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File:Rosa bracteata
Rosa bracteata
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Rosoideae
Genus: Rosa

Between 100 and 150, see list

A rose is a perennial flower shrub or vine of the genus Rosa, within the family Rosaceae, that contains over 100 species and comes in a variety of colours. The species form a group of erect shrubs, and climbing or trailing plants, with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles. It is a common error to refer to roses having thorns. Thorns are modified branches or stems, whereas these sharp protrusions on a rose are modified epidermal tissues (prickles). Most are native to Asia, with smaller numbers of species native to Europe, North America, and northwest Africa. Natives, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and fragrance. [1]

The leaves are alternate and pinnately compound, with sharply toothed oval-shaped leaflets. The plant's fleshy edible fruit is called a rose hip. Rose plants range in size from puny, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach 20 metres in height. Species from different parts of the world easily hybridize, which has given rise to the many types of garden roses.

The name originates from Latin rosa, borrowed from Oscan from colonial Greek in southern Italy: rhodon (Aeolic form: wrodon), from Aramaic wurrdā, from Assyrian wurtinnu, from Old Iranian *warda (cf. Armenian vard, Avestan warda, Sogdian ward, Also the Hebrew ורד = vered and the Aramaic ורדא: these preceded the Greek above. Parthian wâr).[2][3]

Attar of rose is the steam-extracted essential oil from rose flowers that has been used in perfumes for centuries. Rose water, made from the rose oil, is widely used in Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. The French are known for their rose syrup, most commonly made from an extract of rose petals. In the United States, this French rose syrup is used to make rose scones.

Rose hips are occasionally made into jam, jelly, and marmalade, or are brewed for tea, primarily for their high Vitamin C content. They are also pressed and filtered to make rose hip syrup. Rose hips are also used to produce Rose hip seed oil, which is used in skin products and some makeup products.



File:Closeup of a pink rose in full bloom..JPG
Closeup of a rose flower in full bloom

The leaves of most species are 5–15 centimetres long, pinnate, with (3–) 5–9 (–13) leaflets and basal stipules; the leaflets usually have a serrated margin, and often a few small prickles on the underside of the stem. The vast majority of roses are deciduous but a few (particularly in Southeast Asia) are evergreen or nearly so.

The flowers of most species roses have five petals, with the exception of Rosa sericea, which usually has only four. Each petal is divided into two distinct lobes and is usually white or pink, though in a few species yellow or red. Beneath the petals are five sepals (or in the case of some Rosa sericea, four). These may be long enough to be visible when viewed from above and appear as green points alternating with the rounded petals. The ovary is inferior, developing below the petals and sepals.

The aggregate fruit of the rose is a berry-like structure called a rose hip. Rose species that produce open-faced flowers are attractive to pollinating bees and other insects, thus more apt to produce hips. Many of the domestic cultivars are so tightly petalled that they do not provide access for pollination. The hips of most species are red, but a few (e.g. Rosa pimpinellifolia) have dark purple to black hips. Each hip comprises an outer fleshy layer, the hypanthium, which contains 5–160 "seeds" (technically dry single-seeded fruits called achenes) embedded in a matrix of fine, but stiff, hairs. Rose hips of some species, especially the Dog Rose (Rosa canina) and Rugosa Rose (Rosa rugosa), are very rich in vitamin C, among the richest sources of any plant.The petals have waxy cuticals and it works like a leaf. The hips are eaten by fruit-eating birds such as thrushes and waxwings, which then disperse the seeds in their droppings. Some birds, particularly finches, also eat the seeds.

Rose prickles

While the sharp objects along a rose stem are commonly called "thorns", they are actually prickles — outgrowths of the epidermis (the outer layer of tissue of the stem). True thorns, as produced by e.g. Citrus or Pyracantha, are modified stems, which always originate at a node and which have nodes and internodes along the length of the thorn itself. Rose prickles are typically sickle-shaped hooks, which aid the rose in hanging onto other vegetation when growing over it. Some species such as Rosa rugosa and R. pimpinellifolia have densely packed straight spines, probably an adaptation to reduce browsing by animals, but also possibly an adaptation to trap wind-blown sand and so reduce erosion and protect their roots (both of these species grow naturally on coastal sand dunes). Despite the presence of prickles, roses are frequently browsed by deer. A few species of roses only have vestigial prickles that have no points. "Rose

[[File:|thumb|200px|Rose leaflets]].


[[File:|thumb|right|Rosa multiflora]] Some representative rose species

Pests and diseases

Roses are subject to several diseases, such as rose rust (Phragmidium mucronatum), rose black spot, and powdery mildew. Fungal diseases in the Rose are best solved by a preventative fungicidal spray program rather than by trying to cure an infection after it emerges on the plant. After the disease is visible, its spread can be minimized through pruning and the use of fungicides, although the actual infection cannot be reversed. Certain rose varieties are considerably less susceptible than others to fungal diseases.

The main insect pest affecting roses is the aphid (greenfly), which sucks the sap and weakens the plant. (Ladybugs are a predator of aphids and should be encouraged in the rose garden.) The spraying with insecticide of roses is often recommended but should be done with care to minimize the loss of beneficial insects. Roses are also used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species; see list of Lepidoptera that feed on roses.


File:Rose-picking in Bulgaria
Rose-picking in the Rose Valley near the town of Kazanlak in Bulgaria, 1870s, engraving by Austro-Hungarian traveller F. Kanitz

In horticulture roses are propagated by grafting or rooting cuttings. Cultivars are selected for their flowers. They may be grafted onto a rootstock that provides sturdiness, or (especially with Old Garden Roses) allowed to develop their own roots. Roses require 5 hours of direct sunlight a day during the growing season. Following blooming and exposed to frost roses enter a dormant stage in winter.

Roses are popular garden shrubs, as well as the most popular and commonly sold florists' flowers. In addition to their great economic importance as a florists crop, roses are also of great value to the perfume industry.

Many thousands of rose hybrids and cultivars have been bred and selected for garden use; most are double-flowered with many or all of the stamens having mutated into additional petals. In the early 19th century the Empress Josephine of France patronized the development of rose breeding at her gardens at Malmaison. As long ago as 1840 a collection numbering over one thousand different cultivars, varieties and species was possible when a rosarium was planted by Loddiges nursery for Abney Park Cemetery, an early Victorian garden cemetery and arboretum in England.

Twentieth-century rose breeders generally emphasized size and colour, producing large, attractive blooms with little or no scent. Many wild and "old-fashioned" roses, by contrast, have a strong sweet scent.

Roses thrive in temperate climates. Those based on Asian species do well in their native sub-tropical environments. Certain species and cultivars can even flourish in tropical climates, especially when grafted onto appropriate rootstocks.

There is no single system of classification for garden roses. In general, however, roses are placed in one of three main groups:

Wild Roses

The wild roses includes the species listed above and some of their hybrids.

Old Garden Roses

Most Old Garden Roses are classified into one of the following groups. In general, Old Garden Roses of European or Mediterranean origin are once-blooming woody shrubs, with notably fragrant, double-flowered blooms primarily in shades of white, pink and red. The shrubs' foliage tends to be highly disease-resistant, and they generally bloom only on two-year-old canes.

File:Rosa alba semi-plena img
'Alba Semiplena', an Alba rose


Literally "white roses", derived from R. arvensis and the closely allied R. alba. These are some of the oldest garden roses, probably brought to Great Britain by the Romans. The shrubs flower once yearly in the spring with blossoms of white or pale pink. The shrubs frequently feature gray-green foliage and a climbing habit of growth . Examples: 'Alba Semiplena', 'White Rose of York'.

File:Rosa 'Charles de Mills'
Gallica rose 'Charles de Mills,' before 1790


The gallica or Provins roses are a very old class developed from R. gallica, which is a native of central and southern Europe. The Apothecary's Rose, R. gallica officinalis, was grown in monastic herbiaries in the Middle Ages, and became famous in English history as the Red Rose of Lancaster. They flower once in the summer over low shrubs rarely over 4' tall. Unlike most other once-blooming Old Garden Roses, the gallica class includes shades of red, maroon and deep purplish crimson. Examples: 'Cardinal de Richelieu', 'Charles de Mills', 'Rosa Mundi' (R. gallica versicolor).

File:Rosa 'Quatre Saisons'.jpg
'Autumn Damask'('Quatre Saisons')


Originated in ancient times with a natural cross of (Rosa moschata x Rosa gallica) x Rosa fedtschenkoana.[4] Robert de Brie is given credit for bringing damask roses from Persia to Europe sometime between 1254 and 1276, although there is evidence from ancient Roman frescoes that at least one damask rose, existed in Europe for hundreds of years prior. Summer damasks bloom once in summer. Autumn or Four Seasons damasks bloom again later, in the fall: the only remontant Old European roses. Shrubs tend to have rangy to sprawly growth habits and vicious thorns. The flowers typically have a more loose petal formation than gallicas, as well as a stronger, tangy fragrance. Examples: 'Ispahan', 'Madame Hardy'.

Centifolia or Provence

Centifolia roses, raised in the seventeenth century in the Netherlands, are named for their "one hundred" petals; they are often called "cabbage" roses due to the globular shape of the flowers. The result of damask roses crossed with albas, the centifolias are all once-flowering. As a class, they are notable for their inclination to produce mutations of various sizes and forms, including moss roses and some of the first miniature roses (see below) . Examples: 'Centifolia', 'Paul Ricault'.


Mutations of primarily centifolia roses (or sometimes damasks), moss roses have a mossy excrescence on the stems and sepals that often emits a pleasant woodsy or balsam scent when rubbed. Moss roses are cherised for this unique trait, but as a group they have contributed nothing to the development of new rose classifications. Moss roses with centifolia background are once-flowering; some moss roses exhibit repeat-blooming, indicative of Autumn Damask parentage. Example: 'Common Moss' (centifolia-moss), 'Alfred de Dalmas' (Autumn Damask moss).


The Portland roses were long thought to be the first group of crosses between China roses and European roses; recent DNA analysis at the University of Lyons, however, has demonstrated that the original Portland Rose has no China lineage, but rather represents an autumn damask/gallica ancestry.[5] They were named after the Duchess of Portland who received (from Italy about 1775) a rose then known as R. paestana or 'Scarlet Four Seasons' Rose' (now known simply as 'The Portland Rose'). The whole class of Portland roses was thence developed from that one rose. The first repeat-flowering class of rose with fancy European-style blossoms, the plants tend to be fairly short and shrubby, with proportionately short flower stalks. Example: 'James Veitch', 'Rose de Rescht', 'Comte de Chambourd'.


File:Rosa 'Old Blush'.jpg
'Parson's Pink China' or 'Old Blush,' one of the "stud Chinas"

The China roses, based on Rosa chinensis, were cultivated in East Asia for thousands of years and finally reached Western Europe in the late 1700s. They are the parents of many of today's hybrid roses,[6] and they brought a change to the form of the flower.[7] Compared to the aforementioned European rose classes, the Chinese roses had less fragrant, smaller blooms carried over twiggier, more cold-sensitive shrubs. Yet they possessed the amazing ability to bloom repeatedly throughout the summer and into late autumn, unlike their European counterparts. This made them highly desirable for hybridization purposes in the early 1800s. The flowers of China roses were also notable for their tendency to "suntan," or darken over time — unlike the blooms of European roses, which tended to fade after opening.[7] Today's exhibition rose owes its form to the China genes, and the China Roses also brought slender buds which unfurl when opening.[7] According to Graham Stuart Thomas, China Roses are the class upon which modern roses are built.[7] Tradition holds that four "stud China" roses ('Slater's Crimson China', 1792; 'Parsons' Pink China', 1793; 'Hume's Blush Tea-scented China', 1809; and 'Parks' Yellow Tea-Scented China', 1824) were brought to Europe in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries; in fact there were rather more, at least five Chinas not counting the Teas having been imported.[8] This brought about the creation of the first classes of repeat-flowering Old Garden Roses, and later the Modern Garden Roses. Examples: 'Old Blush China', 'Mutabilis' (butterfly rose).

[[File:|thumb|left|150px|Tea rose 'Mrs Dudley Cross' (Paul 1907)]]


The original "Tea-scented Chinas" (Rosa x odorata) were Oriental cultivars thought to represent hybrids of R. chinensis with R. gigantea, a large Asian climbing rose with pale-yellow blossoms. Immediately upon their introduction in the early 1800s breeders went to work with them, especially in France, crossing them first with Chinas and then with Bourbons and Noisettes. The Teas are repeat-flowering roses, named for their fragrance being reminiscent of Chinese black tea (although this is not always the case). The colour range includes pastel shades of white, pink and (a novelty at the time) yellow to apricot. The individual flowers of many cultivars are semi-pendent and nodding, due to weak flower stalks. In a "typical" Tea, pointed buds produce high-centered blooms which unfurl in a spiral fashion, and the petals tend to roll back at the edges, producing a petal with a pointed tip: the Teas are thus the originators of today's "classic" florists' rose form. According to rose historian Brent Dickerson, the Tea classification owes as much to marketing as to botany; 19th-century nurserymen would label their Asian-based cultivars as "Teas" if they possessed the desirable Tea flower form, and "Chinas" if they did not.[9] Like the Chinas, the Teas are not hardy in colder climates. Examples: 'Lady Hillingdon', 'Maman Cochet'.

Bourbon rose 'Climbing Souvenir de la Malmaison',(Béluze 1843/Bennett 1893)


Bourbons originated on l'Île de Bourbon (now called Réunion) off the coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean. They are most likely the result of a cross between the Autumn Damask and the 'Old Blush' China rose, both of which were frequently used as hedging materials on the island. They flower repeatedly over vigorous, frequently semi-climbing shrubs with glossy foliage and purple-tinted canes. They were first Introduced in France in 1823. Examples: 'Louise Odier', 'Mme. Pierre Oger', 'Zéphirine Drouhin'.

File:Rosa 'Desprez a fleurs jaunes'.jpg
Noisette rose 'Desprez à fleurs jaunes' (Desprez 1830)


The first Noisette rose was raised as a hybrid seedling by a South Carolina rice planter named John Champneys. Its parents were the China Rose 'Parson's Pink' and the autumn-flowering musk rose (Rosa moschata), resulting in a vigorous climbing rose producing huge clusters of small pink flowers from spring to fall. Champneys sent seedlings of his rose (called 'Champneys' Pink Cluster') to his gardening friend, Philippe Noisette, who in turn sent plants to his brother Louis in Paris, who then introduced 'Blush Noisette' in 1817. The first Noisettes were small-blossomed, fairly winter-hardy climbers, but later infusions of Tea rose genes created a Tea-Noisette subclass with larger flowers, smaller clusters, and considerably reduced winter hardiness. Examples: 'Blush Noisette', 'Mme. Alfred Carriere' (Noisette), 'Marechal Niel' (Tea-Noisette). (See French and German articles on Noisette roses)

Hybrid Perpetual

File:Rosa 'La Reine'.jpg
Hybrid Perpetual rose 'La Reine' (Laffay 1844)

The dominant class of roses in Victorian England, hybrid perpetuals (a misleading translation of hybrides remontants, 'reblooming hybrids') emerged in 1838 as the first roses which successfully combined Asian remontancy with the Old European lineages. Since rebloom is a recessive trait, the first generation of Asian/European crosses (Hybrid Chinas, Hybrid Bourbons, Hybrid Noisettes) were stubbornly once-blooming, but when these roses were recrossed with themselves or with Chinas or teas, some of their offspring flowered more than once. The Hybrid Perpetuals thus were something of a miscellany, a catchall class derived to a great extent from the Bourbons but with admixtures of Chinas, teas, damasks, gallicas, and to a lesser extent Noisettes, albas and even centifolias.[10] They became the most popular garden and florist roses of northern Europe at the time, as the tender tea roses would not thrive in cold climates, and the Hybrid Perpetuals' very large blooms were well-suited to the new phenomenon of competitive exhibitions. The "perpetual" in the name hints at repeat-flowering, but many varieties of this class had poor reflowering habits; the tendency was for a massive spring bloom, followed by either scattered summer flowering, a smaller autumn burst, or sometimes nothing at all until next spring. Due to a limited color palette (white, pink, red) and lack of reliable repeat-bloom, the hybrid perpetuals were ultimately overshadowed by their own descendants, the Hybrid Teas. Examples: 'Ferdinand Pichard', 'Reine Des Violettes', 'Paul Neyron'.

Hybrid Musk

[[File:|thumb|right|Hybrid Musk rose 'Moonlight' (Pemberton 1913)]] The hybrid musk group was primarily developed by Rev. Joseph Pemberton, a British rosarian, in the first decades of the 20th century, based upon 'Aglaia', a 1896 cross by Peter Lambert. A seedling of this rose, 'Trier', is considered to the be foundation of the class. The genetics of the class are somewhat obscure, as some of the parents are unknown. Rose multiflora, however, is known to be one parent, and R. moschata (the musk rose) also figures in its heritage, though it is considered to be less important than the name would suggest. Hybrid musks are disease-resistant, remontant and generally cluster-flowered, with a strong, characteristic "musk" scent.[11][12] Examples include 'Buff Beauty' and 'Penelope'.

Bermuda "Mystery" Roses

A group of several dozen "found" roses that have been grown in Bermuda for at least a century. The roses have significant value and interest for those growing roses in tropical and semi-tropical regions, since they are highly resistant to both nematode damage and the fungal diseases that plague rose culture in hot, humid areas, and capable of blooming in hot and humid weather. Most of these roses are likely Old Garden Rose cultivars that have otherwise dropped out of cultivation, or sports thereof. They are "mystery roses" because their "proper" historical names have been lost. Tradition dictates that they are named after the owner of the garden where they were rediscovered.

Hybrid Rugosa

File:Rosa 'Blanc Double de Coubert'.jpg
Rugosa rose 'Blanc Double de Coubert' (Cochet 1893)

Derived from the R. Rugosa species, these vigorous roses are extremely hardy with excellent disease resistance. Most are extremely fragrant, repeat bloomers with moderately double flat flowers. The defining characteristic of a Hybrid Rugosa rose is its wrinkly leaves, but some hybrids do lack this trait. These roses will often set hips. Examples include 'Hansa' and 'Roseraie de l'Häy'.


There are also a few smaller classes (such as Scots, Sweet Brier) and some climbing classes of old roses (including Ayrshire, Climbing China, Laevigata, Sempervirens, Boursault, Climbing Tea, and Climbing Bourbon). Those classes with both climbing and shrub forms are often grouped together.

Modern Garden Roses

Classification of modern roses can be quite confusing because many modern roses have old garden roses in their ancestry and their form varies so much. The classifications tend to be by growth and flowering characteristics, such as "large-flowered shrub", "recurrent, large-flowered shrub", "cluster-flowered", "rambler recurrent", or "ground-cover non-recurrent". The following includes the most notable and popular classifications of Modern Garden Roses:

Hybrid Tea

File:Memorium Hybrid Tea
A 'Memoriam' hybrid tea rose (von Abrams 1962)

The favourite rose for much of the history of modern roses, hybrid teas were initially created by hybridizing Hybrid Perpetuals with Tea roses in the late 1800s. 'La France,' created in 1867, is universally acknowledged as the first indication of a new class of roses. Hybrid teas exhibit traits midway between both parents: hardier than the teas but less hardy than the hybrid perpetuals, and more everblooming than the hybrid perpetuals but less so than the teas. The flowers are well-formed with large, high-centered buds, and each flowering stem typically terminates in a single shapely bloom. The shrubs tend to be stiffly upright and sparsely foliaged, which today is often seen as a liability in the landscape. Hybrid teas became the single most popular class of garden rose of the 20th century; today, their reputation as being more high maintenance than many other rose classes has led to a decline in hybrid tea popularity among gardeners and landscapers in favour of lower-maintenance "landscape" roses. The hybrid tea remains the standard rose of the floral industry, however, and is still favoured in small gardens in formal situations. Examples: 'Peace' (yellow), 'Mister Lincoln (red), 'Double Delight' (bi-colour cream and red).


File:Rosa 'Soleil d'or2'.jpg
Pernetiana rose 'Soleil d'Or,' the first of its class (Pernet 1900)

The French breeder Joseph Pernet-Ducher initiated the first class of roses to include genes from the old Austrian brier rose (Rosa foetida) with his 1900 introduction of 'Soleil d'Or.' This resulted in an entirely new colour range for roses: shades of deep yellow, apricot, copper, orange, true scarlet, yellow bicolours, lavender, gray, and even brown were now possible. Originally considered a separate class, the Pernetianas or Hybrid Foetidas were officially merged into the Hybrid Teas in 1930. The new colour range did much to skyrocket hybrid tea popularity in the 20th century, but these colours came at a price: Rosa foetida also passed on a tendency toward disease-susceptibility, scentless blooms, and an intolerance of pruning, to its descendants.


Literally "many-flowered" roses, from the Greek "poly" (many) and "anthos" (flower). Originally derived from crosses between two East Asian species (Rosa chinensis and R. multiflora), polyanthas first appeared in France in the late 1800s alongside the hybrid teas. They featured short plants — some compact, others spreading in habit — with tiny blooms (1" in diameter on average) carried in large sprays, in the typical rose colors of white, pink and red. Their main claim to fame was their prolific bloom: From spring to fall, a healthy polyantha shrub might be literally covered in flowers, creating a strong color impact in the landscape. Polyantha roses are still regarded as low-maintenance, disease-resistant garden roses today, and remain popular for that reason. Examples: "Cecile Brunner", "The Fairy", "Red Fairy","Pink Fairy".


File:Rosa sp.
Rosa 'Borussia', a modern Floribunda rose

Rose breeders quickly saw the value in crossing polyanthas with hybrid teas, to create roses that bloomed with the polyantha profusion, but with hybrid tea floral beauty and color range. In 1909, the first polyantha/hybrid tea cross, 'Gruss an Aachen,' was created, with characteristics midway between both parent classes. As the larger, more shapely flowers and hybrid-tea-like growth habit separated these new roses from polyanthas and hybrid teas alike, a new class was created and named Floribunda, Latin for "many-flowering." Typical floribundas feature stiff shrubs, smaller and bushier than the average hybrid tea but less dense and sprawling than the average polyantha. The flowers are often smaller than hybrid teas but are carried in large sprays, giving a better floral effect in the garden. Floribundas are found in all hybrid tea colors and with the classic hybrid tea-shaped blossom, sometimes differing from hybrid teas only in their cluster-flowering habit. Today they are still used in large bedding schemes in public parks and similar spaces. Examples: 'Dainty Maid', 'Iceberg', 'Tuscan Sun'.


Grandifloras (Latin for "large-flowered") were the class of roses created in the mid 1900s to designate back-crosses between hybrid teas and floribundas that fit neither category — specifically, the 'Queen Elizabeth' rose, which was introduced in 1954[13]. Grandiflora shrubs are typically larger than either hybrid teas or floribundas, and feature hybrid tea-style flowers borne in small clusters of three to five, similar to a floribunda. Grandifloras maintained some popularity from about the 1950s to the 1980s but today they are much less popular than either the hybrid teas or the floribundas. Examples: 'Queen Elizabeth', 'Comanche,' 'Montezuma'.


File:"Meillandine" Rose in clay
Meillandine (a miniature rose) in a terracotta flowerpot

All of the classes of Old Garden Roses—gallicas, centifolias, etc.—had corresponding miniature forms, although these were once-flowering just as their larger forms were. As with the standard-sized varieties, miniature Old Garden roses were crossed with repeat-blooming Asian species to produce everblooming miniature roses. Today, miniature roses are represented by twiggy, repeat-flowering shrubs ranging from 6" to 36" in height, with most falling in the 12"–24" height range. Blooms come in all the hybrid tea colours; many varieties also emulate the classic high-centered hybrid tea flower shape. Miniature roses are often marketed and sold by the floral industry as houseplants, but it is important to remember that these plants are largely descended from outdoor shrubs native to temperate regions; thus, most miniature rose varieties require an annual period of cold dormancy to survive. (Examples: Petite de Hollande (Miniature Centifolia, once-blooming), Cupcake (Modern Miniature, repeat-blooming).)


File:Rose zepherine drouhin img
Rosa 'Zéphirine Drouhin', a climbing Bourbon rose (Bizot 1868)

As is the case with Miniature roses, all aforementioned classes of roses, both Old and Modern, have "climbing" forms, whereby the canes of the shrubs grow much longer and more flexible than the normal ("bush") forms. In the Old Garden Roses, this is often simply the natural growth habit of many cultivars and varieties; in many Modern roses, however, climbing roses are the results of spontaneous mutations. For example, 'Climbing Peace' is designated as a "Climbing Hybrid Tea," for it is genetically identical to the normal "shrub" form of the 'Peace' hybrid tea rose, except that its canes are long and flexible, i.e. "climbing." Most Climbing roses grow anywhere from 8'–20' in height and exhibit repeat-bloom. Rambler roses, although technically a separate class, are often lumped together with climbing roses. They also exhibit long, flexible canes, but are distinguished from true climbers in two ways: A larger overall size (20'–30' tall is common), and a once-blooming habit. Both climbing roses and rambling roses are not true vines such as ivy, clematis or wisteria; they lack the ability to cling to supports on their own, and must be manually trained and tied over structures such as arbors and pergolas. Examples: 'Blaze' (repeat-blooming climber), 'American Pillar' (once-blooming rambler).

English / David Austin

Although not officially recognized as a separate class of roses by any established rose authority, English (aka David Austin) roses are often set aside as such by consumers and retailers alike. Development started in the 1960s by David Austin of Shropshire, England, who wanted to rekindle interest in Old Garden Roses by hybridizing them with modern hybrid teas and floribundas. The idea was to create a new group of roses that featured blooms with old-fashioned shapes and fragrances, evocative of classic gallica, alba and "damask" roses, but with modern repeat-blooming characteristics and the larger modern color range as well. Austin mostly succeeded in his mission; his tribe of "English" roses, now numbering hundreds of varieties, has been warmly embraced by the gardening public and are widely available to consumers. David Austin roses are still actively developed, with new varieties released regularly. It should be noted that the typical winter-hardiness and disease-resistance of the classic Old Garden Roses has largely been compromised in the process; many English roses are susceptible to the same disease problems that plague modern hybrid teas and floribundas, and many are not hardy north of USDA Zone 5. Examples: 'Mary Rose,' 'Graham Thomas', 'Tamora'.

Canadian Hardy Roses

Developed for the extreme weather conditions of Canadian winters, these roses were developed by Agriculture Canada at the Morden Research Station in Morden, Manitoba and the Experimental Farm in Ottawa (and later at L'Assomption, Québec). These two main lines are called the Parkland series and the Explorer series. These programs have now been discontinued; however the remaining plant stock has been taken over by private breeders via the Canadian Artists series. Derived mostly from crosses of native Canadian species and more tender roses, these plants are extremely tolerant of cold weather, some down to -45C. A wide diversity of forms and colours were achieved. Examples include 'Morden Belle', 'Winnipeg Parks' and 'Cuthbert Grant'.

Other notable Canadian breeders include Georges Bugnet and Robert Erskine.

Landscape Roses

[[File:|thumb|right|200px|An example of a shrub rose.]]

File:Flower Carpet RED in the
Flower Carpet roses - easy care and colorful.

These are a modern category of rose developed mainly for mass amenity planting. They are collectively known as shrub roses. In the late 20th century, traditional hybrid tea and floribunda rose varieties fell out of favour amid gardeners and landscapers, as they are often labour- and chemical-intensive plants susceptible to myriad pest and disease problems. So-called "landscape" roses have thus been developed to fill the consumer desire for a garden rose that offers colour, form and fragrance, but is also low maintenance and easy to care for. Most landscape roses having the following characteristics:

  • Good disease resistance
  • Lower growing habit, usually under 60 cm (24 in)
  • Repeat flowering
  • Disease and pest resistance
  • Non suckering, growing on their own roots.

Principal parties involved in the breeding of new Landscape Roses varieties are: Werner Noak (Germany), Meidiland Roses (France), Boot & Co. (Netherlands), and William Radler (USA).

Flower Carpet roses, or Carpet roses as they are also known, have changed the whole spectrum of the landscape roses group. First introduced by Werner Noack in 1990, they at the time received the highest award given by the All Deutschland Rose testers in Germany, one of the toughest rose tests in the world. Of the 43 varieties in this test - and of which on average of all tests, is judged about 200 times in regard to the resistance to sickness, it was the only variety that passed the test, but also with the highest points ever given to a rose at that time, 85.5 out of a possible 100, with the disease resistance of 18.3 out of 20. Available globally, they are now regarded as one of the best landscape rose groups ever bred.

Carpet Roses

Again, like David Austin, these may not be officially recognized as a separate class of roses by any established rose authority, Carpet roses ( also known as Flower Carpet) are recognized by consumers, landscapers and industry alike. Werner Noack (Germany) started his breeding of disease resistant roses in 1965. He was passionate about roses, but did not believe that with all the diseases in roses that they would appeal to gardeners over the long term. In 1989 he introduced his first Flower Carpet rose, Flower Carpet Pink. Besides unprecedented disease tolerance, it had longest flowering of nearly any roses (from 5–9 months depending on climate) did not require any fancy pruning - could be cut back with shears, clippers or by tractor slashing ( doesn't matter whether cut back 1/3, or to soil level) and all of this on nice lush bright green foliage.

Continual development and a strong breeding program saw the introduction of different colours of Flower Carpet roses become available: White, Appleblossom, Red, Yellow, Gold and Coral. During this time breeding has continued under his son, Reinhard Noack. Further breeding saw in 2007 the introduction of his Next Generation breeding with Flower Carpet Pink Supreme, Scarlet and Amber - besides all the former attributes, these are at home in even warmer climatic conditions up to 42C.


[[File:|thumb|right|250px|This rosebush has been pruned to its current form.]]

Rose pruning, sometimes regarded as a horticultural art form, is largely dependent on the type of rose to be pruned, the reason for pruning, and the time of year it is at the time of the desired pruning.

Most Old Garden Roses of strict European heritage (albas, damasks, gallicas, etc.) are shrubs that bloom once yearly, in late spring or early summer, on two-year-old (or older) canes. As such, their pruning requirements are quite minimal, and are overall similar to any other analogous shrub, such as lilac or forsythia. Generally, only old, spindly canes should be pruned away, to make room for new canes. One-year-old canes should never be pruned because doing so will remove next year's flower buds. The shrubs can also be pruned back lightly, immediately after the blooms fade, to reduce the overall height or width of the plant. In general, pruning requirements for OGRs are much less laborious and regimented than for Modern hybrids.

Modern hybrids, including the hybrid teas, floribundas, grandifloras, modern miniatures, and English roses, have a complex genetic background that almost always includes China roses (R. chinensis). China roses were evergrowing, everblooming roses from humid subtropical regions that bloomed constantly on any new vegetative growth produced during the growing season. Their modern hybrid descendants exhibit similar habits: Unlike Old Garden Roses, modern hybrids bloom continuously (until stopped by frost) on any new canes produced during the growing season. They therefore require pruning away of any spent flowering stem, in order to divert the plant's energy into producing new growth and thence new flowers.

Additionally, Modern Hybrids planted in cold-winter climates will almost universally require a "hard" annual pruning (reducing all canes to 8"–12" in height) in early spring. Again, because of their complex China rose background, Modern Hybrids are typically not as cold-hardy as European OGRs, and low winter temperatures often desiccate or kill exposed canes. In spring, if left unpruned, these damaged canes will often die back all the way to the shrub's root zone, resulting in a weakened, disfigured plant. The annual "hard" pruning of hybrid teas, floribundas, etc. should generally be done in early spring; most gardeners coincide this pruning with the blooming of forsythia shrubs. Canes should be cut about 1/2" above a vegetative bud (identifiable as a point on a cane where a leaf once grew).

For both Old Garden Roses and Modern Hybrids, any weak, damaged or diseased growth should be pruned away completely, regardless of the time of year. Any pruning of any rose should also be done so that the cut is made at a forty five degree angle above a vegetative bud. This helps the pruned stem callus over more quickly, and also mitigates moisture buildup over the cut, which can lead to disease problems.

For all general rose pruning (including cutting flowers for arrangements), sharp secateurs (hand-held, sickle-bladed pruners) should be used to cut any growth 1/2" or less in diameter. For canes of a thickness greater than 1/2", pole loppers or a small handsaw are generally more effective; secateurs may be damaged or broken in such instances.


"Deadheading" is the simple practice of manually removing any spent, faded, withered, or discolored flowers from rose shrubs over the course of the blooming season. The purpose of deadheading is to encourage the plant to focus its energy and resources on forming new offshoots and blooms, rather than in fruit production. Deadheading may also be performed, if spent flowers are unsightly, for aesthetic purposes. Roses are particularly responsive to deadheading. Deadheading should be done by taking the stem down to the first 5-leaflet leaf, not just the base of the flower. This encourages further branching and flower production.

Deadheading causes different effects on different varieties of roses. For continual blooming varieties, whether Old Garden roses or more modern hybrid varieties, deadheading allows the rose plant to continue forming new shoots, leaves, and blooms. For "once-blooming" varieties (that bloom only once each season), deadheading has the effect of causing the plant to form new green growth, even though new blooms will not form until the next blooming season.

For most rose gardeners, deadheading is used to refresh the growth of the rose plants to keep the rose plants strong, vibrant, and productive.

Species roses such as Rosa glauca or Rosa moyesii - those which produce good hips - should not be deadheaded.


The rose has always been valued for its beauty and has a long history of symbolism. The ancient Greeks and Romans identified the rose with their goddesses of love referred to as Aphrodite and Venus. In Rome a wild rose would be placed on the door of a room where secret or confidential matters were discussed. The phrase sub rosa, or "under the rose", means to keep a secret — derived from this ancient Roman practice.

Early Christians identified the five petals of the rose with the five wounds of Christ. Despite this interpretation, their leaders were hesitant to adopt it because of its association with Roman excesses and pagan ritual. The red rose was eventually adopted as a symbol of the blood of the Christian martyrs. Roses also later came to be associated with the Virgin Mary.

Rose culture came into its own in Europe in the 1800s with the introduction of perpetual blooming roses from China. There are currently thousands of varieties of roses developed for bloom shape, size, fragrance and even for lack of prickles.

Renoir's painting of cabbage roses, Roses in a vase


Roses are often portrayed by artists. The Luxembourg born Belgian artist Pierre-Joseph Redouté produced some of the most detailed paintings of roses.

Henri Fantin-Latour was also a prolific painter of still life, particularly flowers including roses. The Rose 'Fantin-Latour' was named after the artist.

Other impressionists including Claude Monet, Paul Cézanne and Pierre-Auguste Renoir have paintings of roses among their works.

Popular culture

Red Roses

[[File:|thumb|Selling roses on St. George's day in Catalonia]]

Roses are ancient symbols of love and beauty. The rose was sacred to a number of goddesses (including Isis and Aphrodite), and is often used as a symbol of the Virgin Mary. 'Rose' means pink or red in a variety of languages (such as Romance languages, Greek, and Polish).

The rose is the national flower of England and the United States[14], as well as being the symbol of England Rugby, and of the Rugby Football Union. It is also the provincial flower of Yorkshire and Lancashire in England (the white rose and red rose respectively), of Alberta (the wild rose) in Canada, and of Islamabad Capital Territory in Pakistan. It is the state flower of four US states: Iowa and North Dakota (R. arkansana), Georgia (R. laevigata), and New York[15] (Rosa generally). Portland, Oregon counts "City of Roses" among its nicknames, and holds an annual Rose Festival.

Roses are occasionally the basis of design for rose windows, such windows comprising five or ten segments (the five petals and five sepals of a rose) or multiples thereof; however most Gothic rose windows are much more elaborate and were probably based originally on the wheel and other symbolism.

A red rose (often held in a hand) is a symbol of socialism or social democracy: it is used as a symbol by British, Irish, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Norwegian, Danish, Swedish, Finnish, Brazilian, Dutch and other European labour, socialist or social democratic parties. This originated when the red rose was used as a badge by the marchers in the May 1968 street protests in Paris. The White Rose was a World War II non violent resistance group in Germany.

A bouquet of red roses is often used to show love. It is used as a Valentine's Day gift in many countries.

On St George's Day in Catalonia people offer dark red roses as gifts, especially between lovers. The Virolai, a hymn to the Virgin of Montserrat, one of the black Madonnas of Europe, begins with the words: "Rosa d’abril, Morena de la serra..." (April rose, dusky lady of the mountain chain...). Therefore this virgin is sometimes known as “Rosa d’abril”. The red rose is thus widely accepted as an unofficial symbol of Catalonia.[16]



Rose perfumes are made from attar of roses or rose oil, which is a mixture of volatile essential oils obtained by steam distilling the crushed petals of roses. The technique originated in Persia (the word Rose itself is from Persian) then spread through Arabia and India, but nowadays about 70% to 80% of production is in the Rose Valley near Kazanluk in Bulgaria, with some production in Qamsar in Iran and Germany.[citation needed] The Kaaba in Mecca is annually washed by the Iranian rose water from Qamsar. In Bulgaria, Iran and Germany, damask roses (Rosa damascena 'Trigintipetala') are used. In the French rose oil industry Rosa centifolia is used. The oil, pale yellow or yellow-grey in color, is sometimes called 'Rose Absolute' oil to distinguish it from diluted versions. The weight of oil extracted is about one three-thousandth to one six-thousandth of the weight of the flowers; for example, about two thousand flowers are required to produce one gram of oil.

The main constituents of attar of roses are the fragrant alcohols geraniol and l-citronellol; and rose camphor, an odourless paraffin. β-Damascenone is also a significant contributor to the scent.

Geraniol (C10H18O)

Notable rose growers

Rose Capital of America

Tyler, Texas has been nicknamed the "Rose Capital of America" because of its large role in the rose-growing industry. It boasts the nation's largest municipal rose garden and hosts the Texas Rose Festival each October, which draws thousands of spectators.


Some rose growers are known for their particular contributions to the field. These include:



See also

External links


Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Wikipedia has an article on:


See also Rose, rosé, and rosë



Most common English words: feeling « later « beyond « #489: rose » age » nearly » miles
a red rose (flower)

Etymology 1

From Old English, from Latin rosa, from Oscan, from Ancient Greek rhodion (ῥοδέα) (Aeolic wrodion), 'rose', from Old Iranian *wurdi, 'flower' (cf. Avestan warda, Sogdian ward, Parthian wâr).





rose (plural roses)

  1. a shrub of the genus Rosa, with red, pink, white or yellow flowers
  2. a flower of the rose plant
  3. Something resembling a rose flower.
  4. (colour) a purplish-red or pink colour, the colour of some rose flowers
    web rose colour:    
    rose pink colour:    
  5. a round nozzle for a sprinkling can or hose.
  6. the base of a light socket.
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.


to rose

Third person singular

Simple past

Past participle

Present participle

to rose (third-person singular simple present roses, present participle rosing, simple past and past participle rosed)

  1. To make rose-colored.


rose (not comparable)


not comparable

none (absolute)

  1. (color/colour) having a purplish-red or pink colour. See rosy

Derived terms

See also

Etymology 2

From rose



  1. Simple past of rise.
Related terms

Etymology 3

From French rosé (pinkish).




rose (plural roses)

  1. Alternative spelling of rosé.



Danish Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia da

Etymology 1

From late Old Norse rós, rósa, from Middle Low German rōse, from Latin rosa (rose).


  • IPA: /roːsə/, [ˈʁoːsə]


rose c. (singular definite rosen, plural indefinite roser)

  1. rose (flower, shrup of the genus Rosa)

Etymology 2

From French rosé.

Alternative spellings


  • IPA: /rose/, [ʁoˈse]


rose c. (singular definite roseen, plural indefinite roseer)

  1. rosé (a pale pink wine)

Etymology 3

From Old Norse hrósa, whence dialectal English roose.


  • IPA: /roːsə/, [ˈʁoːsə]


rose (imperative ros, infinitive at rose, present tense roser, past tense roste, past participle har rost)

  1. praise, commend, roose



Borrowed from Latin rosa.



rose f. (plural roses)

  1. rose (flower)
  2. rose window


rose m. (plural roses)

  1. pink


rose (epicene, plural roses)

  1. pink
  2. (humorous) pink, left-wing
  3. (colloquial) erotic, blue
  4. (in phrases) rosy, rose-tinted




rose f. pl.

  1. Plural form of rosa.



  1. Third-person singular past historic of rodere.
  2. Feminine plural past participle of rodere.

Simple English

This article is about the flower. For the colour see Rose (colour).
File:Bridal pink - morwell rose
Bridal Pink, Hybrid Tea Rose, Morwell Rose Garden
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Rosoideae
Genus: Rosa L.

A rose is a type of flower. Its name comes from the Latin word rosa.[1] They are usually rose, red, white or pink. Some roses are yellow, white, or orange. A rose has thorns on its stem. Roses are often given to a person as a symbol of love. They are members of the family Rosaceae.

They are sometimes also used as a female's name. The rose can be grown in lots of different places. However, it is most seen in the Northern Hemisphere. Roses have come from North America, Europe and northwest Africa. However, the most rose plants come from Asia.


Roses in legend and in history

The rose was sacred to Venus (mythology). Venus was the Roman goddess of love and beauty.[2] It was also linked with Cupid. He was the Roman god of desire - in one myth, he dropped nectar and the nectar bubbled up from the ground as roses.[2] The rose was also sacred to Bacchus. He was the Roman god of wine.[2]

Rich Romans would lie on couches with roses laid on them. They would wear roses tied onto string around their neck. Anything which was said "under the rose" was considered to be a secret[2] Cleopatra VII of Egypt was said to have had a floor of her palace covered in roses before her lover Mark Antony visited her.[2]

The rose has been used as a symbol of love for hundreds of years.[2]

Description and use

Dew drops on rose petals

The flower of the rose plant has many different kinds of sizes. It may be as small as 1/2 inch across to a diameter of almost 7 inches. [3] Also, roses can be used for good scent. Sometimes their petals are dried and packed so that you can put them in pouches for decoration. The scent of the rose comes from tiny perfume glands on the petals.[4][5] They can be sometimes be seen through a powerful microscope. Roses that have thick petals have a more stronger scent than the roses with thinner petals.[4]

Roses can be seen very much in gardens. Sometimes they can be in vineyards as well. In a big vineyard, a bush of roses are planted at the end of each row of vines. As long as the roses stay healthy, the vine growers can see that their vines are healthy as well.[4]


There are over 100 different species of roses. They are both grown in gardens and wild roses.[3] The flowers of the rose grow in many different colors, from the well-known red rose to yellow roses and sometimes white or purple roses. Each rose has a meaning, or it symbolizes something.


Different colored roses have different meanings.

  • Red - A red rose is an expression of love. Red Roses usually show deep feelings, like love, longing, or desire. Red Roses can also be used to show respect, admiration, or devotion. A deep red rose can be used to show regret and sorrow. The number of red roses has special meanings symbolizing them. 12 red roses are the most popular of all which means, "Be mine" and "I love you".[6]
  • Pink - There are a lot of variations of the pink rose. Usually, pink roses are used to express gentle emotions such as admiration, joy and gratitude.[6]
  • Dark pink - Deep pink rose blooms may mean deep gratitude and appreciation. Dark Pink roses also express elegance and grace.[6]
  • Light pink - Light pink rose blooms are symbols of sweetness and innocence.[6]
  • White - White is the color of purity and innocence. White roses usually may symbolize a new start, and it is a custom for brides to hold them when she walks down the isle at her wedding. White roses can be used to show sympathy or humility. They also may be about spiritual things.[6]
  • Yellow - Yellow roses are usually used as an expression of exuberance. Yellow roses show sunny feelings of joy, warmth, and sometimes welcome. They are symbols of friendship and caring. The yellow rose, unlike some of the other roses, does not mean or express any romance.[6]
  • Orange - Orange roses remind most people of a fiery blaze. These fiery blooms are symbols of passion and energy. Orange roses can be used to show desire and pride.[6]
  • Burgundy - The color of burgundy is a symbol of beauty.[6]
  • Green - Green roses (these are sometimes white roses with shades of green) can symbolize best wishes, luck, and blessings for a good life or recovery of good health.[6]
  • Blue - Blue roses cannot be found in the nature, like Black roses, and so they represent the unattainable or the mysterious. Blue roses therefore show the desire for the goals you cannot reach. They may sometimes mean, "I can't have you but I can't stop thinking about you".[6]
  • Black - Black is the color of death and farewell. A black roses show the death of a feeling or idea. Sending black roses to someone indicates the death of the relationship, or sometimes it may be used in burials.[6]
  • Purple - A purple rose may show protection, and also a sense of majesty, royalty, and splendor. These roses are used to show adoration.[6]
  • Lavender - A Lavender rose, like its color, shows enchantment. It also expresses "love at first sight".[6]


Look up Rosa in Wikispecies, a directory of species
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