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This article is about a Hindu caste. For the consumer hair removal product, see Nair (hair removal).

V. K. Krishna MenonMohanlalSreesanthParvathy OmanakuttanSir C. Sankaran NairK. S. Chithra • Sashi Tharoor • G Madhavan Nair • Shobhana
Total population
5,000,000 (15% of Kerala population)[1]
Regions with significant populations




Related ethnic groups

Nambudiri, Bunts ,Samanta Kshatriya Tulu Jains

Nair (Malayalam: നായര്‍, pronounced [naːjar]), is the name of a Hindu[2] forward caste from the southern Indian state of Kerala. They are a Kshatriya caste of Kerala belonging to the Nagavanshi order. [3][4] Before the British conquest in 1792, the Kerala region contained small, feudal kingdoms, in each of which the royal and noble lineages, the militia, and most land managers were drawn from the Nairs and related castes.[5] Nairs were prominent in politics, government service, medicine, education, and law.[6] Nairs constituted the rulers, warriors and landed gentry and of Kerala (pre-1947).

Nairs were traditionally matrilineal. Their family unit, the members of which owned property jointly, included brothers and sisters, the latter's children, and their daughters' children. The oldest man was legal head of the group. Rules of marriage and residence varied somewhat between kingdoms.[7]

The Nairs were famous for their martial history, including their involvement in Kalaripayattu and the role of Nair warlords in the Mamankam ritual. The Nairs were classed as a martial race[8][9][10][11] by the British, but were de-listed after rebelling against them under Velu Thampi Dalawa, and thereafter were recruited in low numbers into the British Indian Army.[12] Only Nairs were recruited into the Thiruvithamkoor Nair Pattalam (Travancore State Nair Army), until 1935 when non-Nairs started to get admitted.[13] This State Force (known also as the Nair Brigade) was merged into the Indian Army after independence and became the 9th Battalion Madras Regiment, the oldest Battalion in the Indian Army.

The Samanta Kshatriya Kolathiri and Travancore kingdoms[14] were originally of the Nair caste[15] The Zamorin Raja was a Samanthan Nair[14] and the Arakkal kingdom of Kannur, which was the only Muslim kingdom in the Kerala region, also had Nair origins[16][17][18]. Nair feudal families such as the Ettuveetil Pillamar were extremely influential in the past and often had greater influence than the Raja.


The word Nair lends itself to two etymological interpretations. The first interpretation is that the word Nair is derived from the Sanskrit word Nayaka meaning leader. The Sanskrit word Nayaka appears in various forms in southern India (Nayakan/Naicker in Tamil Nadu, Nayak in Karnataka and Maharashtra, and Nayudu in Andhra Pradesh) and the word Nair has been suggested to be the corruption of Nayak in Malayalam.[19][20][21] The second interpretation is that the word Nair is a corrupted form of the word Nagar- serpent men because Nairs practiced snake worship.[22] Nairs perhaps never talked Tamil but the Prakrit or some other Aryan tongue. Nairs did mix with few Dravidian clans including Vellalas. The arrival of Nairs led to the mixture of Tamil with Prakrit Sanskrit and Tulu words converting the language to Malayalam.[Citation required]

Theories of origin


Shrimathi Lakshmi Pillai Kochamma, consort of Maharajah Visakham Thirunal Sir Rama Varma of Travancore)]]

According to Dr K. K. Pillai, the first reference about the Nairs is in an inscription dated to the 9th century A.D.[23]

The Nairs have been described thus:

A race caste who do not owe their origin to function, although, by force of example, their organization is almost equally rigid, and they are generally identified with particular trades or occupations. These race caste communities were originally tribes, but on entering the fold of Hinduism, they imitated the Hindu social organization, and have thus gradually hardened to castes.[24]

However this does not rule out the possibility that the Nairs do not constitute a homogeneous ethnic group as it is possible that each subcaste or clan may have different origins. For example, members from other tribes or communities were adopted into the Nair fold once Nair became to be known to refer to a caste, such as the Tamil Padam Nairs. There have also been incidents where the Nair caste status was bestowed upon persons favoured by the Raja.

A number of sociologists are of the view that the Nairs are not indigenous to Kerala, as many customs and traditions distinguish them from other Keralites. There is a hypothesis on the basis of mythology that the Nairs are Nagas and were Kshatriyas belonging to the Serpent dynasty (Nagavansham)[25][26] who removed their sacred thread and migrated south to escape the wrath of a vengeful Parashurama. A Naga origin from Rohilkhand has been suggested.[27] The affinity of the Nair community towards serpent worship, their martial past, and the absence of the sacred thread lends support to this theory. In addition, the Travancore State Manual states that there were indeed serpent-worshiping Nagas in Kerala who fought with the Namboothiris till they reached a consensus. The Nairs have also been classified as of Dravidian (Saka) origin as well as being linked to the Nagas.[28][29][30]

According to Chattampi Swamikal, who interpreted old Tamil texts, the Nairs were Naka (Naga or Snake) Lords who ruled as feudal lords in the Chera( chera= snake) kingdom. Therefore this theory proposes Nairs to be descendants of the rulers and martial nobility of pre-Brahmin Kerala. But the most widely accepted theory is that the ethnic group is not native to Kerala and the Nairs of Kerala and the similarly matrilineal Bunts of southern Tulu Nadu are thought to be descendants of the Kshatriyas who accompanied the Brahmins to Kerala and Tulu Nadu respectively from Ahichatra/Ahikshetra in southern Panchala. [31] One finds mention of the Nairs during the reign of the King Rama Varma Kulashekhara (1020-1102) of the second Chera dynasty, when the Chera Kingdom was attacked by the Cholas. The Nairs fought by forming suicide squads (Chavers) against the invading force. It is not clear whether the Cheras themselves were Nairs, or if the Cheras employed the Nairs as a warrior class.[32]

The Sanskrit Kerala Mahatmayam, an upa purana of the Bhoogola Purana, calls them the progeny of Namboodiri men with Deva, Rakshasa and Gandharva women.

Connection with Bunts and Tulu Nadu

The 17th century the Brahmin-inspired Keralolpathi and Grama Padhati describes the Nairs of Kerala and the similarly matrilineal Bunts of southern Tulu Nadu as descendants of the Kshatriyas who accompanied the Brahmins to Kerala and Tulu Nadu respectively from Ahichatra/Ahikshetra in southern Panchala.

The Manual of Madras Administration Vol II (printed in 1885) notes that the Nadavas are the same people as the Nairs of Malabar and the Bunts of southern Tulu Nadu:
They appear to have entered Malabar from the North rather than the South and to have peopled first the Tulu, and then the Malayalam country. They were probably the off-shoot of some colony in the Konkan or the Deccan. In Malabar and south of Kanara as far as Kasargod, they are called Nayars and their language is Malayalam. From Kasargod to Brahmavar, they are termed as Bunts and speak Tulu. To the north of Brahmavar, they are called Nadavars, and they speak Kanarese.

The Nairs have disappeared as an entity from Tulu Nadu but the inscriptions found in Barkur from the medieval period as well as the Grama Padathi, which gives the history of Brahmin families in Tulu Nadu, have made several references to the Nairs. They seemed to have intimate connections with the Brahmins and acted as their protectors, perhaps brought to Tulu Nadu by the Kadamba kings in the 8th century. Kadamba king Mayuravarma, who is credited with bringing Brahmins from Ahichatra (from the north), also settled Nairs in Tulu Nadu. Yet, there is no written proof for this occurrence and the only mention of the Nairs in the inscriptions comes after the Alupa period (early part of 14th century).Like some of the kings of Malabar some South Kanara princes also have Nair ancestry. For example the last ruler of Kanajar in Karkala Taluk was a Nayar Hegde.The royal house in Kowdoor (adjacent to Kanajar) is known as “Naayara bettu” which still exists. Also "Nayara" is one of the Bunts surname. It is postulated that the Nairs in Tulunadu were later absorbed into the social stratum of the Bunt/Nadava community.


Middle age South Indian history, historians, and foreign travelers referred to the Nairs as a dignified martial nobility. The earliest reference to Nairs comes from the Greek ambassador Megasthenes. In his accounts of ancient India, he refers to the "Nayars of Malabar" and the "Kingdom of Chera".[33] .Another view is that Megasthenes did mention about Nehra community as Narae a Scythian community living in North India and not Nairs in Kerala.

Irrespective of the different theories that seek to explain the origin of Nairs, it is clear that till the early 20th century, Nairs exerted their influence in medieval Kerala society as feudal lords and owned large estates. The position in society of the Nairs as that of a martial nobility in medieval Kerala has been likened to the position in society of the Samurai in medieval Japan.[34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41] Nairs dominated the civil, administrative and military elite of the pre-British era in Kerala.Template:Fact

Decline of Nair dominance

The decline of Nair dominance came about in multiple stages. During colonial times, the British perceived that Nairs were an inherent threat to their hegemony in the region and therefore outlawed their right to bear weapons and by banning the Kerala martial art of Kalaripayattu.[42][43] Weapons were integral to the Nair psyche and power, and combined with repressive legislation led to a loss of social standing for Nairs, though some of the social legislation was in part inspired by the Nairs themselves, such as changes in inheritance law permitting the Karanavan to pass on some (and later all) of the fruits of his stewardship of the taravad to his own children. During post-colonial years, the Land reforms of 1950's led to massive loss of land-ownership by Nair feudal lords and some Nair gentry were relegated to poverty overnight. The decline of Nair dominance was however tempered by their conversion through the 20th century to the academic and professional classes and their high profile in Kerala politics. ]]

Early in the British period, Nair armies were disbanded. Perhaps partly as a result, plural marital unions gradually died out in the 19th century. Children began to be maintained by their father, to support him in his old age, and to perform the ceremonies at his death. Laws passed in the 1930s enforced monogamy, permitted division of the matrilineal estate among male and female members, and gave children full rights of maintenance and inheritance from the father. By the mid-20th century it was increasingly common, especially in towns, for nuclear families to form separate residential and economic units.[44]

Additional factors such as the impact of the market economy, the disappearance of traditional military training, the absorption of new values through the new system of education, the self-consciousness being generated among the lower castes and their cry for equality and privileges also contributed to the decline of Nair dominance.[45] Although sambandham from a Namboothiri family was practiced earlier, marriages within the community mostly happened if the Jathakam of the couple matched. In the changing socio-political scenario, increasing number of intra-love, inter-caste, inter-religious marriages have affected the naive Nair culture badly.


The exact number of Nairs living in Kerala is not known as caste based census is illegal in India. The government sources frequently sites a number of around 12.88% of the total population based on voter registration and municipal records. The same figure is used for the consideration of university admissions and Public Service jobs. But various sources site figures ranging from 15% [46], 16% [47], 17.5% [48], 19%[49] and 20% [50][51]. There is also the practical difficulty of certain Nair subcastes declaring as independent caste. Out of those citizens who are eligible to vote in Kerala, 15% belong to the Nair community. [52]

Nair population has been declining in Kerala. Forced conversions and executions of Nairs by Tipu Sultan [53] contributed initially to the decline from late 1700s. Some of the districts in Kerala have very minimal population of Nairs. Malappuram has a Nair population of 1.8% and Kasargode has about 2.1%[54].

The most reliable population figures comes from two sources. The BCRC estimated Nair population at 14.47% of the total population of Kerala based on a state wide sample survey conducted for the reservation of seats in educational institutions. At the same time, the government for the same purpose, gave a figure of 15.35% based on the Census of Travancore in 1941, Census of Cochin in 1941 & Census of Malabar in 1921. [55] This figure will be true if the population growth rate is uniform for all the ethnic groups in Kerala. But this is not the case, as according to the 1941 Census, the Total Fertility Rate varied across various ethnic groups. In 1941, Kammalas had the highest TFR at 3.88 children per woman. They were followed by Ezhavas at 3.84, Syrians at 3.79, Muslims at 3.71 and Nadars at 3.64 children per woman. On the other hand, Nairs had a TFR of only 3.63 children per woman. Below the Nairs were Pulayas and Vellalas (3.43 each), Parayas (3.23), Brahmins (3.13) and Kuravas (3.13). [56] But it should be noted that the Censuses of 1941 and 1921 counted many of the Nair subcastes (Maarar for example) as independent castes, and they were not added to the Nair population.

Census of Travancore, 1941

Travancore had a total population of 6,059,000 in 1941. Out of that 3,671,480 or 61% was Hindu. 1,963,808 (32%) were X'ian and 423,500 (7%) were Muslim. Upper Caste Hindus constituted 1,272,000 or 21% of the population, of which Nairs were 1,062,357 (17.53% of the total population of Travancore). Namboothiris constituted for 0.07% of the population at 4,229. Non-Namboothiri Brahmins like Pisharody numbered a further 1.20% at 72,605. Other Forward Castes numbered 133,000 (2.2% of the population), mostly Maarans, Ambalavasis, Samanta Kshatriyas and Vellalas. [57]

In 1941, Nairs constituted the second largest ethnic group in the Kingdom of Travancore at 17.53% of the population. They were followed by Ezhavas at 17.14%. The largest ethnic group was the Syrians at 18.78%. [58]

Nair population had decreased from 17.65% in 1901 to 17.53% in 1941. But the decrease was more evident for some of the other castes. For example Nambuthiris plummeted from 0.32% to 0.07%. On the other hand, Muslims increased from 6.45% to 7% and Ezhavas increased from 16.66% to 17.14%. [59]


In reality there are only five "genuine" Nair sub-castes. These included:

  • Kiryathil Nairs : They are a class of Nairs found usually in Malabar and Cochin. The 17th century Keralolpathi[60] states them to be descendants of warrior Naga tribes who came to Kerala from the north along the western coast. It may be noted that the earlier Keralamahatmayam, an Upa Purana of the Bhoogola Hindu Purana, does not make mention of any subcastes among the Nairs but only states them to be the military caste of Kerala.
  • Illathu Nairs : They were brought in by Parasurama, as per the Keralolpathi, to serve the Brahmins as tenants, servants, warriors, cultivators etc. Purificatory rites by the Maarans and priestly service from the Elayatus distinguished the Illathu Nairs.
  • Swaroopathil Nairs or Cherna Nairs : These Nairs were the warriors of Kshatriya Royal Households known as Swaroopams. In Malabar they are classed as Akathu Cherna Nairs and Purathu Cherna Nairs. The highest of Swaroopathil Nairs were those included in the Paroor Swaroopam, who being originally Illathu Nairs have their purificatory rites performed by Maarans.
  • Pandamangalam Nairs : They were the Nairs appointed by Parasurama to serve in Temples. They migrated from Tamil Nadu of the Pandyan kingdom as it was then known.
  • Tamil Padam Nairs : This class of Nairs, as the name indicates, were migrants from Tamil Nadu who were embraced into the Nair community.

Vellalar and Saiva Vellalar Pillai having Tamil origin and using pillai sirname like southurn nairs but they are not being counted along with sub castes of Nair like Menon, Nambiar etc in Kerala. Also Bunts who speak Malayalam or Tulu as mother tongue are usually considered as the related cast of Nairs in Malabar.

from 1779-1825)]]

There were more than 100 sub group in olden days such as Athikurushi, Vyavari, Chakala, Pallichan etc. Stratification between the different Nair subcastes is non-existent in the present day, with individuals and families usually identifying themselves simply as "Nairs".

Customs and traditions

For main article see Nair ceremonies and customs.


, a 19th century poet and writer (The Azhakath Kurup, also known as Sri Karanayattu Kurup, was a member of the Ettara Yogam)]]

The dressing style of women was not generally distinguishable from that of men. On festive occasions the Pudava, a gilt bordered mundu, was worn. After the introduction of the Rauka (blouse) in the early 20th century, this particular dressing style went out of fashion. The mundu is still widely used by almost everybody in Kerala, though Western clothing, has found tremendous acceptance as well.

Men usually, besides amulets and rings, had their ears pierced and wore earrings studded with precious gems. Women had for the neck ornaments such as the Kantasaram, Nalupanti, Addiyal, Ponnu-Nool, Nagapadam (the most important ornament of a Nair lady), Arimbu Mani, Jnali Kuzhal, Minnum Maniyum, Arasillatali, Pachakkatali, Kasu Malai, Kuzhalmala, Rasi Tali, Padakkatali etc. For the nose, pendants called Mukuttis were worn set with ruby or diamond generally. For the arms, bangles such as Kattikappu, Maniyalakappu, Swarna-Sangala Muduku etc. were worn. For the waist, ornaments known as Kacchapuram were worn. Young girls wore ornaments even on their feet, known as Thanda or Padaswaram. The Nair ladies extended their ear lobes and the only two types of ornaments which were worn in the ears were a type of cylindrical ornament known as Takka or a two lipped biconvex disc considered more fashionable, known as the Toda. Jewels were not worn on the head. Tattooing was not favored among the Nairs and was considered demeaning.[61]

Food and drink

Boiled rice (Choru) and the rice gruel known as kanjee (pronounced /ˈkɒndʒiː/) formed the staple food of the Nairs. The coconut, jackfruit, plantain, mango and other fruits and vegetables were widely used. Coconut oil was also used widely. Ghee was used in well-to-do families and on festive occasions. Rice in the form of 'Kanji' or 'Choru' was served thrice a day at mealtimes along with curries and other additional dishes. Non-vegetarian food was not objectionable and fish was the most commonly consumed additional dish. Traditionally beef was not eaten by Nairs it is a general misconception conceived by the British to cause enmity between Brahmins and Nairs. Killing of the cow is resented. They had a pious attitude towards cows just like other Hindus. Dairy items like milk, curd, buttermilk, butter and ghee were greatly relished. Alcoholic drinks as a rule were prohibited. Sweet dishes like Palpayasam and Ada Prathaman were prepared during festive occasions. Other special dishes included Kozhukkatta, Chivda, Elayappam (sweet), Ottada, Kaliyodakka, etc [62].

Caste system

Kerala, referred to as a "lunatic asylum of castes" by Swami Vivekananda, had a system of untouchability and caste discrimination that was not seen in other parts of the subcontinent. The Nairs, along with the Nambudiri Brahmins, played a major role in upholding this system.

"Their [Nair] submission to superiors was great; but they exacted deference from those under them with a cruelty, and arrogance, rarely practised but among Hindus in their state of independence"

"A Nair was expected to instantly cut down a Tiar, or Mucua, who presumed to defile him by touching his person; and a similar fate awaited a slave, who did not turn out of the road as a Nair passed"[63]

Fortunately, especially after Indian Independence in 1947, the rigid caste barriers upheld by the Nairs began to break down. Today, Kerala is known for communal harmony and a lower level of caste violence than in other parts of India.

Socio-political movements



A number of socio-religious reform movements, which were also the earliest democratic mass movements in Kerala, took shape from late 1800s. The Nairs also felt the need for reform in response to such changes. Throughout the medieval period and until well into the 19th century, the Nairs had a pre-eminent role in Kerala. By the middle of the 19th century, however, this dominance started waning. Institutions like the sambandham and the matrilineal joint family system which had ensured the strength of the Nair community earlier, now became productive of many evils in changing socio-political background of Kerala. The impact of the market economy, the disappearance of traditional military training, the absorption of new values through the new system of education, the self-consciousness being generated among the lower castes and their cry for equality and privileges - all these factors brought about a decline of Nair dominance. The sense of decline gave an impetus to the spirit of reform that expressed itself in the work of religious men like Chattambi Swamikal, in literature, on the press and platform and later in legislative enactments in respect of marriage, inheritance, property rights, etc. Ultimately, the movements crystallized in the foundation of the Nair Service Society, in 1914.

The Nair Service Society (NSS) is an organization created for the upliftment and welfare of the Nair community. It is headquartered at Perunna in the town of Changanassery in Kottayam District, Kerala State, India. It was established under the leadership of Mannathu Padmanabhan[64]. The NSS is a three tier organisation with Karayogams at the base level, Taluk Unions at the intermediate level and the Headquarters at the apex level.

The Society owns and manages a large number of educational institutions and hospitals. These include the NSS College of Engineering at Palakkad, NSS Hindu College at Changanassery, NSS College at Pandalam, Mahatma Gandhi College at Thiruvananthapuram, SVRVNSS College at Vazhoor, Pazhassi Raja NSS College at Mattanur, Kannur and the Women's College at Niramankara, Thiruvananthapuram. The N.S.S. runs more than 150 schools, 18 Arts and Science colleges, 3 Training colleges, 1 Engineering college, 1 Homoeo Medical College, several Nursing Colleges, Polytechnic college, T.T.C Schools, Working Women Hostels and Technical institutions.

Taking the lead given by Mannathu Padmanabhan, expatriate Nairs both in other startes of India as well as in countries other than India have formed Nair Service Societies in their states and countries of domicile. Examples are Karnataka Nair Service Society with 21 karayogams in Bangalore, and the Calcutta Nair Service Society in Kolkata. These Societies of Non Kerala origin retain the cultural uniqueness of the Nairs at the same time adapting many practices to the times and country of their adoption. Efforts are on to bring together all Nair groups the world over under an umbrella " International Federation of Nair Societies".

National Democratic Party (NDP)

The Nair community had a political outfit called the NDP (National Democratic Party), and it had 15 MLA's in the Kerala Assembly. The NDP was dissolved and from 1994 and onwards, the Nair Service Society adopted an equi-distance policy towards the political fronts in Kerala.

Notable Nairs

See main article, Notable Nairs.

Notes and References

  1. Census of India 2001
  3. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats, Rohtak, India (1938, 1967)
  4. Kishori Lal Faujdar: Uttar Pradesh ke Madhyakalin Jatvansh aur Rajya, Jat Samaj, Monthly Magazine, Agra, September-October 1999
  5. "Nair." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 5 June 2008
  6. Encyclopedia Britannica
  7. "Nāyar." Encyclopædia Britannica. Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008.
  8. American Asiatic Association (1942). Asia: Asian Quarterly of Culture and Synthesis. Asia Magazine. p. 22. 
  9. Paul Hartmann, B. R. Patil, Anita Dighe (1989). The Mass Media and Village Life: An Indian Study. Sage Publications. p. 224. 
  10. Kumara Padmanabha Sivasankara Menon (1965). Many Worlds: An Autobiography. Oxford University Press. p. 2. 
  11. Hugh Gantzer (April 1975-March 1976). Imprint. Business Press. p. 80. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 Nayar History and Cultural Relations
  15. The Eastern Anthropologist, Ethnographic and Folk-Culture Society (Uttar Pradesh, India), Lucknow University Anthropology Laboratory, 1958, p108
  16. A. Sreedhara Menon (1967). A Survey of Kerala History. Sahitya Pravarthaka Co-operative Society. p. 204. 
  17. N. S. Mannadiar (1977). Lakshadweep. Administration of the Union Territory of Lakshadweep. p. 52. 
  18. Ke. Si. Māmmanmāppiḷa (1980). Reminiscences. Malayala Manorama Pub. House. p. 75. 
  19. P. V. Balakrishnan (1981). Matrilineal System in Malabar. p. 27. 
  20. Madras (Presidency) (1885). Manual of the Administration of the Madras Presidency. p. 100. 
  21. The cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, Edward Balfour, 1885, p249
  22. Kerala - Gateway to paradise,
  23. K. Balachandran Nair (1974). In Quest of Kerala. Accent Publications. p. 117. 
  24. James Hastings (2003). Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 5. Kessinger Publishing. p. 231. 
  25. Downfall of Hindu India, Chintaman Vinayak Vaidya, 1986, p278
  26. Ramananda Chatterjee (1922). The Modern Review. Prabasi Press Private, Ltd.. p. 675. 
  27. Jervoise Athelstane Baines (1893), General report on the Census of India, 1891, London, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, p. 184
  28. Ramananda Chatterjee (1907). The Modern Review. Prabasi Press Private, Ltd. p. 695. 
  29. Raman Menon, K. "The Scythian Origin of the Nairs", Malabar Quarterly Review, Vol. I, No. 2, June 1902
  30. V. Nagam Aiya (1906). The Travancore State Manual. Princely State of Travancore. p. 348. 
  31. Theory of origin
  32. The Nair heritage of Kerala: People and culture,
  33. Aiya, V. Nagam: "Travancore State Manual", pages 232, 238
  34. Neither Newton nor Leibniz,
  35. From Vedic Martial Arts to Aikido,
  36. A travel feature on the ancient Kerala art of Kalaripayattu,
  37. Kalaripayattu, the traditional martial art,
  38. John Keay (1999). Into India. University of Michigan Press. p. 75. ISBN 0472086359. 
  39. Praxy Fernandes (1969). Storm Over Seringapatam: The Incredible Story of Hyder Ali & Tippu Sultan. Thackers. p. 35. 
  40. Praxy Fernandes (1991). The Tigers of Mysore: A Biography of Hyder Ali & Tipu Sultan. Viking. p. 29. ISBN 0670839876. 
  41. Indian Department of Tourism (1966). Mysore and Kerala. Indian Department of Tourism. p. 4. 
  42. Ancient martial art fights for survival in India,
  43. Kalari,
  44. "Nāyar." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 26 June 2008 <>
  45. Ravi Varman Thampi
  60. Dr. Hermann Gundert, Keralolpathiyum Mattum, (Band 4, Hermann Gundert Series, Eight works published during 1843-1904) (Kottayam: Current Books, 1992), p 185
  61. Travancore State Manual 1906 by Nagam Aiya, Vol II page 351
  62. Travancore State Manual 1906 by V Nagam Aiya, Vol II page 352
  63. A general collection of ... voyages and travels, digested by J. Pinkerton - Page 736
  64. V. Balakrishnan & R. Leela Devi, 1982, Mannathu Padmanabhan : and the revival of Nairs in Kerala, Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi

See also

External links


Up to date as of January 15, 2010

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