man: Wikis

  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

Man




The term manhood is used to refer to the various qualities and characteristics attributed to men such as strength and male sexuality.[1]

Contents

Etymology

File:Symbol
Symbol of the planet/Roman god Mars, also used to indicate the male sex.

The English term "man" is derived from Old English mann. The Old English form had a default meaning of "adult male" (which was the exclusive meaning of "wer"), though it could signify a person of unspecified gender. The closely related "man" was used much as the Modern English "one" (e.g., "one reaps what one sows").[2] The Old English form is derived from Proto-Germanic *mannaz, "persona", which is also the etonym of German Mann "man, husband" and man "one" (pronoun), Old Norse maðr, and Gothic manna. According to Tacitus, the mythological progenitor of the Germanic tribes was called Mannus. The Germanic form is in turn derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *manu-s "man, person", which is also the root of the Indian name Manu, mythological progenitor of the Hindus. Linguists suspect this in turn is connected with a different PIE root, *men-, meaning "to think", which is also the source of English mean, German Minne ("love"), and the Latin words from which English has borrowed mental, mind and remember.[3]

Age and terminology

The term manhood is used to describe the period in a human male's life after he has transitioned from boyhood, having passed through puberty, usually having attained male secondary sexual characteristics, and symbolises a male's coming of age. The word man is used to mean any adult male. In English-speaking countries, many other words can also be used to mean an adult male such as guy, dude, buddy, bloke, fellow, chap and sometimes boy or lad. The term manhood is associated with masculinity and virility, which refer to male qualities and male gender roles.

Biology and gender

Humans exhibit sexual dimorphism in many characteristics, many of which have no direct link to reproductive ability, although most of these characteristics do have a role in sexual attraction. Most expressions of sexual dimorphism in humans are found in height, weight, and body structure, though there are always examples that do not follow the overall pattern. For example, men tend to be taller than women, but there are many people of both sexes who are in the mid-height range for the species.

Some examples of male secondary sexual characteristics in humans, those acquired as boys become men or even later in life, are:

Sexual characteristics

In mankind, the sex of an individual is generally determined at the time of fertilization by the genetic material carried in the sperm cell. If a sperm cell carrying an X chromosome fertilizes the egg, the offspring will typically be female (XX); if a sperm cell carrying a Y chromosome fertilizes the egg, the offspring will typically be male (XY). Persons whose anatomy or chromosomal makeup differ from this pattern are referred to as intersex.

This is referred to as the XY sex-determination system and is typical of most mammals, but quite a few other sex-determination systems exist, including some that are non-genetic.

The term primary sexual characteristics denotes the kind of gamete the gonad produces: the ovary produces egg cells in the female, and the testis produces sperm cells in the male. The term secondary sexual characteristics denotes all other sexual distinctions that play indirect roles in uniting sperm and eggs. Secondary sexual characteristics include everything from the specialized male and female features of the genital tract, to the brilliant plumage of male birds or facial hair of humans, to behavioral features such as courtship.

Biological factors are not sufficient determinants of whether a person considers themselves a man or is considered a man. Intersex individuals, who have physical and/or genetic features considered to be mixed or atypical for one sex or the other, may use other criteria in making a clear determination. There are also transgender or transsexual men, who were born or physically assigned as female at birth, but identify as men; there are varying social, legal and individual definitions with regard to these issues. (See transman.)

Reproductive system

[[File:|thumb|right|200px|Human male reproductive anatomy and surroundings.]] The male sex organs are part of the reproductive system, consisting of the penis, testicles, vas deferens, and the prostate gland. The male reproductive system's function is to produce semen which carries sperm and thus genetic information that can unite with an egg within a woman. Since sperm that enters a woman's uterus and then fallopian tubes goes on to fertilize an egg which develops into a fetus or child, the male reproductive system plays no necessary role during the gestation. The concept of fatherhood and family exists in human societies. The study of male reproduction and associated organs is called andrology.

File:NHGRI human male
Karyogram of human male using Giemsa staining. Human males typically possess an XY combination.

Sex hormones

In mammals, the hormones that influence sexual differentiation and development are androgens (mainly testosterone), which stimulate later development of the ovary. In the sexually undifferentiated embryo, testosterone stimulates the development of the Wolffian ducts, the penis, and closure of the labioscrotal folds into the scrotum. Another significant hormone in sexual differentiation is the Anti-müllerian hormone, which inhibits development of the Müllerian ducts.

Illnesses

In general, men suffer from many of the same illnesses as women. In comparison to women, men suffer from slightly more illnesses.[citation needed] Male life expectancy is slightly lower than female life expectancy, although the difference has narrowed in recent years.

For males during puberty, testosterone, along with gonadotropins released by the pituitary gland, stimulates spermatogenesis, along with the full sexual distinction of a human male from a human female, while women are acted upon by estrogens and progesterones to produce their sexual distinction from the human male.

Masculinity

File:David von
Michelangelo's David is the classical image of youthful male beauty in Western art.

Enormous debate in Western societies has focused on perceived social, intellectual, or emotional differences between women and men. These differences are very difficult to quantify for both scientific and political reasons, though they tend to have a high expectancy for men.

Masculinity has its roots in genetics (see gender).[5][6] Therefore while masculinity looks different in different cultures, there are common aspects to its definition across cultures.[7] Sometimes gender scholars will use the phrase "hegemonic masculinity" to distinguish the most dominant form of masculinity from other variants. In the mid-twentieth century United States, for example, John Wayne might embody one form of masculinity, while Albert Einstein might be seen as masculine, but not in the same "hegemonic" fashion.

Machismo is a form of masculine culture. It includes assertiveness or standing up for one's rights, responsibility, selflessness, general code of ethics, sincerity, and respect.[8]

Anthropology has shown that masculinity itself has social status, just like wealth, race and social class. In western culture, for example, greater masculinity usually brings greater social status. Many English words such as virtue and virile (from the Latin and Sanskrit roots vir meaning man) reflect this.[9][10] An association with physical and/or moral strength is implied. Masculinity is associated more commonly with adult men than with boys.

A great deal is now known about the development of masculine characteristics. The process of sexual differentiation specific to the reproductive system of Homo sapiens produces a female by default. The SRY gene on the Y chromosome, however, interferes with the default process, causing a chain of events that, all things being equal, leads to testes formation, androgen production and a range of both natal and post-natal hormonal effects covered by the terms masculinization or virilization. Because masculinization redirects biological processes from the default female route, it is more precisely called defeminization.

There is an extensive debate about how children develop gender identities.

In many cultures displaying characteristics not typical to one's gender may become a social problem for the individual. Among men, some non-standard behaviors may be considered a sign of homosexuality, while a girl who exhibits masculine behavior is more frequently dismissed as a "tomboy". Within sociology such labeling and conditioning is known as gender assumptions and is a part of socialization to better match a culture's mores. The corresponding social condemnation of excessive masculinity may be expressed in terms such as "machismo" or "testosterone poisoning."

The relative importance of the roles of socialization and genetics in the development of masculinity continues to be debated. While social conditioning obviously plays a role, it can also be observed that certain aspects of the masculine identity exist in almost all human cultures.

The historical development of gender role is addressed by such fields as behavioral genetics, evolutionary psychology, human ecology and sociobiology. All human cultures seem to encourage the development of gender roles, through literature, costume and song. Some examples of this might include the epics of Homer, the King Arthur tales in English, the normative commentaries of Confucius or biographical studies of the prophet Muhammad. More specialized treatments of masculinity may be found in works such as the Bhagavad Gita or bushido's Hagakure.

Culture and gender roles

File:Pope Benedictus XVI january,20 2006 (2)
Pope Benedict XVI is the leader of the Roman Catholic Church, a position that is reserved for men only.

Well into prehistoric culture, men are believed to have assumed a variety of social and cultural roles which are likely similar across many groups of humans. In hunter-gatherer societies, men were often if not exclusively responsible for all large game killed, the capture and raising of most or all domesticated animals, the building of permanent shelters, the defense of villages, and other tasks where the male physique and strong spatial-cognition were most useful. Some anthropologists believe that it may have been men who led the Neolithic Revolution and became the first pre-historical ranchers, as a possible result of their intimate knowledge of animal life.

Throughout history, the roles of men have changed greatly. As societies have moved away from agriculture as a primary source of jobs, the emphasis on male physical ability has waned. Traditional gender roles for working men typically involved jobs emphasizing moderate to hard manual labor (see Blue-collar worker), often with no hope for increase in wage or position. For poorer men among the working classes the need to support their families, especially during periods of industrial change and economic decline, forced them to stay in dangerous jobs working long arduous hours, often without retirement. Many industrialized countries have seen a shift to jobs which are less physically demanding, with a general reduction in the percentage of manual labor needed in the work force (see White-collar worker). The male goal in these circumstances is often of pursuing a quality education and securing a dependable, often office-environment, source of income.

File:Five Presidents Oval
United States Presidents George H. W. Bush, Barack Obama, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and Jimmy Carter. While no legal rules reserve the Presidency for men, all United States Presidents have been men thus far.

The Men's Movement is in part a struggle for the recognition of equality of opportunity with women, and for equal rights irrespective of gender, even if special relations and conditions are willingly incurred under the form of partnership involved in marriage. The difficulties of obtaining this recognition are due to the habits and customs recent history has produced. Through a combination of economic changes and the efforts of the feminist movement in recent decades, men in some societies now compete with women for jobs that traditionally excluded women. Some larger corporations have instituted tracking systems to try to ensure that jobs are filled based on merit and not just on traditional gender selection. Assumptions and expectations based on sex roles both benefit and harm men in Western society (as they do women, but in different ways) in the workplace as well as on the topics of education, violence, health care, politics, and fatherhood - to name a few. Research has identified anti-male sexism in some areas (a concept which must be distinguished and differentiated from the traditional anti-female sexism in its ubiquity and impact) which can result in what appear to be unfair advantages given to women.

The Parsons model was used to contrast and illustrate extreme positions on gender roles. Model A describes total separation of male and female roles, while Model B describes the complete dissolution of barriers between gender roles.[11] The examples are based on the context of the culture and infrastructure of the United States. However, these extreme positions are rarely found in reality; actual behavior of individuals is usually somewhere between these poles. The most common 'model' followed in real life in the United States and Great Britain is the 'model of double burden'.

Exclusively male roles

Some positions and titles are reserved for men only. For example, the position of Pope in the Roman Catholic Church is reserved for men only, as is its priesthood. Men are often given priority for the position of monarch (King in the case of a man) of a country, as it usually passes to the eldest male child upon succession.

See also

Medical:

Dynamics:

Political:

Further reading

  • Andrew Perchuk, Simon Watney, Bell Hooks, The Masculine Masquerade: Masculinity and Representation, MIT Press 1995
  • Pierre Bourdieu, Masculine Domination, Paperback Edition, Stanford University Press 2001
  • Robert W. Connell, Masculinities, Cambridge : Polity Press, 1995
  • Warren Farrell, The Myth of Male Power Berkley Trade, 1993 ISBN 0-425-18144-8
  • Michael Kimmel (ed.), Robert W. Connell (ed.), Jeff Hearn (ed.), Handbook of Studies on Men and Masculinities, Sage Publications 2004

References

  1. ^ http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/manhood?view=uk
  2. ^ John Richard Clark Hall: A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary
  3. ^ Julius Pokorny, Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch, I, 700; I, 726-8.
  4. ^ The Vitruvian man
  5. ^ John Money, 'The concept of gender identity disorder in childhood and adolescence after 39 years', Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy 20 (1994): 163-77.
  6. ^ Laura Stanton and Brenna Maloney, 'The Perception of Pain', Washington Post, 19 December 2006.
  7. ^ Donald Brown, Human Universals
  8. ^ Mirande, Alfredo (1997). Hombres y Machos: Masculinity and Latino Culture, p.72-74. ISBN 0-8133-3197-8.
  9. ^ "Virtue (2009)". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2009. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/virtue. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  10. ^ "Virile (2009)". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2009. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/virile. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  11. ^ Brockhaus: Enzyklopädie der Psychologie, 2001.

External links

krc:Эркиши

File:David von
Michelangelo's David is the classical image of youthful male beauty in Western art.

A man is a male human. The term man (irregular plural: men) is used for an adult human male, while the term boy is the usual term for a human male child or adolescent human male. However, man is sometimes used to refer to humanity as a whole. Sometimes it is also used to identify a male human, regardless of age, as in phrases such as "Men's rights".

The term "manhood" is used to refer variously to the condition of being male, male sexuality, or the actual reproductive organs.

Contents

Etymology

The term man (from Proto-Germanic *mannaz "man, person") and words derived from it can designate any or even all of the human race regardless of their sex or age. This is indeed the oldest usage of "man". The word developed into Old English man, mann "human being, person," (cf. also German Mann, Old Norse maðr, Gothic manna "man"). Few argue that the term man is derived from Manu, the first human according to Hindu beliefs.

Age and terminology

The term manhood is used to describe the period in a human male's life after he has trasitioned from boyhood, having passed through puberty, usually having attained male secondary sexual characteristics, and symbolises a male's coming of age. The word man is used to mean any adult male. Many other words can also be used to mean an adult male such as guy, dude, buddy, bloke, fellow, chap and sometimes boy or lad, such as boys' night out. The term manhood is associated with masculinity and virility, which refer to male qualities and male gender roles.

Biology and gender

Vitruvian Man displays the proportions of a man.[1]]]

Humans exhibit sexual dimorphism in many characteristics, many of which have no direct link to reproductive ability, although most of these characteristics do have a role in sexual attraction. Most expressions of sexual dimorphism in humans are found in height, weight, and body structure, though there are always examples that do not follow the overall pattern. For example, men tend to be taller than women, but there are many people of both sexes who are in the mid-height range for the species.

Some examples of male secondary sexual characteristics in humans, those acquired as boys become men or even later in life, are:

  • more pubic hair around penis and under arms
  • more facial hair
  • larger hands and feet than women
  • broader shoulders and chest
  • larger skull and bone structure
  • greater muscle mass
  • a more prominent Adam's apple and deeper voice

Reproductive system

The sex organs of a man are part of the reproductive system, consisting of the penis, testicles, vas deferens, and the prostate gland. The male reproductive system's function is to produce semen which carries sperm and thus genetic information that can unite with an egg within a woman. Since sperm that enters a woman's uterus and then fallopian tubes goes on to fertilize an egg which develops into a fetus or child, the male reproductive system plays no necessary role during the gestation. The concept of fatherhood and family exists in human societies. The study of male reproduction and associated organs is called andrology.

of human male using Giemsa staining. Human males possess an XY combination.]]

Karyotype

The normal human karyotypes contain 21 pairs of autosomal chromosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. Normally karyotypes for men have both an X and a Y chromosome denoted 46,XY.

Illnesses

In general, men suffer from many of the same illnesses as women. In comparison to women, men suffer from slightly more illnesses.Template:Fact Male life expectancy is slightly lower than female life expectancy, although the difference has narrowed in recent years.

Sexual characteristics

In humans, the sex of an individual is generally determined at the time of fertilization by the genetic material carried in the sperm cell. If a sperm cell carrying an X chromosome fertilizes the egg, the offspring will typically be female (XX); if a sperm cell carrying a Y chromosome fertilizes the egg, the offspring will typically be male (XY). This is referred to as the XY sex-determination system and is typical of most mammals, but quite a few other sex-determination systems exist, including some that are non-genetic. The term primary sexual characteristics denotes the kind of gamete the gonad produces: The ovary produces egg cells in the female, and the testis produces sperm cells in the male. The term secondary sexual characteristics denotes all other sexual distinctions that play indirect roles in uniting sperm and eggs. Secondary sexual characteristics include everything from the specialized male and female features of the genital tract, to the brilliant plumage of male birds or facial hair of humans, to behavioral features such as courtship.

Sex hormones

In mammals, the hormones that influence sexual differentiation and development are androgens (mainly testosterone), which stimulate later development of the ovary. In the sexually undifferentiated embryo, testosterone stimulates the development of the Wolffian ducts, the penis, and closure of the labioscrotal folds into the scrotum. Another significant hormone in sexual differentiation is the Anti-müllerian hormone, which inhibits development of the Müllerian ducts.

For males during puberty, testosterone, along with gonadotropins released by the pituitary gland, stimulates spermatogenesis, along with the full sexual distinction of a human male from a human female, while women are acted upon by estrogens and progesterones to produce their sexual distinction from the human male.

Masculinity

/Roman god Mars, also used to indicate the male sex among animals that reproduce sexually.]]

worker in 1942.]]

Enormous debate in Western societies has focused on perceived social, intellectual, or emotional differences between women and men. These differences are very difficult to quantify for both scientific and political reasons, though they tend to have a high expectancy for men.

Masculinity has its roots in genetics (see gender).[2][3] Therefore while masculinity looks different in different cultures, there are common aspects to its definition across cultures.[4] Sometimes gender scholars will use the phrase "hegemonic masculinity" to distinguish the most dominant form of masculinity from other variants. In the mid-twentieth century United States, for example, John Wayne might embody one form of masculinity, while Albert Einstein might be seen as masculine, but not in the same "hegemonic" fashion.

Machismo is a form of masculine culture. It includes assertiveness or standing up for one's rights, responsibility, selflessness, general code of ethics, sincerity, and respect.[5]

Anthropology has shown that masculinity itself has social status, just like wealth, race and social class. In western culture, for example, greater masculinity usually brings greater social status. Many English words such as virtue and virile (from the Latin and Sanskrit roots vir meaning man) reflect this.[6][7] An association with physical and/or moral strength is implied. Masculinity is associated more commonly with adult men than with boys.

A great deal is now known about the development of masculine characteristics. The process of sexual differentiation specific to the reproductive system of Homo sapiens produces a female by default. The SRY gene on the Y chromosome, however, interferes with the default process, causing a chain of events that, all things being equal, leads to testes formation, androgen production and a range of both natal and post-natal hormonal effects covered by the terms masculinization or virilization. Because masculinization redirects biological processes from the default female route, it is more precisely called defeminization.

There is an extensive debate about how children develop gender identities.

In many cultures displaying characteristics not typical to one's gender may become a social problem for the individual. Among men, some non-standard behaviors may be considered a sign of homosexuality, while a girl who exhibits masculine behavior is more frequently dismissed as a "tomboy". Within sociology such labeling and conditioning is known as gender assumptions and is a part of socialization to better match a culture's mores. The corresponding social condemnation of excessive masculinity may be expressed in terms such as "machismo" or "testosterone poisoning."

The relative importance of the roles of socialization and genetics in the development of masculinity continues to be debated. While social conditioning obviously plays a role, it can also be observed that certain aspects of the masculine identity exist in almost all human cultures.

The historical development of gender role is addressed by such fields as behavioral genetics, evolutionary psychology, human ecology and sociobiology. All human cultures seem to encourage the development of gender roles, through literature, costume and song. Some examples of this might include the epics of Homer, the King Arthur tales in English, the normative commentaries of Confucius or biographical studies of the prophet Muhammad. More specialized treatments of masculinity may be found in works such as the Bhagavad Gita or bushido's Hagakure.

Characteristics

Janet Saltzman Chafetz (1974, 35-36) describes seven areas of masculinity in general culture:

  1. Physical -- virile, athletic, strong, brave. Unconcerned about appearance and aging;
  2. Functional -- provider for family, defender of family from physical threat;
  3. Sexual -- sexually aggressive, experienced. Single status acceptable;
  4. Emotional -- unemotional, stoic, never crying;
  5. Intellectual -- logical, intellectual, rational, objective, practical;
  6. Interpersonal -- leader, dominating; disciplinarian; independent, free, individualistic; demanding;
  7. Other Personal Characteristics -- success-oriented, ambitious, aggressive, competitive, proud, egotistical, moral, trustworthy; decisive, uninhibited, adventurous.

None of these personality traits have been supported by scientific research.

A number of the above stereotypes were not perceived in the same way as today (i.e., their applications to particular aspects and spheres of life, such as work vs. home) until the 19th century, beginning with industrialization.Template:Fact

Culture and gender roles

is the leader of the Roman Catholic Church, a position that is reserved for men only.]]

Well into prehistoric culture, men are believed to have assumed a variety of social and cultural roles which are likely similar across many groups of humans. In hunter-gatherer societies, men were often if not exclusively responsible for all large game killed, the capture and raising of most or all domesticated animals, the building of permanent shelters, the defense of villages, and other tasks where the male physique and strong spatial-cognition were most useful. Some anthropologists believe that it may have been men who led the Neolithic Revolution and became the first pre-historical ranchers, as a possible result of their intimate knowledge of animal life.

Throughout history, the roles of men have changed greatly. As societies have moved away from agriculture as a primary source of jobs, the emphasis on male physical ability has waned. Traditional gender roles for working men typically involved jobs emphasizing moderate to hard manual labor (see Blue-collar worker), often with no hope for increase in wage or position. For poorer men among the working classes the need to support their families, especially during periods of industrial change and economic decline, forced them to stay in dangerous jobs working long arduous hours, often without retirement. Many industrialized countries have seen a shift to jobs which are less physically demanding, with a general reduction in the percentage of manual labor needed in the work force (see White-collar worker). The male goal in these circumstances is often of pursuing a quality education and securing a dependable, often office-environment, source of income.

The Men's Movement is in part a struggle for the recognition of equality of opportunity with women, and for equal rights irrespective of gender, even if special relations and conditions are willingly incurred under the form of partnership involved in marriage. The difficulties of obtaining this recognition are due to the habits and customs recent history has produced. Through a combination of economic changes and the efforts of the feminist movement in recent decades, men in some societies now compete with women for jobs that traditionally excluded women. Some larger corporations have instituted tracking systems to try to ensure that jobs are filled based on merit and not just on traditional gender selection. Assumptions and expectations based on sex roles both benefit and harm men in Western society (as they do women, but in different ways) in the workplace as well as on the topics of education, violence, health care, politics, and fatherhood - to name a few. Research has identified anti-male sexism in some areas (a concept which must be distinguished and differentiated from the traditional anti-female sexism in its ubiquity and impact) which can result in what appear to be unfair advantages given to women.

The Parsons model was used to contrast and illustrate extreme positions on gender roles. Model A describes total separation of male and female roles, while Model B describes the complete dissolution of barriers between gender roles.[8] The examples are based on the context of the culture and infrastructure of the United States. However, these extreme positions are rarely found in reality; actual behavior of individuals is usually somewhere between these poles. The most common 'model' followed in real life in the United States and Great Britain is the 'model of double burden'.

Exclusively male roles

Some positions and titles are reserved for men only. For example, the position of Pope in the Roman Catholic Church is reserved for men only, as is its priesthood. The position of monarch (King in the case of a man) of a country has traditionally been reserved for men, as it usually passes to the eldest male child upon succession.

Further reading

  • Andrew Perchuk, Simon Watney, Bell Hooks, The Masculine Masquerade: Masculinity and Representation, MIT Press 1995
  • Pierre Bourdieu, Masculine Domination, Paperback Edition, Stanford University Press 2001
  • Robert W. Connell, Masculinities, Cambridge : Polity Press, 1995
  • Warren Farrell, The Myth of Male Power Berkley Trade, 1993 ISBN 0-425-18144-8
  • Michael Kimmel (ed.), Robert W. Connell (ed.), Jeff Hearn (ed.), Handbook of Studies on Men and Masculinities, Sage Publications 2004

See also

References

  1. The Vitruvian man
  2. John Money, 'The concept of gender identity disorder in childhood and adolescence after 39 years', Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy 20 (1994): 163-77.
  3. Laura Stanton and Brenna Maloney, 'The Perception of Pain', Washington Post, 19 December 2006.
  4. Donald Brown, Human Universals
  5. Mirande, Alfredo (1997). Hombres y Machos: Masculinity and Latino Culture, p.72-74. ISBN 0-8133-3197-8.
  6. "Virtue (2009)". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2009. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/virtue. Retrieved on 2009-06-08. 
  7. "Virile (2009)". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2009. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/virile. Retrieved on 2009-06-08. 
  8. Brockhaus: Enzyklopädie der Psychologie, 2001.

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

See also the man

Contents

English

Most common English words: other « very « upon « #69: man » may » about » its

Etymology

From Old English mann. Cognates include Swedish man, Norwegian mann, Faroese maður, Icelandic maður, Danish mand, German Mann, Dutch man.

Pronunciation

Noun

Singular
man

Plural
men

man (plural men)

  1. An adult male human.
  2. A mensch; a person of integrity and honor.
  3. An abstract person; a person of either gender, usually an adult.
    every man for himself
  4. (collective) All humans collectively; mankind. Also Man.
    prehistoric man
  5. A piece or token used in board games such as chess.
  6. A professional person.
    We'll have to call a man in to fix it

Synonyms

  • (adult male human): omi (Polari)

Antonyms

Derived terms

Translations

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Verb

Infinitive
to man

Third person singular
mans

Simple past
manned

Past participle
manned

Present participle
manning

to man (third-person singular simple present mans, present participle manning, simple past and past participle manned)

  1. (transitive) To supply with staff or crew (of either sex).
    The shipped was manned with a small crew.
  2. (transitive) To take up position in order to operate something.
    Man the machine guns!

Derived terms

Translations

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

See also

Interjection

man

  1. An interjection used to place emphasis upon something or someone.
    Man, that was a great catch!
    (Geordie) Hoo man woman!
    (Geordie) Giv'is a bottle of dog man!

Quotations

Anagrams


Albanian

Noun

man m.

  1. mulberry tree

Verb

man

  1. to feed
  2. to fatten

Derived terms


Danish

Etymology 1

From Old Norse mǫn, from Proto-Indo-European *mon- (neck).

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /maːn/, [mæːˀn]

Noun

man c. (singular definite manen, plural indefinite maner)

  1. mane (longer hair growth on back of neck of a horse)
Inflection
Related terms

Etymology 2

From Old Norse menn, plural form of man. Transition to pronoun by German influence.

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /man/, [man]

Pronoun

man (indefinite pronoun)

  1. you
  2. they, people
  3. we, one

Etymology 3

See mane.

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /maːn/, [mæːˀn]

Verb

man

  1. Imperative of mane.

Dutch

Wikipedia-logo.png
Dutch Wikipedia has an article on:
Man

Wikipedia nl

Pronunciation

Etymology

Germanic, cognate with English man, German Mann.

Noun

man m. (plural mannen, diminutive mannetje or manneke, diminutive plural mannetjes or manneken)

also has Archaic plurals: lieden and lui
  1. man human male, either adult or age-irrespective
    De oude man en de zee.
    The Old Man and the Sea.
  2. husband, male spouse

Derived terms

  • niemand m.
  • ontmannen
  • overmannen
  • raadsman m.
  • speelman m.
  • tienman m.
  • vakman m.
  • voorman m.
  • weerman m.
  • zeeman m.

Related terms


Faroese

Verb

man

  1. First and third person singular present of munna.
    I, he, she, it will / may

Conjugation

munna, v
number singular plural
person first second third all
Indicative eg hann / hon
tað
vit, tit,
teir / tær / tey
tygum
Present man manst man munnu/munna
Past mundi mundi mundi mundu
Imperative tit
Present — ! — !
Infinitive munna
Pres. part.
Past part.
Supine munnað

Derived terms

  • tað man vera (so) - this may be (so)
  • tað man óivað vera beinari - this will doubtless be more correct


Pronoun

man

  1. (colloquial) one, they (indefinite third person singular pronoun)

Synonyms


Friulian

Etymology

From Latin manus.

Noun

man m. (plural mans)

  1. hand

Galician

Etymology

From Latin manus. Compare Catalan , French main, Italian mano, Occitan man, Portuguese mão, Romanian mână, Sardinian manu, Spanish mano.

Noun

man f. (plural mans)

  1. (anatomy) hand

German

Pronunciation

Pronoun

man

  1. (indefinite) one, they (indefinite third person singular pronoun)
    was man sehen kann — what one can see

Icelandic

Noun

man n.

  1. maid

Verb

man

  1. Past, first person of the verb of muna. I remember
    Ég man ekki.
    I don't remember.
  2. Past, third person of the verb of muna. he/she/it remembered
    Hann man hvað gerðist.
    He remembered what happened.

Japanese

Noun

man (hiragana まん)

  1. [[#Japanese|]]: ten thousand
  2. マン: man

Kurdish

Verb

man

  1. to stay
  2. to remain

Lithuanian

Pronunciation

Pronoun

mán

  1. (first-person singular) dative form of .
    Duok manknygą.
    Give me that book.

Low Saxon

Conjunction

man

  1. only, but

Synonyms


Mandarin

Pinyin syllable

man

  1. A transliteration of any of a number of Chinese characters properly represented as having one of four tones, mān, mán, mǎn, or màn.

Usage notes

English transcriptions of Chinese speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Chinese language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.


Norwegian

Pronoun

man

  1. you
  2. one
  3. they
  4. people

Noun

man

  1. (horse) mane

Occitan

Etymology

From Latin manus.

Pronunciation

Noun

man f. (plural mans)

  1. hand

Old English

Etymology 1

From mann.

Pronunciation

Pronoun

man

  1. one, someone, they (often used to form the passive)

Etymology 2

Cognate with Old Saxon mēn, Old High German mein, Old Norse mein.

Pronunciation

Noun

mān n.

  1. crime, sin, wickedness

Swedish

Pronunciation

  •  audiohelp, file (definitions noun 1.-3. and pronoun 1.)

Noun

man c. IPA: ˈman, if not stated else.

  1. man (adult male human)
  2. husband
  3. (military) Member of a troop.
  4. IPA: ˈmɑːn mane (of a horse or lion)

Inflection

Inflection for man 1, 2 Singular Plural
Common Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative man mannen män männen
Genitive mans mannens mäns männens
Inflection for man 3 Singular Plural
Common Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative man mannen mannar (män, man) mannarna (männen)
Genitive mans mannens mannars (mäns, mans) mannarnas (männens)
Inflection for man 4 Singular Plural
Common Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative man manen manar manarna
Genitive mans manens manars manarnas

Pronoun

man c. (accusative/dative en, plural ena, possesive ens, reflexive sig, possessive reflexive common sin, possessive reflexive neuter sitt, possessive reflexive plural sina)

  1. (indefinite) one, they; people in general
    vad man kan se — what one can see

Tok Pisin

Etymology

From English man.

Noun

man

  1. man (adult male human)

Antonyms

Derived terms


Torres Strait Creole

Etymology

From English man.

Noun

man

  1. husband
  2. a married man
  3. any man

Welsh

Noun

man

  1. place.

Mutation

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
man fan unchanged unchanged

West Frisian

Noun

man (pl. men, manlju)

  1. man
  2. husband

Wik-Mungkan

Noun

man

  1. neck

Derived terms

  • man awal
  • man ngaat
  • man poonchal

Simple English

File:Naked human male with
A 22-year-old man.

A man is a male human adult (male:not female; human:a person; adult:not a child). We use the word "man" (one man, two or more men) to talk about biological sex.

Manhood is the time in a man's life after he changes from a boy. A boy is a male human child, not a female child (a girl).

After boys grow, we call them a man. There are some times we also call a man a "boy". For example, we often use the word "boy" when talking about adult males who have a partner, for example in the word boyfriend. Sometimes people also use the word in a bad way for a black man or male slave.

Sex

There are some sexual differences between a man and a woman. Men have sex organs which we call "external" (not in the body). But many parts of the male reproductive system are internal too. The study of male reproduction and sex organs is "andrology".

Men normally have the same illnesses as women, but there are some sexual illnesses which men have only, or more often.

Biology is not the only thing which makes people feel they are men, or that other people are men. Perhaps one in 100,000 people are men who were born without a male body. We call these transgendered or transsexual men. Some men can have a hormone or chromosomal difference (for example "androgen insensitivity syndrome"). Some men have other intersex conditions. Some of those intersex people who people said were female (girls) when they were born later want to change this.

About 20% of males, especially babies and children in the USA, have had circumcision which changes the male genitalia (the penis).

There are more differences between men and women, not only sexual differences.

  • Some people say men, as a group, are more aggressive than women; they want to fight more. But most research has found that men and women are equally aggressive.
  • In modern western society, few men wear make-up or clothing of the sort women traditionally wear. (Some men wear women's clothes ("cross-dressing").)

Other websites

rue:Хлоп








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message