this empire from Neolithic Revolution, farming was a low profit self employment work by all communities including Tribals.
  • By the end of 18th century the British East India Company had consolidated their rule in Andhra. They brought modern cultivation methods with good transportation of materials. The cultivation become more profitable. The rich gouds entered into cultivation where as the Poor gouds stick to various low income professions and they become further poor.

The British also suppressed the gouds as the British wanted their products to be more used by the Indians.

  • Gouds use the name "Prasad" to represent their affinity for cultivating coconut fields and banana fields. The following surnames suggest that gouds mostly depend on tree products like Talla, thati (palm tree), nara, narikel, naragani (coconut), chintal, chintalapati (tamarind), mamidla, mamidisetti (Mango), panasa, arati (banana). Some surnames like annam (Rice) and cheruku (sugarcane) suggest their current day cultivation.
  • The members of the caste claim to have the following Gotras (exogamous groups)
  1. Bharadwaja
  2. Dhananjaya
  3. Datteraya
  4. Kamandalam
  5. Koundinya(Koundinya Rishi successors)
  6. Kashyapa
  7. Mrukanda
  8. Markendeya
  9. Nishila
  10. Pydipala (This gotram came around 1700 A.D.)
  11. Racherla (This gotram came around 500 A.D.)
  12. Shivanama
  13. Surabhandeshwar
  14. Shivansha
  15. Tullyamahamuni
  16. Vashista
  17. vathsalya
  18. Vruddhamahamuni

Politics

Following independence, the community, fell prey to the sectarian nature of Indian politics. Goud leaders jumped on more powerful bandwagons of Reddys and Kammas, dividing the community, as well as limiting growth and development. Thus, the community was not given key ministerial positions, so the community development was not as good as Kammas or Reddies. Prior to Independence the community was not considered backward class nor was it selectively suppressed. Post-independence India as labeled Gouds as backward castes. The uneducated masses of the community do little to improve their situation, instead they await government handouts, which only happen when certain Goud politicians help Reddy and Kamma candidates win elections. It is important to note that in a true democracy like India, Gouds in Andhra Pradesh compromise one of the largest groups, yet the caste system makes them statistically minimal. They can easily form unions and campaign to get their leaders elected. However, since the contrary is occurring, many Goud leaders have formed into thug alliances and have joined into machine politics with senior Reddys and Kammas. Thus many prominent Gouds are involved in illegal and often notorious businesses which funnel money to and from political establishments.

The political parties and the media spread negative sentiments about alcohol consumption. They bring down the image of Gouds just because they were in palm wine production historically.Most advanced Countries like USA, Japan, France, China and Russia have per capita alcohol consumption of about 5 to 20 times that of India( http://www.who.int World health organisation data). These countries never spread negative sentiments about alcohol consumpion, but they warn against heavy drinkers.

Religion

They are divided into Tirmanidharis and Vibhutidharis, or the worshippers of Vishnu and Shiva, under the guidance of their respective sectarian gurus, Shri Vaishnava and Aradhi Brahmans. Preference is, however, given to the worship of Shiva, whom they adore under the peculiar name of someshwar, or "the god Shiva who heads soma."

The goddess somalamma who is considered to be the avatar of kali, is prayed by Hindus. There are lot of villages that were come up with the goddess somalamma. They celebrate the festival of Katamayya Panduga(Gouda’s festival) or bonalu in shravan masam of every year in Telangana.

Sardar Sarvai Papanna Goud

Sardar Sarvayi Papanna Goud also called as Papadu was a Telugu King, who ruled Buvanagiri of Nalgonda, Thatikonda of Warangal, Kolanupaka, Cheriyala, Karimnagar, Huzurabad and Husnabad regions for 30 years. Papanna Goud born in 1650 A.D. Having seen the oppressions and atrocities committed by Mughals, during that time raised a small army out of warrior castes through guerilla attacks on them. He recruited followers from an array of idiga men and ritually warrior groups to form an army of several thousand. With it, he mounted successful assaults against several of the major towns in Telangana which were under Mughals and captured several towns and forts.

Demographics

In Godavari districts, they are the most populous caste and have equal political status as the Kapu Caste.

  • In Maharashtra, they are settled in Nanded & Latur region of Marathwada, Chandrapur of Vidharba and in Konkan region. Though population of this caste is small in Marathwada and Vidharbha and known as 'Kalal/Goud Kalal', there are large populations in Konkan region and known as 'Bhandaris'
  • In Telangana, castes with the largest population are the Gouds, Yadavs, Mudiraju, Padmashali, and Munnuru Kapus.

Common Surnames

Goud surnames will have the following suffixes:

  • Setti or setty - Visakapatnam, Godavari, Khammam and Krishna districts.
    • Like - Padamati,Medisetti, Marisetti,Maragani, Vasamsetti, Koppisetti, Mamidisetti,Anagani,Polagani, Bonagani etc
    • Matta, Katta, Borra etc
  • jampana one of the promonent surnames in krishna dist..Gani or gany - Krishna, Guntur, Prakasam, Nellore &

Telangana(Gouni or Gowni or Goni).

    • Like - Ashangari,Gajula,Gandi,Gaddam,Gattu,Mettu,Gopagoni,Gopagani,Enumula, chittibomma, Undrakonda, Sure, Meduri, Akula, Reka, Sreeram, Veeranki, Addanki, Bathina, Busaram, Komara, Kancharla, Kapparapu, Karpoorapu, Dontha, Burra, Ragani, Kodi, Bolagani,Bommagani, Anagani, Margani, Nargani, Balagani, Sudagani, Nargana, Margana, Naragoni, Alegani, Bajaru, Talla, Bathini, Byragoni,

Sathyagouni,Balagouni, Balagowni, Deshagouni, Deshagowni, Veeragowni, Madasu, Balagoni, Badagowni, Chalamalla, Gavini, Goda, Godishala,Gottiparthi, Jalagam, Macharla, Manda, Pogula, Sudagani, Godella,katagouni,Narsingi.etc

setti surnames mostly came from the business profession. Gani or goni or Gouni or Gowni surnames came from the profession of Ganadhipathi( leader of warriers).

Nellore Dt surnames: Parvatala, Kammiti, Nasina, Pandi, Mulam, Nadavati, Jana, Kosuri, Tata, Jampani

Krishna Dt:Undrakonda,chittibomma, Badugu, Pamarti, Murrala, Bolla, Naragam, Pallagani, Chalpati, Rajulapati, Vemula,Jogi, Chimata, Sonti, Mekapothula, Mareedhu, Palagani, Parise, Veeranki,parasa,matta,anagani,motapothula,ijjagani,pandi,

Guntur Dt: Padamati ,chittibomma, Reka రేకా, Addanki, Vaddemgunta, Veeranki, Kapparapu, Karpoorapu, Vemulakonda, Sreeram, Vaka, Suragani, Donta, Anagani, Pandi, Kukkala, Evuri,mekapothula, maadu,

Warangal Dt: Konne, Gandi,Gaddam,Gattu,Mettu,Balne, Tabeti,gurram,ponnam khammam dt: veeranki, mekapothula, pandhi, motapothula, pilli,parasa nalgonda dist: Konne, VAILLA,ponnam

gou== Community ==

It comes under BC-B section 4. The following castes are considered as Goud community under AP BC act. List of B.Cs and categorization (As per G.O.Ms. No. 1793 Education Dept., Dt : 23.9.1970 as modified from time to time).

S.No. Caste Name S.No. Caste Name S.No. Caste Name S.No. Caste Name S.No. Caste Name S.No. Caste Name
1 Goud 2 Gowd 3 Gouda 4 Gowda 5 Goundla 6 Gamalla
7 Ediga 8 Idiga 9 Segidi 10 Sri Sayanas 11 Yatha 12 Settibalija

Traditional occupations

The Gouds originally prospered around the Godavari River. The Goud community adopted alcoholic beverage production and sale as their trade. This trade is believed to be a gift from God. The people who serve toddy are considered God-like (Somanath, Madhusudhana, and Gandharvas).

Gouds also support themselves in farming and warrior profession which is a generalised trade being followed by all communities. From Kshatriyas to Schedule castes are allowed to do cultivation. Warrior position is also given to all communities in different positions. Before the British came every community has a specific trade to do.

Gouds prospered during Eastern chalukya empire( goud kings), Kakatiya empire( Goud kings ) and Vijaya nagar empire ( Golla/Yadav kings).During these empires, all communities have a good respect in society. After the British came, some trades like (warrior positions) are lost and some trades like hand loom, fishing, animal herding etc have become unprofitable. Due to the British Agricultural Revolution, only farming become more profitable.

A substantial body of educated Gouds constitute captains of the Information Technology enterprises and have established India's largest software outfits like Infosys and HCL Technologies.In Telangana, Gouds are mainly found in the brewing/liquor industry.

Different Regions - Different Caste Names

• They are identified by different names in different regions.

  • Goud, Gowd or Gouda in Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh.
  • Edigas or Goudu or Gowdu in Rayalaseema region and South Coastal Andhra.
  • Setty Balijas in East Godavari, West Godavari, Krishna, Visakhapatnam.

  • Gowda or Gamalla in coastal Andhra pradesh (mainly in Krishna, Guntur, Prakasam, Nellore, West Godavari, Prakasam)
  • Sri Sayanas in Vishakapatanam, Vizayanagaram, and Srikakulam.
  • Bhandari in Konkan region of Maharashtra and Goa.
  • Goud, Goud Kalal, Kalal in Maharashtra.

Kalwars are members of the subcaste of "distillers of alcohol" within the Indian caste system. In modern times, they may follow any occupation. Kalwars are Haihayavamshi.They are classified as Of Somavamshiya Sahasrarjun Kshatriyas. Haihaya is branch of Somavamshiya Kshatriyas.They claim lineage from one of the greatest Kings of all times Rajeshwara Sahasrarjuna also known as Kartavirya Arjuna, one of the great Chakarvarti Samrats of India. Common Surnames

Jayaswal Jaiswal Jayswal Choudhary Gopaliya Gupta Ahluwalia & Walia Karnwal Mahawar' Lohiya Batham Kharidaha Vyahut Shoundik (sudi) kshyatriya Martha Pardesi kalar (central India) Shivhare Somvanshi Pareta Mewada Tak Porwal Purviya Suwalka Rai Choukse Dadsena Malviya Jain Jaiswal Jain Kalar Survanshi Daharwal Neorgade Shione Jaisar' Sahu Nashine Pashine Khuble Patel Verma Gulhare Sugnadhi Aarya Tikkiwal Talwar' Lanjekar They number an estimated 3,500,000 worldwide and mostly live in: Western and Northern India, Nepal, Central and Western Pakistan, Eastern Afghanistan, Germany. There are similar communities in different parts of India involved in same profession and back ground.Ezhavas or Thiyyas of kerala,Billavas and Thiyya billavas of South Kannada region,Edigas of Karnataka,Bhandari of Maharastra,Nadars of Tamil Nadu,Gouds of Andhra,Durave and Nalaver of Srilanka are of the same lineage.

Same Castes In Other States

S.No. Caste Name State S.No. Caste Name State S.No. Caste Name State
1 Idiga Karnataka 2 Idigara Karnataka 3 Deevaru Karnataka
4 Billava Karnataka 5 Halepaik Karnataka 6 Namadhari Karnataka
7 Ezhava Kerala 8 Thiyya Kerala 9 Nadar caste Tamil Nadu
10 Shanars Tamil Nadu 11 Iluvar Tamil Nadu 12 Illathu Pillamar Tamil Nadu
13 Jaiswal North India 14 Kalal Maharastra 15 Goud Kalal Maharastra
16 Bhandari Maharastra, Gujurat and Goa 17 Malayali Billava Kerala , Karnataka

Notable Gouds

www.goudsnews.com [www.goudsworld.com] [www.goudsinfo.com] [www.gouds.com]

Community Religion And Beliefs

  • Religion : Hindu
  • Language : Telugu
  • Deity  : Lord Shiva & Goddess Yellamma also known as Goddess Renuka ,Goddess Ankamma, Goddess somalamma,Goddess kali, Lord surya & Goddess vara lakshmi, Goddess Amaleswari Devi (Davoji Palem)
  • Gothram : Koundinyasa,Kamandala

See also

References


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Dutch

Pronunciation

Noun

goud

  1. (chemistry) gold
    zwart goud - oil
    zwart goud - vinyl record
    blauw goud - water

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