pine: Wikis


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Encyclopedia

This article is about the tree. For other uses of the term "pine," see Pine (disambiguation).
Pine
File:Pinus
Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae
Genus: Pinus
L.
Subgenera

See Pinus classification for complete taxonomy to species level. See list of pines by region for list of species by geographical distribution.

Pines are coniferous trees in the genus Pinus (pronounced /ˈpaɪnəs/),[1] in the family Pinaceae. They make up the monotypic subfamily Pinoideae. There are about 115 species of pine, although different authorities accept between 105 and 125 species.

Contents

Distribution

, Lebanon]]

Pinus pinea in a Rome (Italy) street]]

Pines are native to most of the Northern Hemisphere. In Eurasia, they range from the Canary Islands and Scotland east to the Russian Far East, and in the Philippines, north to just over 70°N in Norway (Scots Pine) and eastern Siberia (Siberian Dwarf Pine), and south to northernmost Africa, the Himalaya and Southeast Asia, with one species (Sumatran Pine) just crossing the Equator in Sumatra to 2°S. In North America, they range from 66°N in Canada (Jack Pine) south to 12°N in Nicaragua (Caribbean Pine). The highest diversity in the genus occurs in Mexico and California. Pines are also abundantly found in the Northern areas of Pakistan. These areas include Murree, Kaghan, Naran, Pakistan Administered Kashmir and the surrounding areas. There are some extremely old pines to be found in the Kashmir region.

Pines have been introduced in subtropical and temperate portions of the Southern Hemisphere, including Chile, Brazil, South Africa, Australia, Argentina and New Zealand, where they are grown widely as a source of timber, and some species are becoming invasive.

Morphology

Pines are evergreen and resinous trees (rarely shrubs) growing to 3–80 m tall, with the majority of species reaching between 15-45 m tall. The smallest are Siberian Dwarf Pine and Potosi Pinyon, and the tallest, Sugar Pine. Pines are long-lived, typically reaching ages of 100–1,000 years, some even more. The longest-lived is the Great Basin Bristlecone Pine Pinus longaeva, one individual of which at 4,840 years old in 2008 is one of the oldest living organisms in the world.

The bark of most pines is thick and scaly, but some species have thin, flaking bark. The branches are produced in regular "pseudo whorls", actually a very tight spiral but appearing like a ring of branches arising from the same point. Many pines are uninodal, producing just one such whorl of branches each year, from buds at the tip of the year's new shoot, but others are multinodal, producing two or more whorls of branches per year. The spiral growth of branches, needles and cone scales are arranged in Fibonacci number ratios. The new spring shoots are sometimes called "candles"; they are covered in brown or whitish bud scales and point upward at first, then later turn green and spread outward. These "candles" offer foresters a means to evaluate fertility of the soil and vigour of the trees.

Foliage

(Pinus pinea), showing the dark brown scale leaves and needle leaves on an adult shoot]]

Pines have four types of leaves:

  • Seed leaves (cotyledons) on seedlings, borne in a whorl of 4-24.
  • Juvenile leaves, which follow immediately on seedlings and young plants, 2-6 cm long, single, green or often blue-green, and arranged spirally on the shoot. These are produced for six months to five years, rarely longer.
  • Scale leaves, similar to bud scales, small, brown and non-photosynthetic, and arranged spirally like the juvenile leaves.
  • Needles, the adult leaves, which are green (photosynthetic), bundled in clusters (fascicles) of (1-) 2-5 (-6) needles together, each fascicle produced from a small bud on a dwarf shoot in the axil of a scale leaf. These bud scales often remain on the fascicle as a basal sheath. The needles persist for 1.5-40 years, depending on species. If a shoot is damaged (e.g. eaten by an animal), the needle fascicles just below the damage will generate a bud which can then replace the lost leaves.

Cones

(Pinus taeda): male cones]]
cone on the forest floor.]]

Pines are mostly monoecious, having the male and female cones on the same tree, though a few species are sub-dioecious with individuals predominantly, but not wholly, single-sex. The male cones are small, typically 1-5 cm long, and only present for a short period (usually in spring, though autumn in a few pines), falling as soon as they have shed their pollen. The female cones take 1.5-3 years (depending on species) to mature after pollination, with actual fertilization delayed one year. At maturity the female cones are 3-60 cm long. Each cone has numerous spirally arranged scales, with two seeds on each fertile scale; the scales at the base and tip of the cone are small and sterile, without seeds. The seeds are mostly small and winged, and are anemophilous (wind-dispersed), but some are larger and have only a vestigial wing, and are bird-dispersed (see below). At maturity, the cones usually open to release the seeds, but in some of the bird-dispersed species (e.g. Whitebark Pine), the seeds are only released by the bird breaking the cones open. In others, the fire climax pines (e.g. Monterey Pine, Pond Pine), the seeds are stored in closed ("serotinous") cones for many years until a forest fire kills the parent tree; the cones are also opened by the heat and the stored seeds are then released in huge numbers to re-populate the burnt ground.

Classification

Pines are divided into three subgenera, based on cone, seed and leaf characters:

  • Subgenus Strobus (white or soft pines). Cone scale without a sealing band. Umbo terminal. Seedwings adnate. One fibrovascular bundle per leaf.
  • Subgenus Ducampopinus (pinyon, lacebark and bristlecone pines). Cone scale without a sealing band. Umbo dorsal. Seedwings articulate. One fibrovascular bundle per leaf.
  • Subgenus Pinus (yellow or hard pines). Cone scale with a sealing band. Umbo dorsal. Seedwings articulate. Two fibrovascular bundles per leaf.

Ecology

s killed these Lodgepole Pines in Prince George, British Columbia.]] Pines grow well in acid soils, some also on calcareous soils; most require good soil drainage, preferring sandy soils, but a few, e.g. Lodgepole Pine, will tolerate poorly drained wet soils. A few are able to sprout after forest fires, e.g. Canary Island Pine. Some species of pines, e.g. Bishop Pine, need fire to regenerate and their populations slowly decline under fire suppression regimes. Several species are adapted to extreme conditions imposed by elevation and latitude; see e.g. Siberian Dwarf Pine, Mountain Pine, Whitebark Pine and the bristlecone pines. The pinyon pines and a number of others, notably Turkish Pine, are particularly well adapted to growth in hot, dry semi-desert climates.

The seeds are commonly eaten by birds and squirrels. Some birds, notably the Spotted Nutcracker, Clark's Nutcracker and Pinyon Jay, are of importance in distributing pine seeds to new areas. Pine needles are sometimes eaten by some Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species (see list of Lepidoptera that feed on pines), the Symphytan species Pine sawfly, and goats.

Uses

Pines are among the most commercially important of tree species, valued for their timber and wood pulp throughout the world. In temperate and tropical regions, they are fast-growing softwoods that will grow in relatively dense stands, their acidic decaying needles inhibiting the sprouting of competing hardwoods. Commercial pines are grown in plantations for timber that is denser, more resinous, and therefore more durable than spruce (Picea). Pine wood is widely used in high-value carpentry items such as furniture, window frames, paneling, floors and roofing.

The resin of some species is an important source of turpentine. See also pitch.

Many pine species make attractive ornamental plantings for parks and larger gardens, with a variety of dwarf cultivars being suitable for smaller spaces. Pines are also commercially grown and harvested for Christmas trees. Pine cones, the largest and most durable of all conifer cones are craft favorites. Pines boughs, always appreciated, especially in wintertime for their pleasant smell and greenery, are popularly cut for decorations.

Because this coniferous species has no insect or decay resistance qualities after logging, it is generally recommended for construction purposes as indoor use only (ex. indoor drywall framing). This wood left outside can not be expected to last more than 12-18 months depending on the type of climate it is exposed to. It is commonly referred to as several different names which include North American timber, SPF (spruce, pine, fir) and whitewood.

Pine needles serve as food for various Lepidoptera. See List of Lepidoptera which feed on Pines.

Food uses

Some species have large seeds, called pine nuts, that are harvested and sold for cooking and baking.

The soft, moist, white inner bark (cambium) found clinging to the woody outer bark is edible and very high in vitamins A and C. It can be eaten raw in slices as a snack or dried and ground up into a powder for use as a thickener in stews, soups, and other foods, such as pine bread. A tea made by steeping young, green pine needles in boiling water (known as "tallstrunt" in Sweden) is high in vitamins A and C.

Etymology

The modern English name pine derives from Latin Pinus by way of French pin; similar names are used in other Romance languages. In the past (pre-19th century) they were often known as fir, from Old Norse fyrre, by way of Middle English firre. The Old Norse name is still used for pines in some modern north European languages, in Danish, fyr, in Norwegian and Swedish, furu, and Föhre in German, but in modern English, "fir" is now restricted to Fir (Abies) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga).

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607

References

  • Farjon, A. 1984, 2nd edition 2005. Pines. E. J. Brill, Leiden. ISBN 90-04-13916-8
  • Little, E. L., Jr., and Critchfield, W. B. 1969. Subdivisions of the Genus Pinus (Pines). US Department of Agriculture Misc. Publ. 1144 (Superintendent of Documents Number: A 1.38:1144).
  • Richardson, D. M. (ed.). 1998. Ecology and Biogeography of Pinus. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 530 p. ISBN 0-521-55176-5
  • Mirov, N. T. 1967. The Genus Pinus. Ronald Press, New York (out of print).
  • Classification of pines
  • Gymnosperm Database - Pinus


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Pinus brutia (1)

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

Noun

Singular
pine

Plural
pines

pine (plural pines) (countable) and (uncountable)

  1. (countable) Any coniferous tree of the genus Pinus.
  2. (countable) Any tree (usually coniferous) which resembles a member of this genus in some respect.
  3. (uncountable) The wood of pine tree.
Synonyms

tree of the genus Pinus

wood of pine tree

Derived terms
Translations
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Etymology 2

Old English pinian (torment), from *pine “pain”, possibly from Latin poena (punishment), from Ancient Greek ποινή (poinē), penalty, fine, bloodmoney). Cognate to pain.

Entered Germanic with Christianity; cognate to Middle Dutch pinen, Old High German pinon, Old Norse pina.[1]

Noun

Singular
pine

Plural
pines

pine (plural pines)

  1. (archaic) A painful longing.
Translations

Verb

Infinitive
to pine

Third person singular
pines

Simple past
pined

Past participle
pined

Present participle
pining

to pine (third-person singular simple present pines, present participle pining, simple past and past participle pined)

  1. (intransitive) To long, to yearn so much that it causes suffering.
    Laura was pining away for Bill all the time he was gone.
    • 1855, John Sullivan Dwight (translator), “Oh Holy Night”, as printed in 1871, Adolphe-Charles Adam (music), “Cantique de Noël”, G. Schirmer (New York), originally by Placide Cappeau de Roquemaure, 1847
      Long lay the world in sin and error pining / Till He appear’d and the soul felt its worth
Translations

References

  • Notes:
  1. ^pine” in the Online Etymology Dictionary, Douglas Harper, 2001

Anagrams

  • Anagrams of einp
  • pein

French

Noun

pine

  1. (slang) nob, penis

Italian

Noun

pine f.

  1. Plural form of pina.

Maori

Etymology

Probably English pin

Noun

pine

  1. pin, tack, brooch

Norwegian

Verb

pine

  1. torment, torture

West Frisian

Noun

pine

  1. pain, ache

Simple English

Pine
File:Pinus
Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae
Genus: Pinus
L.

Pines are a family of conifers. It includes many well-known conifers such as cedars, firs, hemlocks, larches, pines and spruces. It is the largest living conifer family with between 220–250 species in 11 genera, and the second largest in geographical range, found in most of the Northern Hemisphere. Major centres of diversity are found in the mountains of southwest China, Mexico, central Japan and California.

Pinus

Pine is a genus in the Pinaceae family of the conifer division (Pinophyta). The wood that comes from it is also called pine. Pine is a softwood, with many uses. It is often used in furniture. This is because of its natural durability, and it is less expensive than hardwoods. All softwoods take up to 10–20 years to grow, which quicker than deciduous (hardwood) trees which take up to 100 years to grow.

Areas

Pines are found in almost the entire Northern Hemisphere. In North America, they are found from the southern part of Arctic to Nicaragua and Hispaniola. In Europe, they are found from Portugal and Scotland to Russia and in Asia, they are found from Russia to Japan and Philippines. They are also found in the Himalayas and some northern parts of Africa. They are also found in the North of Majorca (Mallorca) on the rugged mountains. Pines are trees that are wideley spread around the world.

Cones

File:Loblolly
Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda): male cones
File:Pine cone
A fully mature Monterey Pine cone on the forest floor.

Pines usually have male and female cones on the same tree. The male cones are small, typically 1–5 cm long, and only present for a short period, usually in spring. They fall as soon as they have shed their pollen. The female cones take 1.5–3 years (depending on species) to mature after pollination, with actual fertilization delayed one year. At maturity the female cones are 3–60 cm long. Each cone has numerous spirally arranged scales, with two seeds on each fertile scale; the scales at the base and tip of the cone are small and sterile, without seeds. The seeds are mostly small and winged, and are wind-dispersed. Some are bird-dispersed. In others, the fire climax pines (e.g. Monterey Pine, Pond Pine), the seeds are stored in closed cones for many years until a forest fire kills the parent tree; the cones are opened by the heat and the stored seeds are then released in huge numbers to re-populate the burnt ground.

koi:Пожум


frr:Sjüüren

mrj:Йӓктӹ








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