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Human[1]
Fossil range: 0.2–0 Ma
Pleistocene - Recent
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukarya
Kingdom: Animalia
Subkingdom: Eumetazoa
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclass: Tetrapoda
Class: Mammalia
Subclass: Theria
Infraclass: Eutheria
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorrhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Parvorder: Catarrhini
Superfamily: Hominoidea
Family: Hominidae
Subfamily: Homininae
Tribe: Hominini
Subtribe: Hominina
Genus: Homo
Species: H. sapiens
Subspecies: H. s. sapiens
Trinomial name
Homo sapiens sapiens
Linnaeus, 1758

A human is a member of a species of bipedal primates in the family Hominidae (taxonomically Homo sapiens—Latin: "wise man" or "knowing man").[2][3] DNA and fossil evidence indicates that modern humans originated in east Africa about 200,000 years ago. When compared to other animals and primates, humans have a highly developed brain, capable of abstract reasoning, language, introspection and problem solving[citation needed]. This mental capability, combined with an erect body carriage that frees the forelimbs (arms) for manipulating objects, has allowed humans to make far greater use of tools than any other species. Humans are distributed worldwide, with significant populations inhabiting most land areas of Earth. The human population on Earth is greater than 6.7 billion, as of February 2009,[4] which is estimated to be roughly 5% of the total that have ever lived.[5][6]

Like most higher primates, humans are social by nature. Humans are particularly adept at utilizing systems of communication—primarily spoken, gestural, and written language—for self-expression, the exchange of ideas, and organization. Humans create complex social structures composed of many cooperating and competing groups, from families to nations. Social interactions between humans have established an extremely wide variety of traditions, rituals, ethics, values, social norms, and laws, which together form the basis of human society. Humans are distinctive as a species on the Earth by having a perception of beauty and aesthetics at least to a point which results in a material culture. This, when combined with the desire for self-expression and a proportionally large brain-size, has led to innovations such as art, written language, music and science.

Humans seek to understand and influence the environment around them by trying to explain and manipulate natural phenomena through philosophy, art, science, mythology, and religion. This natural curiosity has led to the development of advanced tools and skills. Although humans are not the only species to use tools, they are unique in building fires, cooking their food, and clothing themselves; as well as using other advanced technologies. Humans pass down their skills and knowledge to the next generations and so are regarded as dependent upon culture.

Contents

Name

The English adjective human is a Middle English loan from Old French humain, ultimately from Latin hūmānus, the adjective of homō "man". Use as a noun (with a plural humans) dates to the 16th century.[7] The native English term man is now often reserved for male adults, but can still be used for "mankind" in general in Modern English.[8] The word is from Proto-Germanic *mannaz, from a Proto-Indo-European(PIE) root *man-, cognate to Sanskrit manu-.

The generic name Homo is a learned 18th century derivation from Latin homō "man", ultimately "earthly being" (Old Latin hemō, cognate to Old English guma "man", from PIE *dʰǵʰemon-, meaning 'earth' or 'ground').[9]

History

Origin

For more details on this topic, see Anthropology, Human evolution, and Homo (genus).

, a human ancestor that had developed bipedalism, but which lacked the large brain of modern humans.]]

The scientific study of human evolution encompasses the development of the genus Homo, but usually involves studying other hominids and hominines as well, such as Australopithecus. "Modern humans" are defined as the Homo sapiens species, of which the only extant subspecies is known as Homo sapiens sapiens. Homo sapiens idaltu (roughly translated as "elder wise human"), the other known subspecies, is now extinct.[10] Homo neanderthalensis, which became extinct 30,000 years ago, has sometimes been classified as a subspecies, "Homo sapiens neanderthalensis", but genetic studies now suggest a divergence of the Neanderthal species from Homo sapiens about 500,000 years ago[11]. Similarly, the few specimens of Homo rhodesiensis have also occasionally been classified as a subspecies, but this is not widely accepted. Anatomically modern humans first appear in the fossil record in Africa about 195,000 years ago, and studies of molecular biology give evidence that the approximate time of divergence from the common ancestor of all modern human populations was 200,000 years ago.[12][13][14] The broad study of African genetic diversity headed by Dr. Sarah Tishkoff found the San people to express the greatest genetic diversity among the 113 distinct populations sampled, making them one of 14 "ancestral population clusters".The research also located the origin of modern human migration in south-western Africa, near the coastal border of Namibia and Angola.[15]

The closest living relatives of humans are gorillas and chimpanzees, but humans did not evolve from these apes: instead these apes share a common ancestor with modern humans.[16] Humans are probably most closely related to two chimpanzee species: Common Chimpanzee and Bonobo.[16] Full genome sequencing has resulted in the conclusion that "after 6.5 [million] years of separate evolution, the differences between chimpanzee and human are ten times greater than those between two unrelated people and ten times less than those between rats and mice". Suggested concurrence between human and chimpanzee DNA sequences range between 95% and 99%.[17][18][19][20] It has been estimated that the human lineage diverged from that of chimpanzees about five million years ago, and from that of gorillas about eight million years ago. However, a hominid skull discovered in Chad in 2001, classified as Sahelanthropus tchadensis, is approximately seven million years old, which may indicate an earlier divergence.[21]

Human evolution is characterized by a number of important morphological, developmental, physiological and behavioural changes, which have taken place since the split between the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees. The first major morphological change was the evolution of a bipedal locomotor adaptation from an arboreal or semi-arboreal one,[22] with all its attendant adaptations, such as a valgus knee, low intermembral index (long legs relative to the arms), and reduced upper-body strength.

Later, ancestral humans developed a much larger brain – typically 1,400 cm³ in modern humans, over twice the size of that of a chimpanzee or gorilla. The pattern of human postnatal brain growth differs from that of other apes (heterochrony), and allows for extended periods of social learning and language acquisition in juvenile humans. Physical anthropologists argue that the differences between the structure of human brains and those of other apes are even more significant than their differences in size.

Other significant morphological changes included: the evolution of a power and precision grip;[23] a reduced masticatory system; a reduction of the canine tooth; and the descent of the larynx and hyoid bone, making speech possible. An important physiological change in humans was the evolution of hidden oestrus, or concealed ovulation, which may have coincided with the evolution of important behavioural changes, such as pair bonding. Another significant behavioural change was the development of material culture, with human-made objects becoming increasingly common and diversified over time. The relationship between all these changes is the subject of ongoing debate.[24][25]

The forces of natural selection have continued to operate on human populations, with evidence that certain regions of the genome display directional selection in the past 15,000 years.[26]

Paleolithic

File:Venus of Dolni
Artistic expression appeared in the Upper Paleolithic: The Venus of Dolní Věstonice figurine, one of the earliest known depictions of the human body, dates to approximately 29,000–25,000 BP (Gravettian).

Homo sapiens appeared about 200,000 BP, in the Middle Paleolithic. By the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic 50,000 BP, full behavioral modernity, including language, music and other cultural universals had developed. The out of Africa migration is estimated to have occurred about 70,000 years BP. Modern humans subsequently spread to all continents, replacing earlier hominids: they inhabited Eurasia and Oceania by 40,000 BP, and the Americas at least 14,500 years BP.[27] They displaced Homo neanderthalensis and other species descended from Homo erectus (which had inhabited Eurasia as early as 2 million years ago) through more successful reproduction and competition for resources.[28]

Evidence from archaeogenetics accumulating since the 1990s has lent strong support to the "out-of-Africa" scenario, and has marginalized the competing multiregional hypothesis, which proposed that modern humans evolved, at least in part, from independent hominid populations.[29]

Geneticists Lynn Jorde and Henry Harpending of the University of Utah propose that the variation in human DNA is minute compared to that of other species. They also propose that during the Late Pleistocene, the human population was reduced to a small number of breeding pairs – no more than 10,000, and possibly as few as 1,000 – resulting in a very small residual gene pool. Various reasons for this hypothetical bottleneck have been postulated, one being the Toba catastrophe theory.[30]

Transition to civilization

For more details on this topic, see History of the world.

, and domestication of animals, led to stable human settlements.]]

Until c. 10,000 years ago, most humans lived as hunter-gatherers. They generally lived in small nomadic groups known as band societies. The advent of agriculture prompted the Neolithic Revolution, when access to food surplus led to the formation of permanent human settlements, the domestication of animals and the use of metal tools. Agriculture encouraged trade and cooperation, and led to complex society. Because of the significance of this date for human society, it is the epoch of the Holocene calendar or Human Era.

About 6,000 years ago, the first proto-states developed in Mesopotamia, and in the Sahara/Nile and the Indus Valleys. Military forces were formed for protection, and government bureaucracies for administration. States cooperated and competed for resources, in some cases waging wars. Around 2,000–3,000 years ago, some states, such as Persia, India, China, Rome, and Greece, developed through conquest into the first expansive empires. Influential religions, such as Judaism, originating in the Middle East, and Hinduism, a religious tradition that originated in South Asia, also rose to prominence at this time.

The late Middle Ages saw the rise of revolutionary ideas and technologies. In China, an advanced and urbanized society promoted innovations and sciences, such as printing and seed drilling. The Islamic Golden Age saw major scientific advancements in Muslim empires. In Europe, the rediscovery of classical learning and inventions such as the printing press led to the Renaissance in the 14th century. Over the next 500 years, exploration and colonialism brought much of the Americas, Asia, and Africa under European control, leading to later struggles for independence. The Scientific Revolution in the 17th century and the Industrial Revolution in the 18th–19th centuries promoted major innovations in transport, such as the railway and automobile; energy development, such as coal and electricity; and government, such as representative democracy and Communism.

With the advent of the Information Age at the end of the 20th century, modern humans live in a world that has become increasingly globalized and interconnected. As of 2008, over 1.4 billion humans are connected to each other via the Internet,[31] and 3.3 billion by mobile phone subscriptions.[32]

Although interconnection between humans has encouraged the growth of science, art, discussion, and technology, it has also led to culture clashes and the development and use of weapons of mass destruction. Human civilization has led to environmental destruction and pollution, producing an ongoing mass extinction of other forms of life called the holocene extinction event,[33] that may be further accelerated by global warming in the future.[34]

Habitat and population

For more details on this topic, see Demography and World population.


Early human settlements were dependent on proximity to water and, depending on the lifestyle, other natural resources, such as arable land for growing crops and grazing livestock, or seasonally by hunting populations of prey. However, humans have a great capacity for altering their habitats by various methods, such as through irrigation, urban planning, construction, transport, manufacturing goods, deforestation and desertification. With the advent of large-scale trade and transport infrastructure, proximity to these resources has become unnecessary, and in many places, these factors are no longer a driving force behind the growth and decline of a population. Nonetheless, the manner in which a habitat is altered is often a major determinant in population change.

Technology has allowed humans to colonize all of the continents and adapt to virtually all climates. Within the last few decades, humans have explored Antarctica, the ocean depths, and outer space, although long-term habitation of these environments is not yet possible. With a population of over six billion, humans are among the most numerous of the large mammals. Most humans (61%) live in Asia. The remainder live in the Americas (14%), Africa (14%), Europe (11%), and Oceania (0.5%).

Human habitation within closed ecological systems in hostile environments, such as Antarctica and outer space, is expensive, typically limited in duration, and restricted to scientific, military, or industrial expeditions. Life in space has been very sporadic, with no more than thirteen humans in space at any given time. Between 1969 and 1972, two humans at a time spent brief intervals on the Moon. As of March 2009, no other celestial body has been visited by human beings, although there has been a continuous human presence in space since the launch of the initial crew to inhabit the International Space Station on October 31, 2000. However, other celestial bodies have been visited by human-made objects.

Since 1800, the human population has increased from one billion to over six billion.[35] In 2004, some 2.5 billion out of 6.3 billion people (39.7%) lived in urban areas, and this percentage is expected to continue to rise throughout the 21st century. In February 2008, the U.N. estimated that half the world's population will live in urban areas by the end of the year.[36] Problems for humans living in cities include various forms of pollution and crime,[37] especially in inner city and suburban slums. Benefits of urban living include increased literacy, access to the global canon of human knowledge and decreased susceptibility to rural famines.

Humans have had a dramatic effect on the environment. Human activity has contributed to the extinction of numerous species. As humans are rarely preyed upon, they have been described as superpredators.[38] Currently, through land development, combustion of fossil fuels and pollution, humans are thought to be the main contributor to global climate change.[39] This is believed to be a major contributor to the ongoing Holocene extinction event, which is a form of mass extinction. If this continues at its current rate it is predicted that it will wipe out half of all species over the next century.[40][41]

Biology

For more details on this topic, see Human biology.

Anatomy

For more details on this topic, see Human anatomy, Human physical appearance, and Anatomically modern humans.
human skeleton.]]

Human body types vary substantially. Although body size is largely determined by genes, it is also significantly influenced by environmental factors such as diet and exercise. The average height of an adult human is about 1.5 to 1.8 m (5 to 6 feet) tall, although this varies significantly from place to place.[42][43] The average mass of an adult male is 76–83 kg (168–183 lbs) and a 54–64 kg (120–140 lbs) for adult females.[44] Weight can also vary greatly (e.g. obesity). Unlike most other primates, humans are capable of fully bipedal locomotion, thus leaving their arms available for manipulating objects using their hands, aided especially by opposable thumbs.

Although humans appear hairless compared to other primates, with notable hair growth occurring chiefly on the top of the head, underarms and pubic area, the average human has more hair follicles on his or her body than the average chimpanzee. The main distinction is that human hairs are shorter, finer, and less heavily pigmented than the average chimpanzee's, thus making them harder to see.[45]

The hue of human skin and hair is determined by the presence of pigments called melanins. Human skin hues can range from very dark brown to very pale pink. Human hair ranges from blond to brown to red to most commonly black.[46] This depends on the amount of melanin (an effective sun blocking pigment) in the skin and hair, with hair melanin concentrations in hair fading with increased age, leading to grey or even white hair. Most researchers believe that skin darkening was an adaptation that evolved as a protection against ultraviolet solar radiation. However, more recently it has been argued that particular skin colors are an adaptation to balance folate, which is destroyed by ultraviolet radiation, and vitamin D, which requires sunlight to form.[47] The skin pigmentation of contemporary humans is geographically stratified, and in general correlates with the level of ultraviolet radiation. Human skin also has a capacity to darken (sun tanning) in response to exposure to ultraviolet radiation.[48][49] Humans tend to be physically weaker than other similarly sized primates, with young, conditioned male humans having been shown to be unable to match the strength of female orangutans which are at least three times stronger.[50]

Humans have proportionately shorter palates and much smaller teeth than other primates. They are the only primates to have short 'flush' canine teeth. Humans have characteristically crowded teeth, with gaps from lost teeth usually closing up quickly in young specimens. Humans are gradually losing their wisdom teeth, with some individuals having them congenitally absent.[51]

Physiology and genetics

For more details on this topic, see Human physiology.

Human physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. The principal level of focus of physiology is at the level of organs and systems. Most aspects of human physiology are closely homologous to corresponding aspects of animal physiology, and animal experimentation has provided much of the foundation of physiological knowledge. Anatomy and physiology are closely related fields of study: anatomy, the study of form, and physiology, the study of function, are intrinsically tied and are studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum.

Genetics

For more details on this topic, see Human genetics.

Humans are a eukaryotic species. Each diploid cell has two sets of 23 chromosomes, each set received from one parent. There are 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. By present estimates, humans have approximately 20,000–25,000 genes. Like other mammals, humans have an XY sex-determination system, so that females have the sex chromosomes XX and males have XY. The X chromosome carries many genes not on the Y chromosome, which means that recessive diseases associated with X-linked genes, such as haemophilia, affect men more often than women.

Life cycle

The human life cycle is similar to that of other placental mammals. The zygote divides inside the female's uterus to become an embryo, which over a period of thirty-eight weeks (9 months) of gestation becomes a human fetus. After this span of time, the fully grown fetus is birthed from the woman's body and breathes independently as an infant for the first time. At this point, most modern cultures recognize the baby as a person entitled to the full protection of the law, though some jurisdictions extend various levels of personhood earlier to human fetuses while they remain in the uterus.

Compared with other species, human childbirth is dangerous. Painful labors lasting twenty-four hours or more are not uncommon and sometimes leads to the death of the mother, or the child.[52] This is because of both the relatively large fetal head circumference (for housing the brain) and the mother's relatively narrow pelvis (a trait required for successful bipedalism, by way of natural selection).[53][54] The chances of a successful labor increased significantly during the 20th century in wealthier countries with the advent of new medical technologies. In contrast, pregnancy and natural childbirth remain hazardous ordeals in developing regions of the world, with maternal death rates approximately 100 times more common than in developed countries.[55]

In developed countries, infants are typically 3–4 kg (6–9 pounds) in weight and 50–60 cm (20–24 inches) in height at birth.[56] However, low birth weight is common in developing countries, and contributes to the high levels of infant mortality in these regions.[57] Helpless at birth, humans continue to grow for some years, typically reaching sexual maturity at 12 to 15 years of age. Females continue to develop physically until around the age of 18, whereas male development continues until around age 21. The human life span can be split into a number of stages: infancy, childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, adulthood and old age. The lengths of these stages, however, have varied across cultures and time periods. Compared to other primates, humans experience an unusually rapid growth spurt during adolescence, where the body grows 25% in size. Chimpanzees, for example, grow only 14%.[58]

There are significant differences in life expectancy around the world. The developed world is generally aging, with the median age around 40 years (highest in Monaco at 45.1 years). In the developing world the median age is between 15 and 20 years. Life expectancy at birth in Hong Kong is 84.8 years for a female and 78.9 for a male, while in Swaziland, primarily because of AIDS, it is 31.3 years for both sexes.[59] While one in five Europeans is 60 years of age or older, only one in twenty Africans is 60 years of age or older.[60] The number of centenarians (humans of age 100 years or older) in the world was estimated by the United Nations at 210,000 in 2002.[61] At least one person, Jeanne Calment, is known to have reached the age of 122 years; higher ages have been claimed but they are not well substantiated. Worldwide, there are 81 men aged 60 or older for every 100 women of that age group, and among the oldest, there are 53 men for every 100 women.

Humans are one of the few species where the female undergoes menopause during the latter stage of life. Menopause is believed to have arisen due to the Grandmother hypothesis, in which it is in the mother's reproductive interest to forego the risks of death from childbirth at older ages in exchange for investing in the viability of her already living offspring.[1]

The philosophical questions of when human personhood begins and whether it persists after death are the subject of considerable debate. Awareness of their own mortality causes unease or fear for most humans, distinct from the immediate awareness of a threat. Burial ceremonies are characteristic of human societies, often accompanied by beliefs in an afterlife.

Diet

For more details on this topic, see Diet (nutrition).

For hundreds of thousands of years Homo sapiens employed (and some tribes still do depend on) a hunter-gatherer method as their primary means of food collection, involving combining stationary food sources (such as fruits, grains, tubers, and mushrooms, insect larvae and aquatic molluscs) with wild game, which must be hunted and killed in order to be consumed. It is believed that humans have used fire to prepare and cook food prior to eating since the time of their divergence from Homo erectus.[citation needed]

Humans are omnivorous, capable of consuming both plant and animal products. Varying with available food sources in regions of habitation, and also varying with cultural and religious norms, human groups have adopted a range of diets, from purely vegetarian to primarily carnivorous. In some cases, dietary restrictions in humans can lead to deficiency diseases; however, stable human groups have adapted to many dietary patterns through both genetic specialization and cultural conventions to utilize nutritionally balanced food sources.[2] The human diet is prominently reflected in human culture, and has led to the development of food science.

In general, humans can survive for two to eight weeks without food, depending on stored body fat. Survival without water is usually limited to three or four days. Lack of food remains a serious problem, with about 300,000 people starving to death every year.[3] Childhood malnutrition is also common and contributes to the global burden of disease.[4] However global food distribution is not even, and obesity among some human populations has increased to almost epidemic proportions, leading to health complications and increased mortality in some developed, and a few developing countries. The United States Centers for Disease Control (CDC) state that 32% of American adults over the age of 20 are obese, while 66.5% are obese or overweight. Obesity is caused by consuming more calories than are expended, with many attributing excessive weight gain to a combination of overeating and insufficient exercise.

Over nine thousand years ago, humans developed agriculture,[5] which has substantially altered the kind of food people eat. This has led to increased populations, the development of cities, and because of increased population density, the wider spread of infectious diseases. The types of food consumed, and the way in which they are prepared, has varied widely by time, location, and culture.

Sleep

Humans are generally diurnal. The average sleep requirement is between seven and nine continuous hours a day for an adult and nine to ten hours for a child; elderly people usually sleep for six to seven hours. Experiencing less sleep than this is common in modern societies; this sleep deprivation can have negative effects. A sustained restriction of adult sleep to four hours per day has been shown to correlate with changes in physiology and mental state, including fatigue, aggression, and bodily discomfort.

Psychology

's David. Sketch by Priyan Weerappuli]]

For more details on this topic, see Human brain and Mind.

The human brain, the focal point of the central nervous system in humans, controls the peripheral nervous system. In addition to controlling "lower", involuntary, or primarily autonomic activities such as respiration and digestion, it is also the locus of "higher" order functioning such as thought, reasoning, and abstraction.[6] These cognitive processes constitute the mind, and, along with their behavioral consequences, are studied in the field of psychology.

Generally regarded as more capable of these higher order activities, the human brain is believed to be more "intelligent" in general than that of any other known species. While some have larger brains or higher brain to body mass ratios, and some are capable of creating structures and using simple tools—mostly through instinct and mimicry—human technology is vastly more complex, and is constantly evolving and improving through time.

Although being vastly more advanced than many species in cognitive abilities, most of these abilities are known in primitive form among other species. Modern anthropology has tended to bear out Darwin's proposition that "the difference in mind between man and the higher animals, great as it is, certainly is one of degree and not of kind".[7]

Consciousness and thought

For more details on this topic, see Consciousness and Cognition.

Humans are one of only nine species to pass the mirror test—which tests whether an animal recognizes its reflection as an image of itself—along with all the great apes (gorillas, chimpanzees, orangutans, bonobos), Bottlenose dolphins, Asian elephants, European Magpies and Orcas.[8] Most human children will pass the mirror test at 18 months old.[9] However, the usefulness of this test as a true test of consciousness has been disputed (see mirror test), and this may be a matter of degree rather than a sharp divide. Monkeys have been trained to apply abstract rules in tasks.[10]

The human brain perceives the external world through the senses, and each individual human is influenced greatly by his or her experiences, leading to subjective views of existence and the passage of time. Humans are variously said to possess consciousness, self-awareness, and a mind, which correspond roughly to the mental processes of thought. These are said to possess qualities such as self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and one's environment. The extent to which the mind constructs or experiences the outer world is a matter of debate, as are the definitions and validity of many of the terms used above. The philosopher of cognitive science Daniel Dennett, for example, argues that there is no such thing as a narrative centre called the "mind", but that instead there is simply a collection of sensory inputs and outputs: different kinds of "software" running in parallel.[11] Psychologist B.F. Skinner argued that the mind is an explanatory fiction that diverts attention from environmental causes of behavior,[12] and that what are commonly seen as mental processes may be better conceived of as forms of covert verbal behavior.[13][14]

Humans study the more physical aspects of the mind and brain, and by extension of the nervous system, in the field of neurology, the more behavioral in the field of psychology, and a sometimes loosely defined area between in the field of psychiatry, which treats mental illness and behavioral disorders. Psychology does not necessarily refer to the brain or nervous system, and can be framed purely in terms of phenomenological or information processing theories of the mind. Increasingly, however, an understanding of brain functions is being included in psychological theory and practice, particularly in areas such as artificial intelligence, neuropsychology, and cognitive neuroscience.

The nature of thought is central to psychology and related fields. Cognitive psychology studies cognition, the mental processes' underlying behavior. It uses information processing as a framework for understanding the mind. Perception, learning, problem solving, memory, attention, language and emotion are all well researched areas as well. Cognitive psychology is associated with a school of thought known as cognitivism, whose adherents argue for an information processing model of mental function, informed by positivism and experimental psychology. Techniques and models from cognitive psychology are widely applied and form the mainstay of psychological theories in many areas of both research and applied psychology. Largely focusing on the development of the human mind through the life span, developmental psychology seeks to understand how people come to perceive, understand, and act within the world and how these processes change as they age. This may focus on intellectual, cognitive, neural, social, or moral development.

Some philosophers divide consciousness into phenomenal consciousness, which is experience itself, and access consciousness, which is the processing of the things in experience.[15] Phenomenal consciousness is the state of being conscious, such as when they say "I am conscious." Access consciousness is being conscious of something in relation to abstract concepts, such as when one says "I am conscious of these words." Various forms of access consciousness include awareness, self-awareness, conscience, stream of consciousness, Husserl's phenomenology, and intentionality. The concept of phenomenal consciousness, in modern history, according to some, is closely related to the concept of qualia. Social psychology links sociology with psychology in their shared study of the nature and causes of human social interaction, with an emphasis on how people think towards each other and how they relate to each other. The behavior and mental processes, both human and non-human, can be described through animal cognition, ethology, evolutionary psychology, and comparative psychology as well. Human ecology is an academic discipline that investigates how humans and human societies interact with both their natural environment and the human social environment.

Motivation and emotion

For more details on this topic, see Motivation and Emotion.

Motivation is the driving force of desire behind all deliberate actions of human beings. Motivation is based on emotion—specifically, on the search for satisfaction (positive emotional experiences), and the avoidance of conflict. Positive and negative is defined by the individual brain state, which may be influenced by social norms: a person may be driven to self-injury or violence because their brain is conditioned to create a positive response to these actions. Motivation is important because it is involved in the performance of all learned responses. Within psychology, conflict avoidance and the libido are seen to be primary motivators. Within economics, motivation is often seen to be based on incentives; these may be financial, moral, or coercive. Religions generally posit divine or demonic influences.

Happiness, or the state of being happy, is a human emotional condition. The definition of happiness is a common philosophical topic. Some people might define it as the best condition that a human can have—a condition of mental and physical health. Others define it as freedom from want and distress; consciousness of the good order of things; assurance of one's place in the universe or society.

Emotion has a significant influence on, or can even be said to control, human behavior, though historically many cultures and philosophers have for various reasons discouraged allowing this influence to go unchecked. Emotional experiences perceived as pleasant, such as love, admiration, or joy, contrast with those perceived as unpleasant, like hate, envy, or sorrow. There is often a distinction made between refined emotions that are socially learned and survival oriented emotions, which are thought to be innate. Human exploration of emotions as separate from other neurological phenomena is worthy of note, particularly in cultures where emotion is considered separate from physiological state. In some cultural medical theories emotion is considered so synonymous with certain forms of physical health that no difference is thought to exist. The Stoics believed excessive emotion was harmful, while some Sufi teachers (in particular, the poet and astronomer Omar Khayyám) felt certain extreme emotions could yield a conceptual perfection, what is often translated as ecstasy.

In modern scientific thought, certain refined emotions are considered a complex neural trait innate in a variety of domesticated and non-domesticated mammals. These were commonly developed in reaction to superior survival mechanisms and intelligent interaction with each other and the environment; as such, refined emotion is not in all cases as discrete and separate from natural neural function as was once assumed. However, when humans function in civilized tandem, it has been noted that uninhibited acting on extreme emotion can lead to social disorder and crime.

Sexuality and love

For more details on this topic, see Love and Human sexuality.

Human sexuality, besides ensuring biological reproduction, has important social functions: it creates physical intimacy, bonds, and hierarchies among individuals; may be directed to spiritual transcendence (according to some traditions); and in a hedonistic sense to the enjoyment of activity involving sexual gratification. Sexual desire, or libido, is experienced as a bodily urge, often accompanied by strong emotions such as love, ecstasy and jealousy. The extreme importance of sexuality in the human species can be seen in a number of physical features, among them hidden ovulation, external scrotum and penile design suggesting sperm competition, the absence of an os penis, permanent secondary sexual characteristics, the forming of pair bonds based on sexual attraction as a common social structure and sexual ability in females outside of ovulation. These adaptations indicate that the importance of sexuality in humans is on a par with that found in the Bonobo, and that the complex human sexual behaviour has a long evolutionary history.

Human sexual choices are usually made in reference to cultural norms, which vary widely. Restrictions are sometimes determined by religious beliefs or social customs. The pioneering researcher Sigmund Freud believed that humans are born polymorphously perverse, which means that any number of objects could be a source of pleasure. According to Freud, humans then pass through five stages of psychosexual development (and can fixate on any stage because of various traumas during the process). For Alfred Kinsey, another influential sex researcher, people can fall anywhere along a continuous scale of sexual orientation (with only small minorities fully heterosexual or homosexual). Recent studies of neurology and genetics suggest people may be born with one sexual orientation or another.[16][17]

Culture

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Human society statistics
World population 6.8 billion [1]
Population density 12.7 per km² (4.9 mi²) by total area
43.6 per km² (16.8 mi²) by land area
Largest agglomerations Tokyo, Seoul, Mexico City, New York City, Lagos, Mumbai, Jakarta, São Paulo, Delhi, Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto, Shanghai, Manila, Hong Kong-Shenzhen, Los Angeles, Kolkata, Moscow, Cairo, Buenos Aires, London, Beijing, Karachi, Dhaka
Languages with over 100 million speakers
(source: The 30 Most Spoken Languages of the World)
Mandarin: 1120 million
English: 510 million
Hindi: 490 million
Spanish: 425 million
Arabic: 255 million
Russian: 254 million
Portuguese: 218 million
Bengali: 215 million
Malay: 175 million
French: 130 million
Japanese: 127 million
German: 123 million
Persian: 110 million
Urdu: 104 million
Punjabi: 103 million
Currencies

U.S. dollar, Euro, Yen, Pound, Rupee, Australian Dollar, Ruble, Canadian Dollar, Yuan among many others

GDP (nominal) $36,356,240 million USD
($5,797 USD per capita)
GDP (PPP) $51,656,251 million IND
($8,236 per capita)
For more details on this topic, see Culture.

Culture is defined here as a set of distinctive material, intellectual, emotional, and spiritual features of a social group, including art, literature, sport, lifestyles, value systems, traditions, rituals, and beliefs. The link between human biology and human behavior and culture is often very close, making it difficult to clearly divide topics into one area or the other; as such, the placement of some subjects may be based primarily on convention. Culture consists of values, social norms, and artifacts. A culture's values define what it holds to be important or ethical. Closely linked are norms, expectations of how people ought to behave, bound by tradition. Artifacts, or material culture, are objects derived from the culture's values, norms, and understanding of the world.

Language

For more details on this topic, see Language.

The capacity humans have to transfer concepts, ideas and notions through speech and writing is unrivaled in known species. Unlike the call systems of other primates that are closed, human language is far more open, and gains variety in different situations. The human language has the quality of displacement, using words to represent things and happenings that are not presently or locally occurring, but elsewhere or at a different time.[18] In this way data networks are important to the continuing development of language. The faculty of speech is a defining feature of humanity, possibly predating phylogenetic separation of the modern population. Language is central to the communication between humans, as well as being central to the sense of identity that unites nations, cultures and ethnic groups. The invention of writing systems at least 5,000 years ago allowed the preservation of language on material objects, and was a major step in cultural evolution. The science of linguistics describes the structure of language and the relationship between languages. There are approximately 6,000 different languages currently in use, including sign languages, and many thousands more that are considered extinct.

Spirituality and religion

For more details on this topic, see Spirituality and Religion.

Religion is generally defined as a belief system concerning the supernatural, sacred or divine, and moral codes, practices, values, institutions and rituals associated with such belief. Although the psychology of religion is an active area of study, the evolution and the history of the first religions are not well understood.[19][20] However, in the course of its development, religion has taken on many forms that vary by culture and individual perspective. Some of the chief questions and issues religions are concerned with include life after death (commonly involving belief in an afterlife), the origin of life (the source of a variety of creation myths), the nature of the universe (religious cosmology) and its ultimate fate (eschatology), and what is moral or immoral. A common source in religions for answers to these questions are transcendent divine beings such as deities or a singular God, although not all religions are theistic—many are nontheistic or ambiguous on the topic, particularly among the Eastern religions. Spirituality, belief or involvement in matters of the soul or spirit, is one of the many different approaches humans take in trying to answer fundamental questions about humankind's place in the universe, the meaning of life, and the ideal way to live one's life. Though these topics have also been addressed by philosophy, and to some extent by science, spirituality is unique in that it focuses on mystical or supernatural concepts such as karma and God.

Although the exact level of religiosity can be hard to measure,[21] a majority of humans professes some variety of religious or spiritual belief, although some are irreligious: that is lacking or rejecting belief in the supernatural or spiritual. Other humans have no religious beliefs and are atheists, scientific skeptics, agnostics or simply non-religious. Humanism is a philosophy which seeks to include all of humanity and all issues common to human beings; it is usually non-religious. Additionally, although most religions and spiritual beliefs are clearly distinct from science on both a philosophical and methodological level, the two are not generally considered mutually exclusive; a majority of humans holds a mix of both scientific and religious views. The distinction between philosophy and religion, on the other hand, is at times less clear, and the two are linked in such fields as the philosophy of religion and theology.

on Chongming Island in Shanghai]]

Philosophy and self-reflection

For more details on this topic, see Philosophy, Human self-reflection, and Human nature.

Philosophy is a discipline or field of study involving the investigation, analysis, and development of ideas at a general, abstract, or fundamental level. It is the discipline searching for a general understanding of reality, reasoning and values. Major fields of philosophy include logic, metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of mind, and axiology (which includes ethics and aesthetics). Philosophy covers a very wide range of approaches, and is used to refer to a worldview, to a perspective on an issue, or to the positions argued for by a particular philosopher or school of philosophy.

Humans often consider themselves the dominant species on Earth, and the most advanced in intelligence and ability to manage their environment. This belief is especially strong in modern Western culture. Alongside such claims of dominance is often found radical pessimism because of the frailty and brevity of human life.[citation needed]

Art, music, and literature

For more details on this topic, see Art, Music, and Literature.
of a woman writing sheet music by Lorenzo Lippi.]]

Artistic works have existed for almost as long as humankind, from early pre-historic art to contemporary art. Art is one of the most unusual aspects of human behaviour and a key distinguishing feature of humans from other species.

As a form of cultural expression by humans, art may be defined by the pursuit of diversity and the usage of narratives of liberation and exploration (i.e. art history, art criticism, and art theory) to mediate its boundaries. This distinction may be applied to objects or performances, current or historical, and its prestige extends to those who made, found, exhibit, or own them. In the modern use of the word, art is commonly understood to be the process or result of making material works that, from concept to creation, adhere to the "creative impulse" of human beings. Art is distinguished from other works by being in large part unprompted by necessity, by biological drive, or by any undisciplined pursuit of recreation.

Music is a natural intuitive phenomenon based on the three distinct and interrelated organization structures of rhythm, harmony, and melody. Listening to music is perhaps the most common and universal form of entertainment for humans, while learning and understanding it are popular disciplines. There are a wide variety of music genres and ethnic musics. Literature, the body of written—and possibly oral—works, especially creative ones, includes prose, poetry and drama, both fiction and non-fiction. Literature includes such genres as epic, legend, myth, ballad, and folklore.

Tool use and technology

For more details on this topic, see Tool and Technology.
stone tool]]

Stone tools were used by proto-humans at least 2.5 million years ago.[22] The controlled use of fire began around 1.5 million years ago. Since then, humans have made major advances, developing complex technology to create tools to aid their lives and allowing for other advancements in culture. Major leaps in technology include the discovery of agriculture - what is known as the Neolithic Revolution; and the invention of automated machines in the Industrial Revolution. In modern times, the invention of the Internet has allowed humans to share information faster than ever before. The use of electricity as power is vital in the modern human world.

Archaeology attempts to tell the story of past or lost cultures in part by close examination of the artifacts they produced. Early humans left stone tools, pottery and jewelry that are particular to various regions and times.

Race and ethnicity

Humans often categorize themselves in terms of race or ethnicity, sometimes on the basis of differences in appearance. Human racial categories have been based on both ancestry and visible traits, especially skin color, hair texture and facial features. Most current genetic and archaeological evidence supports a recent single origin of modern humans in East Africa.[23] Current genetic studies have demonstrated that humans on the African continent are most genetically diverse.[24] However, compared to many other animals, human gene sequences are remarkably homogeneous.[25][26][27][28] The predominance of genetic variation occurs within racial groups, with only 5 to 15% of total variation occurring between groups.[29] Ethnic groups, on the other hand, are more often linked by linguistic, cultural, ancestral, and national or regional ties. Self-identification with an ethnic group is based on kinship and descent. Race and ethnicity can lead to variant treatment and impact social identity, giving rise to racism and the theory of identity politics.

There is no scientific consensus of a list of the human races, and some anthropologists even question the notion of human "race". [30] For example, a color terminology for race includes the following in a classification of human races: White (e.g. Europeans), Negroes (e.g. Sub-Saharan Africa), Red (e.g. Native Americans) and Yellow (e.g. East Asians).

Society, government, and politics

complex in New York City, which houses one of the largest human political organizations in the world.]]
For more details on this topic, see Society.
For more details on this topic, see Government, Politics, and Sovereign state.

Society is the system of organizations and institutions arising from interaction between humans. A state is an organized political community occupying a definite territory, having an organized government, and possessing internal and external sovereignty. Recognition of the state's claim to independence by other states, enabling it to enter into international agreements, is often important to the establishment of its statehood. The "state" can also be defined in terms of domestic conditions, specifically, as conceptualized by Max Weber, "a state is a human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of the 'legitimate' use of physical force within a given territory."[31]

Government can be defined as the political means of creating and enforcing laws; typically via a bureaucratic hierarchy. Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. Although the term is generally applied to behavior within governments, politics is also observed in all human group interactions, including corporate, academic, and religious institutions. Many different political systems exist, as do many different ways of understanding them, and many definitions overlap. The most common form of government worldwide is a republic[citation needed], however other examples include monarchy, Communist state, military dictatorship and theocracy. All of these issues have a direct relationship with economics.

War

For more details on this topic, see War.
immediately killed over 120,000 humans.]]

War is a state of widespread conflict between states or other large groups of humans, which is characterized by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. It is estimated that during the 20th century between 167 and 188 million humans died as a result of war.[32] A common perception of war is a series of military campaigns between at least two opposing sides involving a dispute over sovereignty, territory, resources, religion or other issues. A war between internal elements of a state is a civil war.

There have been a wide variety of rapidly advancing tactics throughout the history of war, ranging from conventional war to asymmetric warfare to total war and unconventional warfare. Techniques include hand to hand combat, the use of ranged weapons, and ethnic cleansing. Military intelligence has often played a key role in determining victory and defeat. Propaganda, which often includes information, slanted opinion and disinformation, plays a key role in maintaining unity within a warring group, and/or sowing discord among opponents. In modern warfare, soldiers and armoured fighting vehicles are used to control the land, warships the sea, and aircraft the sky. These fields have also overlapped in the forms of marines, paratroopers, naval aircraft carriers, and surface-to-air missiles, among others. Satellites in low Earth orbit have made outer space a factor in warfare as well, although no actual warfare is currently known to be carried out in space.

Trade and economics

Market, Guatemala.]]
For more details on this topic, see Trade and Economics.

Trade is the voluntary exchange of goods, services and a form of economics. A mechanism that allows trade is called a market. The original form of trade was barter, the direct exchange of goods and services. Modern traders instead generally negotiate through a medium of exchange, such as money. As a result, buying can be separated from selling, or earning. The invention of money (and later credit, paper money and non-physical money) greatly simplified and promoted trade. Because of specialization and division of labor, most people concentrate on a small aspect of manufacturing or service, trading their labour for products. Trade exists between regions because different regions have an absolute or comparative advantage in the production of some tradable commodity, or because different regions' size allows for the benefits of mass production.

Economics is a social science which studies the production, distribution, trade and consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on measurable variables, and is broadly divided into two main branches: microeconomics, which deals with individual agents, such as households and businesses, and macroeconomics, which considers the economy as a whole, in which case it considers aggregate supply and demand for money, capital and commodities. Aspects receiving particular attention in economics are resource allocation, production, distribution, trade, and competition. Economic logic is increasingly applied to any problem that involves choice under scarcity or determining economic value. Mainstream economics focuses on how prices reflect supply and demand, and uses equations to predict consequences of decisions.

References

  1. Diamond, Jared (1997). Why is Sex Fun? The Evolution of Human Sexuality. Basic Books. pp. 167–170. ISBN ISBN 0-465-03127-7. 
  2. "Vegetarian Diets". Journal of the American Dietetic Association 103 (6): 748–765. 2003. doi:10.1053/jada.2003.50142. online copy available
  3. Death and DALY estimates for 2002 by cause for WHO Member States World Health Organisation. Accessed 29 Oct 2006
  4. Murray C, Lopez A (1997). "Global mortality, disability, and the contribution of risk factors: Global Burden of Disease Study". Lancet 349 (9063): 1436–42. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(96)07495-8. PMID 9164317. 
  5. Earliest agriculture in the Americas Earliest cultivation of barley Earliest cultivation of figs - URLs retrieved February 19, 2007
  6. 3-D Brain Anatomy, The Secret Life of the Brain, Public Broadcasting Service, retrieved April 3, 2005.
  7. Jonathan Benthall Animal liberation and rights Anthropology Today 23/2 (April 2007):1
  8. Robert W. Allan explores a few of these experiments on his webpage: http://ww2.lafayette.edu/~allanr/mirror.html
  9. Consciousness and the Symbolic Universe, by Dr. Jack Palmer, retrieved March 17, 2006.
  10. Researchers home in on how brain handles abstract thought - retrieved July 29, 2006
  11. Dennett, Daniel (1991). Consciousness Explained. Little Brown & Co, 1991, ISBN 0-316-18065-3.
  12. Skinner, B.F. About Behaviorism 1974, page 74–75
  13. Skinner, B.F. About Behaviorism, Chapter 7: Thinking
  14. A thesis against which Noam Chomsky advanced a considerable polemic.
  15. Ned Block: On a Confusion about a Function of Consciousness" in: The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1995.
  16. Buss, David M. (2004) "The Evolution of Desire: Strategies of Human Mating". Revised Edition. New York: Basic Books"
  17. Thornhill, R., & Palmer, C. T. (2000). A Natural History of Rape. Biological Bases of Sexual Coercion. Cambridge: MIT Press.
  18. Cite error: Invalid tag; no text was provided for refs named Revolution
  19. Boyer P (October 2008). "Being human: Religion: bound to believe?". Nature 455 (7216): 1038–9. doi:10.1038/4551038a. PMID 18948934. 
  20. R.F (2003). "The psychology of religion". Annual Review of Psychology 54 (1): 377–402. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145024. 
  21. Hall DE, Meador KG, Koenig HG (June 2008). "Measuring religiousness in health research: review and critique". J Relig Health 47 (2): 134–63. doi:10.1007/s10943-008-9165-2. PMID 19105008. 
  22. Clark JD, de Heinzelin J, Schick KD, et al. (June 1994). "African Homo erectus: old radiometric ages and young Oldowan assemblages in the Middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia". Science (journal) 264 (5167): 1907–10. doi:10.1126/science.8009220. PMID 8009220. 
  23. Hua Liu, et al. (2006). "A Geographically Explicit Genetic Model of Worldwide Human-Settlement History" ([dead link]Scholar search). The American Journal of Human Genetics 79: 230–237. doi:10.1086/505436. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/AJHG/journal/issues/v79n2/43550/43550.html. 
  24. Jorde L, Watkins W, Bamshad M, Dixon M, Ricker C, Seielstad M, Batzer M (2000). "The distribution of human genetic diversity: a comparison of mitochondrial, autosomal, and Y-chromosome data". Am J Hum Genet 66 (3): 979–88. doi:10.1086/302825. PMID 10712212. 
  25. "The use of racial, ethnic, and ancestral categories in human genetics research". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 77 (4): 519–32. October 2005. doi:10.1086/491747. PMID 16175499. 
  26. Bamshad M, Wooding S, Salisbury BA, Stephens JC (August 2004). "Deconstructing the relationship between genetics and race". Nat. Rev. Genet. 5 (8): 598–609. doi:10.1038/nrg1401. PMID 15266342. 
  27. Tishkoff SA, Kidd KK (November 2004). "Implications of biogeography of human populations for 'race' and medicine". Nat. Genet. 36 (11 Suppl): S21–7. doi:10.1038/ng1438. PMID 15507999. 
  28. Jorde LB, Wooding SP (November 2004). "Genetic variation, classification and 'race'". Nat. Genet. 36 (11 Suppl): S28–33. doi:10.1038/ng1435. PMID 15508000. 
  29. "The use of racial, ethnic, and ancestral categories in human genetics research". Am J Hum Genet 77 (4): 519–32. 2005. doi:10.1086/491747. PMID 16175499. 
  30. "Human Races: A Genetic and Evolutionary Perspective", Alan R. Templeton, American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 100, No. 3 (Sep., 1998), pp. 632-650
  31. Max Weber's definition of the modern state 1918, by Max Weber, 1918, retrieved March 17, 2006.
  32. Ferguson, Niall. "The Next War of the World." Foreign Affairs, Sep/Oct 2006
  • Freeman, Scott; Jon C. Herron, Evolutionary Analysis (4th ed.) Pearson Education, Inc., 2007. ISBN 0-13-227584-8 pages 757-761.

External links

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Wikipedia has articles on:

Wikipedia

Contents

English

Most common English words: forth « fire « lost « #380: human » kept » business » mean

Etymology

From Middle French humain < Latin humanus (of or belonging to a man, human, humane) < homo (man, human).

Pronunciation

Adjective

human (comparative more human, superlative most human)

Positive
human

Comparative
more human

Superlative
most human

  1. (no comparative or superlative) Of or belonging to the species Homo sapiens or its closest relatives.
  2. (comparable) Having the nature or attributes of a human being.

Related terms

Translations

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Noun

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Singular
human

Plural
humans

human (plural humans)

  1. A human being, whether man, woman or child.

Translations

Derived terms

Look at pages starting with human.

External links

  • human in Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam, 1913
  • human in The Century Dictionary, The Century Co., New York, 1911

Anagrams

  • Anagrams of ahmnu
  • Nahum

Danish

Adjective

human (neuter humant, definite and plural humane)

  1. human (having the nature or attributes of a human being)
  2. humane (something done from love to humanity)

German

Adjective

human

  1. humane (with regard for the health and well-being of another; compassionate)

Related terms


Serbo-Croatian

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /xûmaːn/
  • Hyphenation: hu‧man

Adjective

hȕmān (definite hȕmānī, comparative humaniji, Cyrillic spelling ху̏ма̄н)

  1. humane (with regard for the health and well-being of another; compassionate)

Declension


Swedish

Adjective

Inflections of
human
Absolute Comparative Superlative
Attributive Predicative
Indefinite
singular
Common human humanare humanast
Neuter humant
Definite
singular
Masc. humane humanaste
All humana humanaste
Plural humana humanaste

human

  1. humane, decent, compassionate
    Deras politik har kritiserats för att inte vara human.
    Their politics have been criticised for being less than humane.
  2. (of prices) reasonable
    Det var ett humant pris.
    That was a reasonable price.

Simple English

Human
Fossil range: Pleistocene - Recent
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Family: Hominidae
Genus: Homo
Species: H. sapiens
Subspecies: H. s. sapiens
Trinomial name
Homo sapiens sapiens
Linnaeus, 1758
Simple English Wiktionary has the word meaning for:

A human or human being is a person. Humans are often called "people". The scientific name for the human species is Homo sapiens which means 'wise man' in Latin.[1] Humans are bipedal, which means they walk on two legs. Humans have a complex brain, which makes them able to use language, make ideas, and feel emotions. This brain, and the fact that arms are not needed for walking, makes humans more able to use tools than any other species.

There are over 6.7 billion people alive as of 2008.[2] There are humans living on every continent.[3] Humans also live in space, for short periods of time only, in the International Space Station which orbits the Earth.

Humans are part of the animal order of primates. Apes are also primates, and are the nearest animal relations to humans. Humans, like other primates, are social animals. They usually live in groups, helping and protecting each other, and caring for their offspring (children). This level of organisation is known as presocial organisation.

Many animals use signs and sounds to communicate with each other. They have developed a system of sounds, called language. This allows them to express ideas by using words. Humans are capable of making abstract ideas and communicating them to others. Human language can express things that are not present, or talk about events that are not happening at that time. The things might be elsewhere, and the events may also have occurred at another place or time.[4] So far, no animals have been found which have a system of communication that is as elaborate as that which humans use.

By using words to communicate with each other, humans make complex communities with laws, traditions and customs. Humans like to understand the world around them. They try to explain things through religion, science and philosophy. Wanting to understand things has helped many humans make important discoveries. Humans are the only species living today to build fires, to cook their food and wear clothes. Humans use more technology than any other animal on Earth ever has. Humans like things that are beautiful and like to make art, literature and music. Humans use education and teaching to pass on skills, ideas and customs to the next generations.

Contents

Origins

Humans are part of the animal kingdom. They are mammals, which means that they give birth to their young ones, rather than laying eggs like reptiles or birds, and the female humans are able to feed their babies with breast milk. Humans belong to the order of primates. Apes like gorillas and gibbons are also primates. The closest living relatives of humans are the two chimpanzee species: the Common Chimpanzee and the Bonobo. Scientists have examined the genes of humans and chimpanzees, and compared their DNA. The studies showed that 99.9% of the DNA of humans and chimpanzees is the same. [5] [6][7][8][9]

One way that scientists use to explain the similarity between humans and other primates such as Chimpanzees is the Theory of Evolution. In the Theory of Evolution, it is thought that humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas have a common type of ancestor primate. In 2001, a hominid skull was discovered in Chad. The skull is about 7 million years old, and has been classified as Sahelanthropus tchadensis. This skull may show that the date at which humans started to evolve (develop differently) from other primates is 2 million years earlier than scientist had previously thought.[10]

Humans are part of a genus called homonidae (or homonids). This comes from the Latin homo for human. Thousands of years ago, there used to be other types of hominids on Earth. They were like modern humans, but not the same. Homo sapiens are the only type of hominids who are alive today. The earliest-known fossils of genus homo have been named Homo habilis (handy man). The first fossils of Homo habilis were found in Tanzania between 1962 and 1964. Homo hablilis is thought to have lived about 2.2 to 1.7 million years ago.[11] Another human species thought to be an ancestor of the modern human is Homo erectus. Scientists are still discussing whether Homo erectus really descended from Homo habilis. They think it may also be possible that both came from a common species of human that they do not know about yet.[12] There are many different extinct species of homo known today. Many of them were likely our "cousins", as they developed differently than our ancestors.[13]

A theory called the Sahara pump theory has been used to tell how different species of plants and animals moved from Africa to the Middle East, and then elsewhere. Early humans may have moved from Africa to other parts of the world in the same way. The first truly modern humans seem to have appeared between 200,000 and 130,000 years ago.[14][15] These early humans moved out from Africa and by 10 thousand years ago they lived in most parts of Asia, Europe, Africa and North America.[16] They replaced other groups of human like species that had migrated earlier. These were called Neanderthals or Homo erectus. They competed for resources with the modern human, but the modern human was more successful.

Civilization

in England was built around 4500-4000 years ago. This time was in the Neolithic period of the Stone Age.]]

Early human history is commonly divided into three ages. The time periods are labeled with the material used for tools.

The "Stone Age" is commonly subdivided into the Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic periods.

Up to about 10 thousand years ago most humans were hunter-gatherers. That means they hunted for their food or gathered it from wild plants. Most humans at this time did not live in one place, but moved around as the seasons changed. The start of planting crops for food, called farming, meant that some people chose to live in static settlements. This also led to the invention of metal tools and the training of animals. About 6000 years ago the first proper civilisations began in places like Egypt, India and Syria. The people formed governments and armies for protection. They competed for area to live and resources and sometimes they fought with each other. About 4000 years ago some states took over or conquered other states and made empires. Examples include ancient Greece and the Roman Empire.

Some modern day religions also began at this time such as Judaism and Hinduism. From the Middle Ages and beyond humanity saw an explosion of new technology and inventions. The printing press, the car, the train and electricity are all examples of this kind of invention. As a result of the developments in technology, modern humans live in a world where everyone is connected, for example by telephone or by internet. People now control and change the environment around them in many different ways.

Habitats, settlements and population

are an example of people solving the problem of too many people in one place. ]]

In early times, humans usually settled near to water and other natural resources. In modern times if people need things they can transport them from somewhere else. So basing a settlement close to resources are is no longer as important as it once was. Since 1800 the number of humans, or population, has increased by six billion.[17] Most humans (61%) live in Asia. The rest live in the Americas (14%), Africa (14%), Europe (11%), and Oceania (0.5%).

Most people live in towns and cities. This number is expected to get higher. In 2005 the United Nations said that by the end of that year, over half the world would be living in cities. This is an important change in human settlement patterns: a century earlier in 1900 only 14 % of people lived in cities, in 2000 47% of the world's population lived in cities. In developed countries, like the United States, 80% of the population live in cities.[18]

Humans have a large effect on the world. Humans are at the top of the food chain and are generally not eaten by any animals. Humans have been described as Super Predators because of this.[19] Because of industry and other reasons humans are said to be a big cause of global climate change. [20]

Biology

For more details see Human biology

Physical appearance

human skeleton which has 206 bones.]]

Human body types can be very different from each other. The average height of an adult human is between 5 and 6 feet. The average weight is between 76 and 83 kg for males and 54-64 kg for females.[21]

Human hair grows on the underarms, the genitals and the top of the head in both genders, and on the chest, legs, back and face of males. Although it might look like humans have less hair than most primates they actually do not. The average human has more hair follicles, where hair grows from, than most chimpanzees. [22] Human hair can be brown, red, blonde or most commonly black. [23] Modern humans can also have their hair in many different colours by using dye. When humans get older hair can turn grey or even white.

Human skin colours vary greatly. They can be a very pale pink all the way up to dark brown. Human skin can get darker when under sunlight.[24] Sunlight is part UV radiation. The UV radiation in the light makes the skin change colour over a long time. This is called a sun tan.

Humans are not as strong as other primates the same size. An average female orang utan is at least three times as strong as an average human man.[25]

The average human male needs 7 to 8 hours sleep a day. People who sleep less than this are generally not as healthy. A child needs more sleep, 9 to 10 hours on average.

Life cycle

at 7 weeks old.]]The human life cycle is quite like most other mammals. The young grow inside the female mother for nine months. After this time the baby is pushed out of the woman's vagina. Unlike most other animals human childbirth is quite dangerous. Because human brains are so big, baby's heads are wide. The mothers pelvis bones are also not very wide because people walk on two legs. This combination means that quite often either mother and/or baby die in childbirth.[26] The number of mothers dying in childbirth is less in the 21st century. This is because of better medication and treatment. In many poor countries the number of mothers dying is very high. Sometimes it is up to 10 times as many as richer countries.[27]

The average human baby weighs 3 – 4 kg at birth and is 50-60 cm tall. This is often less in poorer countries.[28] Many babies in poor countries often die early because of this.[29]

Humans have four stages in their lives: infancy, adolescence, adulthood and old age.

Life expectancy is how long you are expected to live for. This depends on many things including where you live. The highest life expectancy is for people from Hong Kong, (84.8 years). The lowest is for people from Swaziland where, mainly because of AIDS, life expectancy is only 31 years.[30]

Psychology

Psychology is the study of how the human mind works. The human brain controls everything the body does. Everything from moving and breathing to thinking is done by the brain. Neurology is the study of how the brain works, psychology is the study of how and why people think and feel.

Human behaviour is hard to understand, so sometimes psychologists study animals because they may be simpler and easier to understand. Psychology overlaps with many other sciences including Medicine, Biology, Computer Science and Linguistics.

Culture

Language

Language at its most basic is talking, reading and writing. The study of language is called linguistics. Humans have the most complicated languages on Earth. Human language is much more complicated than any other species.[4] There are 7,300 languages spoken around the world as of 2008.[31] The world's most spoken language as of 2008 is Mandarin Chinese. Over a billion people (1/6 of the world) speak this language.[32]

Art, music and literature

paintings from over 10,000 years ago on a cave wall in Russia]] Art has existed almost as long as humans. People have been doing some types of art for thousands of years as the picture on the right shows. Art represents how someone feels in the form of a painting, a sculpture or a photograph. 

Music has also been around for thousands of years. Music can be made with only your voice but most of the time people use instruments. Music can be made using simple instruments only such as simple drums all the way up to electric guitars, keyboards and violins. Music can be loud, fast, quiet, slow or many different styles. Music represents how the people who are playing the music feel.

Literature is anything made or written using language. This includes books, poetry , legends, myths and fairy tales. Literature is important as without it many of the things we use today, such as Wikipedia, wouldn't exist.

Race and ethnicity

Humans often categorize themselves by race or ethnicity. Human races are questionable as valid biological categories.[33] Human racial categories are based on both ancestry and visible traits such as skin color and facial features. These categories may also carry some information on non-visible biological traits, such as the risk of developing particular diseases such as sickle-cell disease.[34] Current genetic and archaeological evidence generally support a "recent single origin" of modern humans in East Africa.[35] Current genetic studies show that humans from Africa are most genetically diverse.[36] But, human gene sequences are very similar compared to many other animals.[37][38][39][40]

Ethnic groups are often linked by linguistic, cultural, ancestral, and national or regional ties. Race and ethnicity can lead to different social treatment called racism.

Religion and spirituality

Religion is the belief in a higher being, spirit or anything for which there is no proof. Because there is no proof for these things, people need faith. Faith can bring people together because they all believe in the same thing. Some of the things religions talk about are what happens after death, why humans exist, how humans began and what is good to do and not to do (morality). Some people are not religious, some people are very religious, and some people believe a mixture of science and religion.

How can cosmic religious feeling be communicated from one person to another, if it can give rise to no definite notion of a God and no theology? In my view, it is the most important function of art and science to awaken this feeling and keep it alive in those who are receptive to it.Albert Einstein, 1961.

Science and technology

.]] Technology is the things people make to help them do things. Science is understanding how the universe and the things in it work. Technology used to be quite simple. It was passed on by people telling other people, until writing was invented. This allowed technology to develop much quicker. Now people understand more and more about the world and the universe. The invention of the telescope by Galileo, Einstein's theory of relativity and the big bang theory are all big technological - to do with technology - discoveries. Technology has come forward enough to allow things such as the internet, space travel and television.

War

atomic bomb which killed over 120,000 people]]

A war is a conflict between large groups of people, usually countries or states. A war often involves the use of dangerous force as both sides try to kill each other. It is estimated that during the 20th century between 167 and 188 million humans died because of war.[41] The people who fight in wars are called soldiers.

Modern wars are very different from wars a thousand or even a hundred years ago. Modern war involves sabotage, terrorism, propaganda, and guerrilla warfare. In modern day wars civilians - people who are not soldiers - are often targets. An example of this is the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the end of World War II. The bombs killed as many as 140,000 people in Hiroshima and 80,000 in Nagasaki by the end of 1945,[42] about half on the days of the bombings. Since then, thousands more have died from wounds or illness because of exposure to radiation released by the bombs.[43] In both cities, the overwhelming majority of the dead were civilians. In Germany, Austria, and Great Britain, conventional bombs were used. About 60,595[44] British and 550,000 [45] German (and possibly Austrian) civilians were killed during bombings of cities from warplanes.

References

Look up Homo sapiens in Wikispecies, a directory of species
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  3. "A Timeline of Life". http://exploringorigins.org/timeline.html. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Collins, Desmond (1976). The Human Revolution: From Ape to Artist. pp. pp.208. 
  5. By using genome sequencing, scientists have compared:
    1. The difference between two humans that are related
    2. The difference between two humans that are not related
    3. The difference between a human and a chimpanzee
    4. The difference between two other animals that look like each other- rats and mice
    The studies showed that, after 6.5 million years of evolution as separate species, between 95% and 99% of the DNA of humans and chimpanzees is the same. The difference between a human and a chimpanzee was about ten times greater than the difference between two unrelated humans. When this difference is compared with the difference between the DNA of mice and rats, the difference between a mouse and a rat is ten times greater than the difference between a human and a chimpanzee.
  6. de Wal, Frans (1997). Bonobo. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-20535-9.  [1]
  7. Britten RJ (2002). "Divergence between samples of chimpanzee and human DNA sequences is 5%, counting indels". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99 (21): 13633–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.172510699. PMID 12368483. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/99/21/13633. 
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  11. New York Times article Fossils in Kenya Challenge Linear Evolution published August 9, 2007 says "Scientists who dated and analyzed the specimens — a 1.44 million-year-old Homo habilis and a 1.55 million-year-old Homo erectus — said their findings challenged the conventional view that these species evolved one after the other. Instead, they apparently lived side by side in eastern Africa for almost half a million years."
  12. F. Spoor, M. G. Leakey, P. N. Gathogo, F. H. Brown, S. C. Antón, I. McDougall, C. Kiarie, F. K. Manthi & L. N. Leakey (9 August 2007). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Implications of new early Homo fossils from Ileret, east of Lake Turkana, Kenya"]. Nature 448 (448): 688–691. doi:10.1038/nature05986. 
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  26. According to the July 2, 2007 Newsweek magazine, a woman dies in childbirth every minute, most often due to uncontrolled bleeding and infection, with the world's poorest women most vulnerable. The lifetime risk is 1 in 16 in Africa, compared to 1 in 2,800 in developed countries
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  35. Hua Liu, et al (2006). "A Geographically Explicit Genetic Model of Worldwide Human-Settlement History" (Scholar search). The American Journal of Human Genetics 79: 230–237. doi:10.1086/505436. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/AJHG/journal/issues/v79n2/43550/43550.html. 
  36. Jorde L, Watkins W, Bamshad M, Dixon M, Ricker C, Seielstad M, Batzer M (2000). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "The distribution of human genetic diversity: a comparison of mitochondrial, autosomal, and Y-chromosome data"]. Am J Hum Genet 66 (3): 979–88. doi:10.1086/302825. PMID 10712212. 
  37. [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "The use of racial, ethnic, and ancestral categories in human genetics research"]. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 77 (4): 519–32. October 2005. doi:10.1086/491747. PMID 16175499. 
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  41. Ferguson, Niall. "The Next War of the World." Foreign Affairs, September/October 2006
  42. "Frequently Asked Questions #1". Radiation Effects Research Foundation. http://www.rerf.or.jp/general/qa_e/qa1.html. Retrieved 2007-09-18. 
  43. Rezelman, David; F.G. Gosling and Terrence R. Fehner (2000). "THE ATOMIC BOMBING OF HIROSHIMA". The Manhattan Project: An Interactive History. U.S. Department of Energy. http://www.cfo.doe.gov/me70/manhattan/hiroshima.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-18.  page on Hiroshima casualties.
  44. Matthew White Twentieth Century Atlas - Death Tolls: United Kingdom lists the following totals and sources:
    • 60,000, (bombing): John Keegan The Second World War (1989);
    • 60,000: Boris Urlanis, Wars and Population (1971)
    • 60,595: Harper Collins Atlas of the Second World War
    • 60,600: John Ellis, World War II : a statistical survey (Facts on File, 1993) „killed and missing“
    • 92,673, (incl. 30,248 merchant mariners and 60,595 killed by bombing): Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, 1992 printing. „Killed, died of wounds, or in prison .... excluding those who died of natural causes or were suicides.“
    • 92,673: Norman Davies,Europe A History (1998) same as Britannica's war dead in most cases
    • 92,673: Michael Clodfelter Warfare and Armed Conflict: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1618-1991;
    • 100,000: William Eckhardt, a 3-page table of his war statistics printed in World Military and Social Expenditures 1987-88 (12th ed., 1987) by Ruth Leger Sivard. „Deaths“, including „massacres, political violence, and famines associated with the conflicts.“
    The British kept accurate records during WWII SO 60,595 was the official death toll with 30,248 for the British merchant mariners (most of whom are listed on the Tower Hill Memorial)
  45. German Deaths by aerial bombardment (It is not clear if these totals includes Austrians, of whom about 24,000 were killed (see Austrian Press & Information Service, Washington, D.C) and other territories in the Third Reich but not in modern Germany)
    • 600,000 about 80,000 were children in Hamburg, Juli 1943 in Der Spiegel © SPIEGEL ONLINE 2003 (in German)
    • Matthew White Twentieth Century Atlas - Death Tolls lists the following totals and sources:
      • more than 305,000: (1945 Strategic Bombing Survey);
      • 400,000: Hammond Atlas of the 20th Century (1996)
      • 410,000: R. J. Rummel, 100% Democide;
      • 499,750: Michael Clodfelter Warfare and Armed Conflict: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1618-1991;
      • 593,000: John Keegan The Second World War (1989);
      • 593,000: J. A. S. Grenville citing „official Germany“ in A History of the World in the Twentieth Century (1994)
      • 600,000: Paul Johnson Modern Times (1983)

koi:Морт


rue:Чоловік розумный








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