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A school (from Greek σχολή (scholē), originally meaning "leisure", and also "that in which leisure is employed", "school"),[1] is an institution designed to allow and encourage students (or "pupils") to learn, under the supervision of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal education, which is commonly compulsory. In these systems, students progress through a series of schools. The names for these schools vary by country (discussed in the Regional section below), but generally include primary school for young children and secondary school for teenagers who have completed primary education.

In addition to these core schools, students in a given country may also have access to and attend schools both before and after primary and secondary education. Kindergarten or pre-school provide some schooling to very young children (typically ages 3-5). University, vocational school, college or seminary may be available after (or in lieu of) secondary school. A school may also be dedicated to one particular field, such as a school of economics or a school of dance. Alternative schools may provide nontraditional curriculum and methods.

There are also non-government schools, called private schools. Private schools may be for children with special needs when the government does not supply for them; religious, such as Christian Schools, Khalsa Schools, Torah Schools and others; or schools that have a higher standard of education or seek to foster other personal achievements. Schools for adults include institutions of corporate training and Military education and training.

In homeschooling and online schools, teaching and learning take place outside of a traditional school building.

Contents

History and development of schools

The concept of grouping students together in a centralized location for learning has existed since Classical antiquity. Formal schools have existed at least since ancient Greece (see Academy), ancient India (see Gurukul) and ancient China (see History of education in China). The Byzantine Empire had an established schooling system beginning at the primary level. According to Traditions and Encounters, the founding of the primary education system began in 425 A.D. and "… military personnel usually had at least a primary education …". The Byzantine education system continued until the empire's collapse in 1453 AD.[citation needed]

Islam was another culture to develop a schooling system in the modern sense of the word. Emphasis was put on knowledge and therefore a systematic way of teaching and spreading knowledge was developed in purpose built structures. At first, mosques combined both religious performance and learning activities, but by the ninth century, the Madrassa was introduced, a proper school built independently from the mosque. They were also the first to make the Madrassa system a public domain under the control of the Caliph. The Nizamiyya madrasa is considered by consensus of scholars to be the earliest surviving school, built towards 1066 CE by Emir Nizam Al-Mulk.[citation needed]

Under the Ottomans, the towns of Bursa and Edirne became the main centers of learning. The Ottoman system of Kulliye, a building complex containing a mosque, a hospital, madrassa, and public kitchen and dining areas, revolutionized the education system, making learning accessible to a wider public through its free meals, health care and sometimes free accommodation. .]] The nineteenth century historian, Scott holds that a remarkable correspondence exists between the procedure established by those institutions and the methods of the present day. They had their collegiate courses, their prizes for proficiency in scholarship, their oratorical and poetical contests, their commencements and their degrees. In the department of medicine, a severe and prolonged examination, conducted by the most eminent physicians of the capital, was exacted of all candidates desirous of practicing their profession, and such as were unable to stand the test were formally pronounced incompetent.[citation needed]

In Europe during the Middle Ages and much of the Early Modern period, the main purpose of schools (as opposed to universities) was to teach the Latin language. This led to the term grammar school which in the United States is used informally to refer to a primary school but in the United Kingdom means a school that selects entrants on their ability or aptitude. Following this, the school curriculum has gradually broadened to include literacy in the vernacular language as well as technical, artistic, scientific and practical subjects.

Many of the earlier public schools in the United States were one-room schools where a single teacher taught seven grades of boys and girls in the same classroom. Beginning in the 1920s, one-room schools were consolidated into multiple classroom facilities with transportation increasingly provided by kid hacks and school buses.

Regional Terms

in the Gambia]]

, India - run by the Catholic Diocese of Madras. Christian missionaries played a pivotal role in establishing modern schools in India.]]

The use of the term school varies by country, as do the names of the various levels of education within the country.

United Kingdom and Commonwealth of Nations

In the United Kingdom, the term school refers primarily to pre-university institutions, and these can, for the most part, be divided into pre-schools or nursery schools, primary schools (sometimes further divided into infant school and junior school), and secondary schools. There are various types of secondary schools which include grammar schools, comprehensives, secondary moderns and city academies. In Scotland school performance is monitored by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education. Ofsted reports on performance in England and Wales.

In the United Kingdom, most schools are publicly funded and known as state schools or maintained schools in which tuition is provided free. There are also private schools or independent schools that charge fees. Some of the most selective and expensive private schools are known as public schools, a usage that can be confusing to speakers of North American English. In North American usage, a public school is one that is publicly funded or run.

In much of the Commonwealth of Nations, including Australia, New Zealand, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Kenya, and Tanzania, the term school refers primarily to pre-university institutions.

India

In ancient India, schools were in the form of Gurukuls. Gurukuls were traditional Hindu residential schools of learning; typically the teacher's house or a monastery. During the Mughal rule, Madrasahs were introduced in India to educate the Muslim children. British records show that indigenous education was widespread in the 18th century, with a school for every temple, mosque or village in most regions of the country. The subjects taught included Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, Theology, Law, Astronomy, Metaphysics, Ethics, Medical Science and Religion.

Under the British rule in India, Christian missionaries from England, USA and other countries established missionary and boarding schools throughout the country. Later as these schools gained in popularity, more were started and some gained prestige. These schools marked the beginning of modern schooling in India and the syllabus and calendar they followed became the benchmark for schools in modern India. Today most of the schools follow the missionary school model in terms of tutoring, subject / syllabus, governance etc...with minor changes. Schools in India range from schools with large campuses with thousands of students and hefty fees to schools where children are taught under a tree with a small / no campus and are totally free of cost. There are various boards of schools in India, namely Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE), Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE), Madrasa Boards of various states, Matriculation Boards of various states, State Boards of various boards, Anglo Indian Board, and so on. The typical syllabus today includes Language(s), Mathematics, Science - Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geography, History, General Knowledge, Information Technology / Computer Science etc... Extra curricular activities include physical education / sports and cultural activities like music, choreography, painting, theater / drama etc...

Europe

In much of continental Europe, the term school usually applies to primary education, with primary schools that last between six and nine years, depending on the country. It also applies to secondary education, with secondary schools often divided between Gymnasiums and vocational schools, which again depending on country and type of school educate students for between three and six years. The term school is rarely used for tertiary education, except for some upper or high schools (German: Hochschule) which are used to describe colleges and universities.

North America and the United States

In North America, the term school can refer to any educational institution at any level, and covers all of the following: preschool (for toddlers), kindergarten, elementary school, middle school (also called intermediate school or junior high school, depending on specific age groups and geographic region), senior high school, college, university, and graduate school.

In the US, school performance through high school is monitored by each state's Department of Education. Charter schools are publicly funded elementary or secondary schools that have been freed from some of the rules, regulations, and statutes that apply to other public schools. The terms grammar school and grade school are sometimes used to refer to a primary school.

Universal terms

In many countries, Business Schools are colleges providing instruction in business, business administration, and management.

Boarding schools are schools where students live full-time amongst their peers in dormitories. Some boarding schools are separated by gender.

School ownership and operation

Many schools are owned or funded by states. Private schools are those which are operated independently from the government. Private schools usually rely on fees from families whose children attend the school for funding; however, sometimes such schools also receive government support (for example, through School vouchers). Many private schools are affiliated with a particular religion; these are known as parochial schools.

Components of most schools

Schools are organized spaces purposed for teaching and learning. The classrooms, where teachers teach and students learn, are of central importance, but typical schools have many other areas which may include:

  • Cafeteria (Commons), dining hall or canteen where students eat lunch and often breakfast and snacks.
  • Athletic field, playground, gym, and/or track place where students participating in sports or physical education practice
  • Auditorium or hall where student theatrical and musical productions can be staged and where all-school events such as assemblies are held
  • Office where the administrative work of the school is done
  • Library where students consult and check out books and magazines and often use computers
  • Specialized classrooms including laboratories for science education
  • Computer labs where computer-based work is done and the internet accessed

School security

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The safety of staff and students is increasingly becoming an issue for school communities, an issue most schools are addressing through improved security. After mass shootings such as the Columbine High School massacre and the Virginia Tech incident, many school administrators in the United States have created plans to protect students and staff in the event of a school shooting. Some have also taken measures such as installing metal detectors or video surveillance. Others have even taken measures such as having the children swipe identification cards as they board the school bus. For some schools, these plans have included the use of door numbering to aid public safety response.

Other security concerns faced by schools include bomb threats, gangs, vandalism[2], and bullying[3].

School health services

Online schools/classes

Some schools offer remote access to their classes over the Internet. Online schools also can provide support to traditional schools, as in the case of the School Net Namibia. Some online classes provide experience in a class so that when you take it you have already been introduced to the subject and know what to expect, and even more classes provide High School/College credit allowing you to take the class at your own pace. Many online classes cost money to use but some are offered free.

Schools in the Media

Schools and schoolchildren are frequently portrayed in fiction and the media, ranging from Harry Potter and Grange Hill to Battle Royale. See List of fictional schools

Stress

As a profession, teaching has very high levels of Work-Related Stress (WRS)[4] which are listed as amongst the highest of any profession in some countries, such as the United Kingdom. The degree of this problem is becoming increasingly recognized and support systems are being put into place.[5][6] Teacher education is increasingly recognizing the need for new entrants to the profession to be aware of and trained to overcome the challenges that they will face on the "mental health" front.[citation needed]

Stress sometimes affects students more severely than teachers, up to the point where the students are prescribed stress medication. This stress is claimed to be related to standardized testing, and the pressure on students to score above average.[7][8][9] See Cram school.

Discipline

Schools and their teachers have always been under pressure — for instance, pressure to cover the curriculum, to perform well in comparison to other schools, and to avoid the stigma of being "soft" or "spoiling" toward students. Forms of discipline, such as control over when students will and will not speak, and normalized behaviour, such as raising one's hand to speak, are imposed in the name of greater efficiency. Practitioners of critical pedagogy point out that such disciplinary measures have no positive effect on student learning; indeed, some would argue that disciplinary practices actually detract from learning since they undermine students' individual dignity and sense of self-worth, the latter occupying a more primary role in students' hierarchy of needs.

References

Bibliography

  • Dodge, B. (1962). ‘Muslim Education in the Medieval Times’, The Middle East Institute, Washington D.C.
  • Education as Enforcement: The Militarization and Corporatization of Schools, edited by Kenneth J. Saltman and David A. Gabbard, RoutledgeFalmer 2003.review
  • Makdisi, G. (1980). ‘On the origin and development of the college in Islam and the West’, in Islam and the Medieval West, ed. Khalil I. Semaan, State University of New York Press
  • Nakosteen, M. (1964). ‘History of Islamic origins of Western Education AD 800-1350’, University of Colorado Press, Boulder, Colorado,
  • Ribera, J. (1928). ‘Disertaciones Y Opusculos’, 2 vols. Madrid
  • Spielhofer, Thomas, Tom Benton, Sandie Schagen. “A study of the effects of school size and single-sex education in English schools.” Research Papers in Education Jun. 2004:133 159, 27.
  • Toppo, Greg. "High-tech school security is on the rise." USA Today 9 Oct 2006.
  • Traditions and Encounters, by Jerry H. Bentley and Herb F. Ziegler

See also

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Contents

English

Most common English words: trying « states « wished « #749: school » language » court » British

Etymology

Elementary school

Old English scōl, from Latin schola, from Ancient Greek σχολεῖον (scholeion), from σχολή (schole), spare time, leisure), later  (conversations and the knowledge gained through them during free time; the places where these conversations took place).

Pronunciation

Noun

Singular
school

Plural
schools

school (plural schools)

  1. (US, Canadian) An institution dedicated to teaching and learning; an educational institution.
    Our children attend a public school in our neighborhood.
    Harvard University is a famous American postsecondary school.
  2. (British) An educational institution providing primary and secondary education, prior to tertiary education (college or university).
  3. Within a larger educational institution, an organizational unit, such as a department or institute, which is dedicated to a specific subject area.
    We are enrolled in the same university, but I attend the School of Economics and my brother is in the School of Music.
  4. (considered collectively) The followers of a particular doctrine; a particular way of thinking or particular doctrine; a school of thought.
    These economists belong to the monetarist school.
  5. A group of fish or a group of marine mammals such as porpoises, dolphins, or whales.
    The divers encountered a huge school of mackerel.
  6. The time during which classes are attended or in session in an educational institution.
    I'll see you after school.

Synonyms

Hyponyms

Derived terms

Translations

Verb

Infinitive
to school

Third person singular
schools

Simple past
schooled

Past participle
schooled

Present participle
schooling

to school (third-person singular simple present schools, present participle schooling, simple past and past participle schooled)

  1. (transitive) To educate, teach, or train (often, but not necessarily, in a school.)
  2. (transitive) To defeat emphatically, to teach an opponent a harsh lesson.
    • 1998, Leigh Jones, "National bar exam methods win in ADA regulation test," The Journal Record, April 13,
      A blind law graduate who put the National Conference of Bar Examiners to the test got schooled in federal court.
    • 2006, Steve Smith, Forever Red: Confessions Of A Cornhusker Football Fan, page 67:
      Two weeks later, the Cornhuskers put on their road whites again and promptly got schooled by miserable Iowa State in Ames. After the shocking loss []
    • 2007, Peter David and Alvin Sargent, Spider-Man 3, Simon and Schuster, ISBN 1416527214, pg. 216,
      "You again?" Sandman demanded. "I guess you didn't learn your lesson."
      "This time I'm gonna school you."
  3. (transitive) To control, or compose, one's expression.
    She took care to school her expression, not giving away any of her feelings.

Derived terms

Translations

See also


Dutch

Pronunciation

Noun

school c (plural scholen, diminutive schooltje)

  1. school (An educational institution that focuses completely on education, and not on, say, research)
  2. a group of fish

Derived terms

See also

  • college "lecture for students"
  • academie "universities (universiteiten), university of applied sciences (hogescholen) and art schools (kunstacademies)"
  • universiteit "an institution of research and higher education"
  • instituut "institute, including schools and universities, but also non-educational organisations"

Verb

school

  1. first person present tense of scholen (to school)
  2. singular past tense of schuilen (to hide, take cover, to take shelter)

Simple English

A school is a place where people go to learn. In a school, one or more teachers or professors help pupils or students with learning. Today, most countries require that children go to school for a number of years, so that they can learn some of what they need later in life, such as reading, writing, and some basic math. However children with mental issues that are too much for the school to handle are not required to attend. This is called being expelled. These children must be given other alternatives so they can still receive required schooling. Colleges, universities and high schools are different types of schools that allow people to learn skills for future jobs.

Generalities

Some people attend school longer than others. This is because some jobs require more training than others. At first, one teacher is able to teach all subjects, but later, teachers are specialized and they only teach a few subjects.

Common subjects taught include arts such as music and seeing arts or humanities, like geography and history, or other country languages.

There are special schools, too. That way, a truck driver that wants to get a better job later can again go to a specialized people school.

Schools for boys and schools for girls

Some schools are for boys and some schools are for girls; they only accept boys, or girls, but not both. Schools were often attached to religious buildings. That way, a religion place also had a school. Since there are only monks in a monastery, this was often also true for the school, which only accepted boys. Going to a school also meant learning about religion.

School as a place to learn for life

In many parts of the world, schools also help children with other things:

  • Because of school, pupils can develop their personality
  • Because of religion or ethics, schools help to form pupils so they can make a difference between right and wrong.
  • Schools help people recognise socially accepted norms and behaviour.

Pedagogy is the science about teaching (children). There are different approaches to teaching. Similarly, certain schools use different approaches.

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