sun: Wikis

  

Encyclopedia

The Sun
File:Sun920607.jpg
Observation data
Mean distance
from Earth
1.496×1011 m
8.315 min at light speed
Visual brightness (V) −26.74m [1]
Absolute magnitude 4.83m[1][contradiction]
Spectral classification G2V
Metallicity Z = 0.0177 [2]
Angular size 31.6′ – 32.7′ [3]
Adjectives solar
Orbital characteristics
Mean distance
from Milky Way core
~2.5×1020 m
26,000 light-years
Galactic period (2.25–2.50) × 108 a
Velocity ~2.20×105 m/s
(orbit around the center of the Galaxy)

~2×104 m/s
(relative to average velocity of other stars in stellar neighborhood)
Physical characteristics
Mean diameter 1.392×109 m [1]
109 × Earths
Equatorial radius 6.955×108 m [4]
109 × Earth[4]
Equatorial circumference 4.379×109 m [4]
109 × Earth[4]
Flattening 9×10−6
Surface area 6.0877×1018 m2 [4]
11,990 × Earth[4]
Volume 1.412×1027 m3 [4]
1,300,000 × Earth
Mass 1.9891×1030 kg [1]
332,900 × Earth[4]
Average density 1.408×103 kg/m3 [1][4][5]
Different Densities Core: 1.5×105 kg/m3
lower Photosphere: 2×10−4 kg/m3
lower Cromosphere: 5×10−6 kg/m3
Avg. Corona: 1×10−12 kg/m3 [6]
Equatorial surface gravity 274.0 m/s2 [1]
27.94 g
28 × Earth[4]
Escape velocity
(from the surface)
617.7 km/s [4]
55 × Earth[4]
Temperature
of surface (effective)
5,778 K [1]
Temperature
of corona
~5×106 K
Temperature
of core
~15.7×106 K [1]
Luminosity (Lsol) 3.846×1026 W [1]
~3.75×1028 lm
~98 lm/W efficacy
Mean Intensity (Isol) 2.009×107 W·m−2·sr−1
Rotation characteristics
Obliquity 7.25° [1]
(to the ecliptic)
67.23°
(to the galactic plane)
Right ascension
of North pole[7]
286.13°
19h 4min 30s
Declination
of North pole
+63.87°
63°52' North
Sidereal Rotation period
(at 16° latitude)
25.38 days [1]
25d 9h 7min 13s [7]
(at equator) 25.05 days [1]
(at poles) 34.3 days [1]
Rotation velocity
(at equator)
7.189×103 km/h [4]
Photospheric composition (by mass)
Hydrogen 73.46%[8]
Helium 24.85%
Oxygen 0.77%
Carbon 0.29%
Iron 0.16%
Sulfur 0.12%
Neon 0.12%
Nitrogen 0.09%
Silicon 0.07%
Magnesium 0.05%

The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. The Earth and other matter (including other planets, asteroids, meteoroids, comets, and dust) orbit the Sun, which by itself accounts for about 99.86% of the Solar System's mass.[9] The mean distance of the Sun from the Earth is approximately 149,598,000 kilometres (92,956,000 mi), and its light travels this distance in 8 minutes and 19 seconds. This distance varies throughout the year from a minimum of 147,100,000 kilometres (91,400,000 mi) on 3 January, to a maximum of 152,100,000 kilometres (94,500,000 mi) on 4 July. Energy from the Sun, in the form of sunlight, supports almost all life on Earth via photosynthesis,[10] and drives the Earth's climate and weather.

The surface of the Sun consists of hydrogen (about 74% of its mass, or 92% of its volume), helium (about 24% of mass, 7% of volume), and trace quantities of other elements, including iron, nickel, oxygen, silicon, sulfur, magnesium, carbon, neon, calcium, and chromium.[11] The Sun has a spectral class of G2V. G2 means that it has a surface temperature of approximately 5,780 K (

  1. REDIRECT Template:Convert/°C) giving it a white color, which often appears as yellow when seen from the surface of the Earth because of atmospheric scattering. This is a subtractive effect, as the preferential scattering of shorter wavelength light removes enough violet and blue light, leaving a range of frequencies that is perceived by the human eye as yellow. It is this scattering of light at the blue end of the spectrum that gives the surrounding sky its color. When the Sun is low in the sky, even more light is scattered so that the Sun appears orange or even red.[12]

The Sun's spectrum contains lines of ionized and neutral metals as well as very weak hydrogen lines. The V (Roman five) in the spectral class indicates that the Sun, like most stars, is a main sequence star. This means that it generates its energy by nuclear fusion of hydrogen nuclei into helium. There are more than 100 million G2 class stars in our galaxy. Once regarded as a small and relatively insignificant star, the Sun is now known to be brighter than 85% of the stars in the galaxy, most of which are red dwarfs.[13][14]

The Sun orbits the center of the Milky Way galaxy at a distance of approximately 24,00026,000 light years from the galactic center, moving generally in the direction of Cygnus and completing one revolution in about 225–250 million years (one Galactic year). Its orbital speed was thought to be 220±20 km/s, but a new estimate gives 251 km/s.[15] This is equivalent to about one light-year every 1,190 years, and about one astronomical unit (AU) every 7 days. These measurements of galactic distance and speed are as accurate as can be, given current knowledge, but this may change as more is learned.[16] Since our galaxy is moving with respect to the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) in the direction of Hydra with a speed of 550 km/s, the sun's resultant velocity with respect to the CMB is about 370 km/s in the direction of Crater or Leo.[17]

The Sun is currently traveling through the Local Interstellar Cloud in the low-density Local Bubble zone of diffuse high-temperature gas, in the inner rim of the Orion Arm of the Milky Way Galaxy, between the larger Perseus and Sagittarius arms of the galaxy. Of the 50 nearest stellar systems within 17 light-years (1.6×1014 km) from the Earth, the Sun ranks 4th[18] in mass as a fourth magnitude star (M = +4.83).[1][19], although slightly different values for the magnitude have been published, for example 4.85[20] and 4.81.[21]

Contents

Overview

File:Moon transit of sun large.ogg
A lunar transit of the sun captured during calibration of STEREO B's ultraviolet imaging cameras

The Sun is a Population I, or heavy element-rich,[note 1] star.[22] The formation of the Sun may have been triggered by shockwaves from one or more nearby supernovae.[23] This is suggested by a high abundance of heavy elements in the Solar System, such as gold and uranium, relative to the abundances of these elements in so-called Population II (heavy element-poor) stars. These elements could most plausibly have been produced by endergonic nuclear reactions during a supernova, or by transmutation via neutron absorption inside a massive second-generation star.

Sunlight is Earth's primary source of energy. The solar constant is the amount of power that the Sun deposits per unit area that is directly exposed to sunlight. The solar constant is equal to approximately 1,368 W/m2 (watts per square meter) at a distance of one astronomical unit (AU) from the Sun (that is, on or near Earth).[24] Sunlight on the surface of Earth is attenuated by the Earth's atmosphere so that less power arrives at the surface—closer to 1,000 W/m2 in clear conditions when the Sun is near the zenith.[25]

Solar energy can be harnessed via a variety of natural and synthetic processes—photosynthesis by plants captures the energy of sunlight and converts it to chemical form (oxygen and reduced carbon compounds), while direct heating or electrical conversion by solar cells are used by solar power equipment to generate electricity or to do other useful work. The energy stored in petroleum and other fossil fuels was originally converted from sunlight by photosynthesis in the distant past.[26]

The Sun is a magnetically active star. It supports a strong, changing magnetic field that varies year-to-year and reverses direction about every eleven years around solar maximum.[27] The Sun's magnetic field gives rise to many effects that are collectively called solar activity, including sunspots on the surface of the Sun, solar flares, and variations in solar wind that carry material through the Solar System.[28] Effects of solar activity on Earth include auroras at moderate to high latitudes, and the disruption of radio communications and electric power. Solar activity is thought to have played a large role in the formation and evolution of the Solar System. Solar activity changes the structure of Earth's outer atmosphere.[29]

Location within the galaxy

The Sun lies close to the inner rim of the Milky Way Galaxy's Orion Arm, in the Local Fluff or the Gould Belt, at a hypothesized distance of 7.62±0.32 kpc (24,800 lightyears) from the Galactic Center,[30][31][32][33] contained within the Local Bubble, a space of rarefied hot gas, possibly preduced by the supernova remnant, Gaminga. The distance between the local arm and the next arm out, the Perseus Arm, is about 6,500 light-years.[34] The Sun, and thus the Solar System, is found in what scientists call the galactic habitable zone.

The Apex of the Sun's Way, or the solar apex, is the direction that the Sun travels through space in the Milky Way. The general direction of the Sun's galactic motion is towards the star Vega near the constellation of Hercules, at an angle of roughly 60 sky degrees to the direction of the Galactic Center. The Sun's orbit around the Galaxy is expected to be roughly elliptical with the addition of perturbations due to the galactic spiral arms and non-uniform mass distributions. In addition the Sun oscillates up and down relative to the galactic plane approximately 2.7 times per orbit. This is very similar to how a simple harmonic oscillator works with no drag force (damping) term. It has been argued that the Sun's passage through the higher density spiral arms often coincides with mass extinctions on Earth, perhaps due to increased impact events.[35]

It takes the Solar System about 225–250 million years to complete one orbit of the galaxy (a galactic year),[36] so it is thought to have completed 20–25 orbits during the lifetime of the Sun and 1/1250th of a revolution since the origin of humans. The orbital speed of the Solar System about the center of the Galaxy is approximately 251 km/s.[15] At this speed, it takes around 1,400 years for the Solar System to travel a distance of 1 light-year, or 8 days to travel 1 AU.[37]

Life cycle

The sun was formed about 4.57 billion years ago when a hydrogen molecular cloud collapsed.[38] Solar formation is dated in two ways: the Sun's current main sequence age, determined using computer models of stellar evolution and nucleocosmochronology, is thought to be about 4.57 billion years.[39] This is in close accord with the radiometric date of the oldest solar system material, at 4.567 billion years ago.[40][41]

The Sun is about halfway through its main-sequence evolution, during which nuclear fusion reactions in its core fuse hydrogen into helium. Each second, more than 4 million tonnes of matter are converted into energy within the Sun's core, producing neutrinos and solar radiation; at this rate, the Sun will have so far converted around 100 Earth-masses of matter into energy. The Sun will spend a total of approximately 10 billion years as a main sequence star.[42]

The Sun does not have enough mass to explode as a supernova. Instead, in about 5 billion years, it will enter a red giant phase, its outer layers expanding as the hydrogen fuel in the core is consumed and the core contracts and heats up. Helium fusion will begin when the core temperature reaches around 100 million kelvins and will produce carbon, entering the asymptotic giant branch phase.[22]

File:Sun
Life-cycle of the Sun; sizes are not drawn to scale.

Earth's fate is precarious. As a red giant, the Sun will have a maximum radius beyond the Earth's current orbit, 1 AU (1.5×1011 m), 250 times the present radius of the Sun.[43] However, by the time it is an asymptotic giant branch star, the Sun will have lost roughly 30% of its present mass due to a stellar wind, so the orbits of the planets will move outward. If it were only for this, Earth would probably be spared, but new research suggests that Earth will be swallowed by the Sun owing to tidal interactions.[43] Even if Earth would escape incineration in the Sun, still all its water will be boiled away and most of its atmosphere would escape into space. In fact, even during its current life in the main sequence, the Sun is gradually becoming more luminous (about 10% every 1 billion years), and its surface temperature is slowly rising. The Sun used to be fainter in the past, which is possibly the reason why life on Earth has only existed for about 1 billion years on land. The increase in solar temperatures is such that already in about a billion years, the surface of the Earth will become too hot for liquid water to exist, ending all terrestrial life.[43][44]

Following the red giant phase, intense thermal pulsations will cause the Sun to throw off its outer layers, forming a planetary nebula. The only object that will remain after the outer layers are ejected is the extremely hot stellar core, which will slowly cool and fade as a white dwarf over many billions of years. This stellar evolution scenario is typical of low- to medium-mass stars.[45][46]

Structure

File:Sun
An illustration of the structure of the Sun:
1. Core
2. Radiative zone
3. Convective zone
4. Photosphere
5. Chromosphere
6. Corona
7. Sunspot
8. Granules
9. Prominence

The Sun is a yellow main sequence star comprising about 99% of the total mass of the Solar System. It is a near-perfect sphere, with an oblateness estimated at about 9 millionths,[47] which means that its polar diameter differs from its equatorial diameter by only 10 km (6 mi). As the Sun exists in a plasmatic state and is not solid, it rotates faster at its equator than at its poles. This behavior is known as differential rotation. The period of this actual rotation is approximately 25.6 days at the equator and 33.5 days at the poles. However, due to our constantly changing vantage point from the Earth as it orbits the Sun, the apparent rotation of the star at its equator is about 28 days.[48] The centrifugal effect of this slow rotation is 18 million times weaker than the surface gravity at the Sun's equator. The tidal effect of the planets is even weaker, and does not significantly affect the shape of the Sun.[49]

The Sun does not have a definite boundary as rocky planets do, and in its outer parts the density of its gases drops approximately exponentially with increasing distance from its center. Nevertheless, it has a well-defined interior structure, described below. The Sun's radius is measured from its center to the edge of the photosphere. This is simply the layer above which the gases are too cool or too thin to radiate a significant amount of light, and is therefore the surface most readily visible to the naked eye.[50]

The solar interior is not directly observable, and the Sun itself is opaque to electromagnetic radiation. However, just as seismology uses waves generated by earthquakes to reveal the interior structure of the Earth, the discipline of helioseismology makes use of pressure waves (infrasound) traversing the Sun's interior to measure and visualize the star's inner structure.[51] Computer modeling of the Sun is also used as a theoretical tool to investigate its deeper layers.

Core

File:Sun parts
Cross-section of a solar-type star (NASA)

The core of the Sun is considered to extend from the center to about 0.2 to 0.25 solar radii.[52] It has a density of up to 150,000 kg/m3[53][54] (150 times the density of water on Earth) and a temperature of close to 13,600,000 Kelvin (by contrast, the surface of the Sun is around 5,800 Kelvin). Recent analysis of SOHO mission data favors a faster rotation rate in the core than in the rest of the radiative zone.[52] Through most of the Sun's life, energy is produced by nuclear fusion through a series of steps called the p–p (proton–proton) chain; this process converts hydrogen into helium. Less than 2% of the helium generated in the sun comes from the CNO Cycle. The core is the only location in the Sun that produces an appreciable amount of heat via fusion: the rest of the star is heated by energy that is transferred outward from the core. All of the energy produced by fusion in the core must travel through many successive layers to the solar photosphere before it escapes into space as sunlight or kinetic energy of particles.[55][56]

About 9 × 1037 protons (hydrogen nuclei) are converted into helium nuclei every second (out of ~8.9 × 1056 total amount of free protons in the Sun), , or about 4.4 × 109 kg per second,[57] releasing energy at the matter–energy conversion rate of 4.26 million metric tons per second, 383 yottawatts (3.83×1026 W),[58] or 9.15 × 1010 megatons of TNT per second. This actually corresponds to a surprisingly low rate of energy production in the Sun's core—about 0.272 W/m3 (watts per cubic meter). This is less power than generated by a candle. Power density is about 193 µW/kg of matter, though since most fusion occurs in the relatively small core the plasma power density there is about 20 times bigger. For comparison, the human body produces heat at approximately the rate 1.2 W/kg, roughly 6000 times greater per unit mass. The use of plasma with similar parameters for energy production on Earth would be completely impractical—even a modest 1 GW fusion power plant would require about 5 billion metric ton of plasma. Hence, terrestrial fusion reactors utilize far higher plasma temperatures than those in Sun's interior.[citation needed]

The rate of nuclear fusion depends strongly on density and temperature, so the fusion rate in the core is in a self-correcting equilibrium: a slightly higher rate of fusion would cause the core to heat up more and expand slightly against the weight of the outer layers, reducing the fusion rate and correcting the perturbation; and a slightly lower rate would cause the core to cool and shrink slightly, increasing the fusion rate and again reverting it to its present level.

The high-energy photons (gamma rays) released in fusion reactions are absorbed in only a few millimeters of solar plasma and then re-emitted again in random direction (and at slightly lower energy)—so it takes a long time for radiation to reach the Sun's surface. Estimates of the "photon travel time" range between 10,000 and 170,000 years.[59]

After a final trip through the convective outer layer to the transparent "surface" of the photosphere, the photons escape as visible light. Each gamma ray in the Sun's core is converted into several million visible light photons before escaping into space. Neutrinos are also released by the fusion reactions in the core, but unlike photons they rarely interact with matter, so almost all are able to escape the Sun immediately. For many years measurements of the number of neutrinos produced in the Sun were lower than theories predicted by a factor of 3. This discrepancy was recently resolved through the discovery of the effects of neutrino oscillation: the Sun in fact emits the number of neutrinos predicted by the theory, but neutrino detectors were missing 2/3 of them because the neutrinos had changed flavor.[60]

Radiative zone

From about 0.25 to about 0.7 solar radii, solar material is hot and dense enough that thermal radiation is sufficient to transfer the intense heat of the core outward.[61] In this zone there is no thermal convection; while the material grows cooler as altitude increases (from 7,000,000 °C to about 2,000,000 °C) this temperature gradient is less than the value of adiabatic lapse rate and hence cannot drive convection.[54] Heat is transferred by radiationions of hydrogen and helium emit photons, which travel only a brief distance before being reabsorbed by other ions.[61] The photons practically bounce off so many times through this dense material that an individual photon takes about a million years to finally reach the interface layer, and so, the energy makes its way very slowly outward.[54] The density drops a hundred-fold (from 20 g/cm³ to only 0.2 g/cm³) from the bottom to the top of the radiative zone.[61]

Between the radiative zone and the convection zone is a transition layer called the tachocline. This is a region where the sharp regime change between the uniform rotation of the radiative zone and the differential rotation of the convection zone results in a large shear—a condition where successive horizontal layers slide past one another.[62] The fluid motions found in the convection zone above, slowly disappear from the top of this layer to its bottom, matching the calm characteristics of the radiative zone on the bottom. Presently, it is believed that a magnetic dynamo within this layer generates the Sun's magnetic field.[54]

Convection zone

In the Sun's outer layer, from its surface down to approximately 200,000 km (or 70% of the solar radius), the solar plasma is not dense enough or hot enough to transfer the heat energy of the interior outward via radiation (in other words it is opaque enough). As a result, thermal convection occurs as thermal columns carry hot material to the surface (photosphere) of the Sun. Once the material cools off at the surface, it plunges back downward to the base of the convection zone, to receive more heat from the top of the radiative zone. At the visible surface of the Sun, the temperature has dropped to 5,700° K and the density to only 0.2 g/m³ (about 1/10,000th the density of air at sea level).[54]

The thermal columns in the convection zone form an imprint on the surface of the Sun, in the form of the solar granulation and supergranulation. The turbulent convection of this outer part of the solar interior gives rise to a "small-scale" dynamo that produces magnetic north and south poles all over the surface of the Sun.[54] The Sun's thermal columns are Bénard cells and therefore tend to be hexagonal prisms.[63]

Photosphere

File:EffectiveTemperature 300dpi
The effective temperature, or black body temperature, of the Sun (5777 K) is the temperature a black body of the same size must have to yield the same total emissive power.

The visible surface of the Sun, the photosphere, is the layer below which the Sun becomes opaque to visible light.[64] Above the photosphere visible sunlight is free to propagate into space, and its energy escapes the Sun entirely. The change in opacity is due to the decreasing amount of H ions, which absorb visible light easily.[64] Conversely, the visible light we see is produced as electrons react with hydrogen atoms to produce H ions.[65][66] The photosphere is actually tens to hundreds of kilometers thick, being slightly less opaque than air on Earth. Because the upper part of the photosphere is cooler than the lower part, an image of the Sun appears brighter in the center than on the edge or limb of the solar disk, in a phenomenon known as limb darkening.[64] Sunlight has approximately a black-body spectrum that indicates its temperature is about 6,000 K, interspersed with atomic absorption lines from the tenuous layers above the photosphere. The photosphere has a particle density of ~1023 m−3 (this is about 1% of the particle density of Earth's atmosphere at sea level).[61]

During early studies of the optical spectrum of the photosphere, some absorption lines were found that did not correspond to any chemical elements then known on Earth. In 1868, Norman Lockyer hypothesized that these absorption lines were because of a new element which he dubbed "helium", after the Greek Sun god Helios. It was not until 25 years later that helium was isolated on Earth.[67]

Atmosphere

File:Solar eclips 1999 4
During a total solar eclipse, the solar corona can be seen with the naked eye.

The parts of the Sun above the photosphere are referred to collectively as the solar atmosphere.[64] They can be viewed with telescopes operating across the electromagnetic spectrum, from radio through visible light to gamma rays, and comprise five principal zones: the temperature minimum, the chromosphere, the transition region, the corona, and the heliosphere.[64] The heliosphere, which may be considered the tenuous outer atmosphere of the Sun, extends outward past the orbit of Pluto to the heliopause, where it forms a sharp shock front boundary with the interstellar medium. The chromosphere, transition region, and corona are much hotter than the surface of the Sun.[64] The reason why has not been conclusively proven; evidence suggests that Alfvén waves may have enough energy to heat the corona.[68]

The coolest layer of the Sun is a temperature minimum region about 500 km above the photosphere, with a temperature of about 4,100 K.[64] This part of the Sun is cool enough to support simple molecules such as carbon monoxide and water, which can be detected by their absorption spectra.[69]

Above the temperature minimum layer is a layer about 2,000 km thick, dominated by a spectrum of emission and absorption lines.[64] It is called the chromosphere from the Greek root chroma, meaning color, because the chromosphere is visible as a colored flash at the beginning and end of total eclipses of the Sun.[61] The temperature in the chromosphere increases gradually with altitude, ranging up to around 20,000 K near the top.[64] In the upper part of chromosphere helium becomes partially ionized.[70]

File:171879main LimbFlareJan12
Taken by Hinode's Solar Optical Telescope on January 12, 2007, this image of the Sun reveals the filamentary nature of the plasma connecting regions of different magnetic polarity.

Above the chromosphere there is a thin (about 200 km) transition region in which the temperature rises rapidly from around 20,000 K in the upper chromosphere to coronal temperatures closer to one million K.[71] The temperature increase is facilitated by the full ionization of helium in the transition region, which significantly reduces radiative cooling of the plasma.[70] The transition region does not occur at a well-defined altitude. Rather, it forms a kind of nimbus around chromospheric features such as spicules and filaments, and is in constant, chaotic motion.[61] The transition region is not easily visible from Earth's surface, but is readily observable from space by instruments sensitive to the extreme ultraviolet portion of the spectrum.[72]

The corona is the extended outer atmosphere of the Sun, which is much larger in volume than the Sun itself. The corona continuously expands into the space forming the solar wind, which fills all Solar System.[73] The low corona, which is very near the surface of the Sun, has a particle density around 1015–1016 m−3.[70][note 2] The average temperature of the corona and solar wind is about 1–2 million kelvins, however, in the hottest regions it is 8–20 million kelvins.[71] While no complete theory yet exists to account for the temperature of the corona, at least some of its heat is known to be from magnetic reconnection.[73][71]

The heliosphere, which is the cavity around the Sun filled with the solar wind plasma, extends from approximately 20 solar radii (0.1 AU) to the outer fringes of the Solar System. Its inner boundary is defined as the layer in which the flow of the solar wind becomes superalfvénic—that is, where the flow becomes faster than the speed of Alfvén waves.[74] Turbulence and dynamic forces outside this boundary cannot affect the shape of the solar corona within, because the information can only travel at the speed of Alfvén waves. The solar wind travels outward continuously through the heliosphere, forming the solar magnetic field into a spiral shape,[73] until it impacts the heliopause more than 50 AU from the Sun. In December 2004, the Voyager 1 probe passed through a shock front that is thought to be part of the heliopause. Both of the Voyager probes have recorded higher levels of energetic particles as they approach the boundary.[75]

Chemical composition

The Sun is composed primarily of the chemical elements hydrogen and helium; they account for 74.9% and 23.8% of the mass of the Sun in the photosphere, respectively.[76] All heavier elements, called metals in astronomy, account for less than 2 percent of the mass. The most abundant metals are oxygen (roughly 1% of the Sun's mass), carbon (0.3%), neon (0.2%), and iron (0.2%).[77]

The Sun inherited its chemical composition from the interstellar medium out of which it formed: the hydrogen and helium in the Sun were produced by Big Bang nucleosynthesis. The metals were produced by stellar nucleosynthesis in generations of stars which completed their stellar evolution and returned their material to the interstellar medium prior to the formation of the Sun.[78] The chemical composition of the photosphere is normally considered representative of the composition of the primordial Solar System.[79] However, since the Sun formed, the helium and heavy elements have settled out of the photosphere. Therefore, the photosphere now contains slightly less helium and only 84% of the heavy elements than the protostellar Sun did; the protostellar Sun was 71.1% hydrogen, 27.4% helium, and 1.5% metals.[76]

In the inner portions of the Sun, nuclear fusion has modified the composition by converting hydrogen into helium, so the innermost portion of the Sun is now roughly 60% helium, with the metal abundance unchanged. Because the interior of the Sun is radiative, not convective (see Structure above), none of the fusion products from the core have risen to the photosphere.[80]

The solar heavy-element abundances described above are typically measured both using spectroscopy of the Sun's photosphere and by measuring abundances in meteorites that have never been heated to melting temperatures. These meteorites are thought to retain the composition of the protostellar Sun and thus not affected by settling of heavy elements. The two methods generally agree well.[11]

Singly ionized iron group elements

In 1970s, much research focused on the abundances of iron group elements in the Sun.[81][82] Although significant research was done, the abundance determination of some iron group elements (e.g., cobalt and manganese) was still difficult at least as far as 1978 because of their hyperfine structures.[81]

The first largely complete set of oscillator strengths of singly ionized iron group elements were made available first in the 1960s,[83] and improved oscillator strengths were computed in 1976.[84] In 1978 the abundances of singly ionized elements of the iron group were derived.[81]

Solar and planetary mass fractionation relationship

Various authors have considered the existence of a mass fractionation relationship between the isotopic compositions of solar and planetary noble gases,[85] for example correlations between isotopic compositions of planetary and solar Ne and Xe.[86] Nevertheless, the belief that the whole Sun has the same composition as the solar atmosphere was still widespread, at least until 1983.[87]

In 1983, it was claimed that it was the fractionation in the Sun itself that caused the fractionation relationship between the isotopic compositions of planetary and solar wind implanted noble gases.[87]

Solar cycles

Sunspots and the sunspot cycle

[[File:|thumb|right|Measurements of solar cycle variation during the last 30 years]] When observing the Sun with appropriate filtration, the most immediately visible features are usually its sunspots, which are well-defined surface areas that appear darker than their surroundings because of lower temperatures. Sunspots are regions of intense magnetic activity where convection is inhibited by strong magnetic fields, reducing energy transport from the hot interior to the surface. The magnetic field gives rise to strong heating in the corona, forming active regions that are the source of intense solar flares and coronal mass ejections. The largest sunspots can be tens of thousands of kilometers across.[88]

The number of sunspots visible on the Sun is not constant, but varies over an 11-year cycle known as the solar cycle. At a typical solar minimum, few sunspots are visible, and occasionally none at all can be seen. Those that do appear are at high solar latitudes. As the sunspot cycle progresses, the number of sunspots increases and they move closer to the equator of the Sun, a phenomenon described by Spörer's law. Sunspots usually exist as pairs with opposite magnetic polarity. The magnetic polarity of the leading sunspot alternates every solar cycle, so that it will be a north magnetic pole in one solar cycle and a south magnetic pole in the next.[89] [[File:|thumb|right|History of the number of observed sunspots during the last 250 years, which shows the ~11-year solar cycle]]

The solar cycle has a great influence on space weather, and is a significant influence on the Earth's climate since luminosity has a direct relationship with magnetic activity. Solar activity minima tend to be correlated with colder temperatures, and longer than average solar cycles tend to be correlated with hotter temperatures. In the 17th century, the solar cycle appears to have stopped entirely for several decades; very few sunspots were observed during this period. During this era, which is known as the Maunder minimum or Little Ice Age, Europe experienced very cold temperatures.[90] Earlier extended minima have been discovered through analysis of tree rings and also appear to have coincided with lower-than-average global temperatures.

Possible long term cycle

A recent theory claims that there are magnetic instabilities in the core of the Sun which cause fluctuations with periods of either 41,000 or 100,000 years. These could provide a better explanation of the ice ages than the Milankovitch cycles.[91][92]

Present anomalies

The Sun is presently behaving unexpectedly in a number of ways.[93]

  • It is in the midst of an unusual sunspot minimum, lasting far longer and with a higher percentage of spotless days than normal.
  • It is measurably dimmer than is usual during a sunspot minimum.
  • Over the last two decades, the solar wind's speed has dropped 3%, its temperature 13%, and its density 20%.
  • Its magnetic field is at less than half strength compared to the minimum of 22 years ago. The entire heliosphere, which fills the solar system, has shrunk as a result, resulting in an increase in the level of cosmic radiation striking the Earth and its atmosphere.

Theoretical problems

Solar neutrino problem

For many years the number of solar electron neutrinos detected on Earth was one third to one half of the number predicted by the standard solar model. This anomalous result was termed the solar neutrino problem. Theories proposed to resolve the problem either tried to reduce the temperature of the Sun's interior to explain the lower neutrino flux, or posited that electron neutrinos could oscillate—that is, change into undetectable tau and muon neutrinos as they traveled between the Sun and the Earth.[94] Several neutrino observatories were built in the 1980s to measure the solar neutrino flux as accurately as possible, including the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory and Kamiokande. Results from these observatories eventually led to the discovery that neutrinos have a very small rest mass and do indeed oscillate.[60] Moreover, in 2001 the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory was able to detect all three types of neutrinos directly, and found that the Sun's total neutrino emission rate agreed with the Standard Solar Model, although depending on the neutrino energy as few as one-third of the neutrinos seen at Earth are of the electron type. This proportion agrees with that predicted by the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect (also known as the matter effect), which describes neutrino oscillation in matter. Hence, the problem is now resolved.

Coronal heating problem

The optical surface of the Sun (the photosphere) is known to have a temperature of approximately 6,000 K. Above it lies the solar corona at a temperature of about million K. The high temperature of the corona shows that it is heated by something other than direct heat conduction from the photosphere.[73]

It is thought that the energy necessary to heat the corona is provided by turbulent motion in the convection zone below the photosphere, and two main mechanisms have been proposed to explain coronal heating.[71] The first is wave heating, in which sound, gravitational or magnetohydrodynamic waves are produced by turbulence in the convection zone.[71] These waves travel upward and dissipate in the corona, depositing their energy in the ambient gas in the form of heat.[95] The other is magnetic heating, in which magnetic energy is continuously built up by photospheric motion and released through magnetic reconnection in the form of large solar flares and myriad similar but smaller events—nanoflares.[96]

Currently, it is unclear whether waves are an efficient heating mechanism. All waves except Alfvén waves have been found to dissipate or refract before reaching the corona.[97] In addition, Alfvén waves do not easily dissipate in the corona. Current research focus has therefore shifted towards flare heating mechanisms.[71]

Faint young Sun problem

Theoretical models of the Sun's development suggest that 3.8 to 2.5 billion years ago, during the Archean period, the Sun was only about 75% as bright as it is today. Such a weak star would not have been able to sustain liquid water on the Earth's surface, and thus life should not have been able to develop. However, the geological record demonstrates that the Earth has remained at a fairly constant temperature throughout its history, and in fact that the young Earth was somewhat warmer than it is today. The consensus among scientists is that the young Earth's atmosphere contained much larger quantities of greenhouse gases (such as carbon dioxide, methane and/or ammonia) than are present today, which trapped enough heat to compensate for the lesser amount of solar energy reaching the planet.[98]

Magnetic field

File:Heliospheric-current-sheet.gif
The heliospheric current sheet extends to the outer reaches of the Solar System, and results from the influence of the Sun's rotating magnetic field on the plasma in the interplanetary medium.[99]

All matter in the Sun is in the form of gas and plasma because of its high temperatures. This makes it possible for the Sun to rotate faster at its equator (about 25 days) than it does at higher latitudes (about 35 days near its poles). The differential rotation of the Sun's latitudes causes its magnetic field lines to become twisted together over time, causing magnetic field loops to erupt from the Sun's surface and trigger the formation of the Sun's dramatic sunspots and solar prominences (see magnetic reconnection). This twisting action gives rise to the solar dynamo and an 11-year solar cycle of magnetic activity as the Sun's magnetic field reverses itself about every 11 years.[100][101]

The solar magnetic field extends well beyond the Sun itself. The magnetized solar wind plasma carries Sun's magnetic field into the space forming what is called the interplanetary magnetic field.[73] Since the plasma can only move along the magnetic field lines, the interplanetary magnetic field is initially stretched radially away from the Sun. Because the fields above and below the solar equator have different polarities pointing towards and away from the Sun, there exists a thin current layer in the solar equatorial plane, which is called the heliospheric current sheet.[73] At the large distances the rotation of the Sun twists the magnetic field and the current sheet into the Archimedean spiral like structure called the Parker spiral.[73] The interplanetary magnetic field is much stronger than the dipole component of the solar magnetic field. The Sun's 100 μT magnetic dipole field reduces with the cube of the distance to about 0.1 nT at the distance of the Earth. However, according to spacecraft observations the interplanetary field at the Earth's location is about 100 times greater at around 5 nT.[102]

History of observation

Early understanding

[[File:|thumb|left|The Trundholm Sun chariot pulled by a horse is a sculpture believed to be illustrating an important part of Nordic Bronze Age mythology.]]

Humanity's most fundamental understanding of the Sun is as the luminous disk in the sky, whose presence above the horizon creates day and whose absence causes night. In many prehistoric and ancient cultures, the Sun was thought to be a solar deity or other supernatural phenomenon. Worship of the Sun was central to civilizations such as the Inca of South America and the Aztecs of what is now Mexico. Many ancient monuments were constructed with solar phenomena in mind; for example, stone megaliths accurately mark the summer or winter solstice (some of the most prominent megaliths are located in Nabta Playa, Egypt, Mnajdra, Malta and at Stonehenge, England); Newgrange, a prehistoric human-built mount in Ireland, was designed to detect the winter solstice; the pyramid of El Castillo at Chichén Itzá in Mexico is designed to cast shadows in the shape of serpents climbing the pyramid at the vernal and autumn equinoxes. During the Roman era the winter solstice was a holiday celebrated as Sol Invictus (literally "unconquered sun") which is an antecedent to Christmas. With respect to the fixed stars, the Sun appears from Earth to revolve once a year along the ecliptic through the zodiac, and so Greek astronomers considered it to be one of the seven planets (Greek planetes, "wanderer"), after which the seven days of the week are named in some languages.[103][104][105]

Development of scientific understanding

One of the first people to offer a scientific or philosophical explanation for the Sun, was the Greek philosopher Anaxagoras, who reasoned that it was a giant flaming ball of metal even larger than the Peloponnesus, and not the chariot of Helios.[106] For teaching this heresy, he was imprisoned by the authorities and sentenced to death, though he was later released through the intervention of Pericles. Eratosthenes estimated the distance between the Earth and the Sun in the 3rd century BCE as "of stadia myriads 400 and 80000", the translation of which is ambiguous, implying either 4,080,000 stadia (755,000 km) or 804,000,000 stadia (148-153 million km). In the 1st century CE, Ptolemy estimated the distance as 1,210 times the Earth radius.[107]

In the 11th century, Abu Rayhan Biruni discovered that the distance between the Sun and the Earth is much larger than Ptolemy's estimate, on the basis that he disregarded the annual solar eclipses.[108][109] In the 14th century, Ibn al-Shatir accurately determined the distance between the Sun and the Earth as 23,212 times the Earth radius, which comes very close to the modern value of 23,481 times the Earth radius.[110] Other medieval Arabic contributions include Habash al-Hasib accurately estimating the Sun's diameter and circumference as 127,008,090 miles (204,399,707 km) and 399,168,283 miles (642,399,081 km) respectively,[111] Albatenius discovering that the direction of the Sun's eccentric is changing (equivalent to the Earth moving in an elliptical orbit around the Sun in modern astronomy),[112] Ibn Yunus observing more than 10,000 entries for the Sun's position for many years using a large astrolabe,[113] and Alhazen proving that moonlight is actually reflected sunlight.[114]

The theory that the Sun is the center around which the planets move was apparently proposed by the ancient Greek Aristarchus as well as several ancient Babylonian, ancient Indian and medieval Arabic astronomers (see Heliocentrism). This view was revived in the 16th century by Nicolaus Copernicus. In the early 17th century, the invention of the telescope permitted detailed observations of sunspots by Thomas Harriot, Galileo Galilei and other astronomers. Galileo made some of the first known Western observations of sunspots and posited that they were on the surface of the Sun rather than small objects passing between the Earth and the Sun.[115] Sunspots were also observed since the Han dynasty and Chinese astronomers maintained records of these observations for centuries. In 1672 Giovanni Cassini and Jean Richer determined the distance to Mars and were thereby able to calculate the distance to the Sun. Isaac Newton observed the Sun's light using a prism, and showed that it was made up of light of many colors,[116] while in 1800 William Herschel discovered infrared radiation beyond the red part of the solar spectrum.[117] The 1800s saw spectroscopic studies of the Sun advance, and Joseph von Fraunhofer made the first observations of absorption lines in the spectrum, the strongest of which are still often referred to as Fraunhofer lines. When expanding the spectrum of light from the Sun, there are large number of missing colors can be found.

In the early years of the modern scientific era, the source of the Sun's energy was a significant puzzle. Lord Kelvin suggested that the Sun was a gradually cooling liquid body that was radiating an internal store of heat.[118] Kelvin and Hermann von Helmholtz then proposed the Kelvin-Helmholtz mechanism to explain the energy output. Unfortunately the resulting age estimate was only 20 million years, well short of the time span of at least 300 million years suggested by some geological discoveries of that time.[118] In 1890 Joseph Lockyer, who discovered helium in the solar spectrum, proposed a meteoritic hypothesis for the formation and evolution of the Sun.[119]

Not until 1904 was a substantiated solution offered. Ernest Rutherford suggested that the Sun's output could be maintained by an internal source of heat, and suggested radioactive decay as the source.[120] However it would be Albert Einstein who would provide the essential clue to the source of the Sun's energy output with his mass-energy equivalence relation E = mc2.[121]

In 1920, Sir Arthur Eddington proposed that the pressures and temperatures at the core of the Sun could produce a nuclear fusion reaction that merged hydrogen (protons) into helium nuclei, resulting in a production of energy from the net change in mass.[122] The preponderance of hydrogen in the Sun was confirmed in 1925 by Cecilia Payne. The theoretical concept of fusion was developed in the 1930s by the astrophysicists Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar and Hans Bethe. Hans Bethe calculated the details of the two main energy-producing nuclear reactions that power the Sun.[123][124]

Finally, a seminal paper was published in 1957 by Margaret Burbidge, entitled "Synthesis of the Elements in Stars".[125] The paper demonstrated convincingly that most of the elements in the universe had been synthesized by nuclear reactions inside stars, some like our Sun. This revelation stands today as one of the great achievements of science.

Solar space missions

File:STEREO-B solar
The Moon passing in front of the Sun, as taken by the STEREO-B spacecraft on February 25, 2007. Because the satellite is in an Earth-trailing orbit and is further from the Moon than the Earth is, the Moon appears smaller than the Sun.[126]

The first satellites designed to observe the Sun were NASA's Pioneers 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, which were launched between 1959 and 1968. These probes orbited the Sun at a distance similar to that of the Earth, and made the first detailed measurements of the solar wind and the solar magnetic field. Pioneer 9 operated for a particularly long period of time, transmitting data until 1987.[127]

In the 1970s, two Helios spacecraft and the Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount provided scientists with significant new data on solar wind and the solar corona. The Helios 1 and 2 probes was a joint U.S.-German probe that studied the solar wind from an orbit carrying the spacecraft inside Mercury's orbit at perihelion.[128] The Skylab space station, launched by NASA in 1973, included a solar observatory module called the Apollo Telescope Mount that was operated by astronauts resident on the station.[72] Skylab made the first time-resolved observations of the solar transition region and of ultraviolet emissions from the solar corona.[72] Discoveries included the first observations of coronal mass ejections, then called "coronal transients", and of coronal holes, now known to be intimately associated with the solar wind.[128]

In 1980, the Solar Maximum Mission was launched by NASA. This spacecraft was designed to observe gamma rays, X-rays and UV radiation from solar flares during a time of high solar activity and solar luminosity. Just a few months after launch, however, an electronics failure caused the probe to go into standby mode, and it spent the next three years in this inactive state. In 1984 Space Shuttle Challenger mission STS-41C retrieved the satellite and repaired its electronics before re-releasing it into orbit. The Solar Maximum Mission subsequently acquired thousands of images of the solar corona before re-entering the Earth's atmosphere in June 1989.[129]

Japan's Yohkoh (Sunbeam) satellite, launched in 1991, observed solar flares at X-ray wavelengths. Mission data allowed scientists to identify several different types of flares, and also demonstrated that the corona away from regions of peak activity was much more dynamic and active than had previously been supposed. Yohkoh observed an entire solar cycle but went into standby mode when an annular eclipse in 2001 caused it to lose its lock on the Sun. It was destroyed by atmospheric reentry in 2005.[130]

One of the most important solar missions to date has been the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, jointly built by the European Space Agency and NASA and launched on 2 December 1995.[72] Originally a two-year mission, SOHO has now operated for over ten years (as of 2007). It has proved so useful that a follow-on mission, the Solar Dynamics Observatory, is planned for launch in 2008. Situated at the Lagrangian point between the Earth and the Sun (at which the gravitational pull from both is equal), SOHO has provided a constant view of the Sun at many wavelengths since its launch.[72] In addition to its direct solar observation, SOHO has enabled the discovery of large numbers of comets, mostly very tiny sungrazing comets which incinerate as they pass the Sun.[131]

All these satellites have observed the Sun from the plane of the ecliptic, and so have only observed its equatorial regions in detail. The Ulysses probe was launched in 1990 to study the Sun's polar regions. It first traveled to Jupiter, to "slingshot" past the planet into an orbit which would take it far above the plane of the ecliptic. Serendipitously, it was well-placed to observe the collision of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter in 1994. Once Ulysses was in its scheduled orbit, it began observing the solar wind and magnetic field strength at high solar latitudes, finding that the solar wind from high latitudes was moving at about 750 km/s which was slower than expected, and that there were large magnetic waves emerging from high latitudes which scattered galactic cosmic rays.[132]

Elemental abundances in the photosphere are well known from spectroscopic studies, but the composition of the interior of the Sun is more poorly understood. A solar wind sample return mission, Genesis, was designed to allow astronomers to directly measure the composition of solar material. Genesis returned to Earth in 2004 but was damaged by a crash landing after its parachute failed to deploy on reentry into Earth's atmosphere. Despite severe damage, some usable samples have been recovered from the spacecraft's sample return module and are undergoing analysis.[133]

The Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) mission was launched in October 2006. Two identical spacecraft were launched into orbits that cause them to (respectively) pull further ahead of and fall gradually behind the Earth. This enables stereoscopic imaging of the Sun and solar phenomena, such as coronal mass ejections.[134][135]

If one were to observe it from Alpha Centauri, the closest star system, the Sun would appear to be in the constellation Cassiopeia.[136]

Observation and eye damage

File:The
The Sun as it appears through a camera lens from the surface of Earth

Sunlight is very bright, and looking directly at the Sun with the naked eye for brief periods can be painful, but is not particularly hazardous for normal, non-dilated eyes.[137][138] Looking directly at the Sun causes phosphene visual artifacts and temporary partial blindness. It also delivers about 4 milliwatts of sunlight to the retina, slightly heating it and potentially causing damage in eyes that cannot respond properly to the brightness.[139][140] UV exposure gradually yellows the lens of the eye over a period of years and is thought to contribute to the formation of cataracts, but this depends on general exposure to solar UV, not on whether one looks directly at the Sun.[141] Long-duration viewing of the direct Sun with the naked eye can begin to cause UV-induced, sunburn-like lesions on the retina after about 100 seconds, particularly under conditions where the UV light from the Sun is intense and well focused;[142][143] conditions are worsened by young eyes or new lens implants (which admit more UV than aging natural eyes), Sun angles near the zenith, and observing locations at high altitude.

Viewing the Sun through light-concentrating optics such as binoculars is very hazardous without an appropriate filter that blocks UV and substantially dims the sunlight. An attenuating (ND) filter might not filter UV and so is still dangerous. Unfiltered binoculars can deliver over 500 times as much energy to the retina as using the naked eye, killing retinal cells almost instantly (even though the power per unit area of image on the retina is the same, the heat cannot dissipate fast enough because the image is larger). Even brief glances at the midday Sun through unfiltered binoculars can cause permanent blindness.[144] One way to view the Sun safely is by projecting its image onto a screen using a telescope and eyepiece without cemented elements. This should only be done with a small refracting telescope (or binoculars) with a clean eyepiece. Other kinds of telescopes can be damaged by this procedure.

Partial solar eclipses are hazardous to view because the eye's pupil is not adapted to the unusually high visual contrast: the pupil dilates according to the total amount of light in the field of view, not by the brightest object in the field. During partial eclipses most sunlight is blocked by the Moon passing in front of the Sun, but the uncovered parts of the photosphere have the same surface brightness as during a normal day. In the overall gloom, the pupil expands from ~2 mm to ~6 mm, and each retinal cell exposed to the solar image receives about ten times more light than it would looking at the non-eclipsed Sun. This can damage or kill those cells, resulting in small permanent blind spots for the viewer.[145] The hazard is insidious for inexperienced observers and for children, because there is no perception of pain: it is not immediately obvious that one's vision is being destroyed.

During sunrise and sunset, sunlight is attenuated due to Rayleigh scattering and Mie scattering from a particularly long passage through Earth's atmosphere and the direct Sun is sometimes faint enough to be viewed comfortably with the naked eye or safely with optics (provided there is no risk of bright sunlight suddenly appearing through a break between clouds). Hazy conditions, atmospheric dust, and high humidity contribute to this atmospheric attenuation.

A rare optical phenomenon may occur shortly after sunset or before sunrise, known as a green flash. The flash is caused by light from the sun just below the horizon being bent (usually through a temperature inversion) towards the observer. Light of shorter wavelengths (violet, blue, green) is bent more than that of longer wavelengths (yellow, orange, red) but the violet and blue light is scattered more, leaving light that is perceived as green.[146]

Attenuating filters to view the Sun should be specifically designed for that use: some improvised filters pass UV or IR rays that can harm the eye at high brightness levels. Filters on telescopes or binoculars should be on the objective lens or aperture, never on the eyepiece, because eyepiece filters can suddenly crack or shatter due to high heat loads from the absorbed sunlight. Welding glass #14 is an acceptable solar filter, but "black" exposed photographic film is not (it passes too much infrared).[147]

Ultraviolet light from the Sun has antiseptic properties and can be used to sanitize tools and water. It also causes sunburn, and has other medical effects such as the production of vitamin D. Ultraviolet light is strongly attenuated by Earth's ozone layer, so that the amount of UV varies greatly with latitude and has been partially responsible for many biological adaptations, including variations in human skin color in different regions of the globe.[148]

Terminology

Like other natural phenomena, the Sun has been an object of veneration in many cultures throughout human history, and was the source of the word Sunday. The Latin name Sol (pronounced /sɒl/ in English) is widely known but not common in general English language use, although the adjectival form is the related word solar. "Sol" is rarely used in scientific circles, and is not considered an official English name of the Sun; it makes no appearances in common reference sources.[149] "Sol" is more likely to be encountered in science fiction writing (Star Trek in particular) as a formal name for the specific star, since in many stories the use of "sun" as a generic term for the local star would be ambiguous. By extension, the Solar System is often referred to in science fiction as the "Sol System".

The term sol is used by planetary astronomers to refer to the duration of a solar day on another planet, such as Mars.[150] A mean Earth solar day is approximately 24 hours, while a mean Martian sol, is 24 hours, 39 minutes, and 35.244 seconds.[151] See also Timekeeping on Mars.

Sol is also the modern word for "Sun" in Portuguese, Spanish, Icelandic, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Leonese, Catalan and Galician. The Peruvian currency nuevo sol is named after the Sun (in Spanish), like its successor (and predecessor, in use 1985–1991) the Inti (in Quechua). In Persian, sol means "solar year".

In East Asia the Sun is represented by the symbol 日 (Chinese pinyin or Japanese nichi) or 太阳(simplified)/太陽(traditional) (pinyin tài yáng or Japanese taiyō). In Vietnamese these Han words are called nhật and thái dương respectively, while the native Vietnamese word mặt trời literally means "face of the heavens". The Moon and the Sun are associated with the yin and yang where the Moon represents yin and the Sun yang as dynamic opposites.[152]

See also

File:Solar Solar System portal

Notes

  1. ^ In astronomical sciences, the term heavy elements (or metals) refers to all elements except hydrogen and helium.
  2. ^ Earth's atmosphere near sea level has a particle density of about 2 × 1025 m−3.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Williams, D.R. (2004). "Sun Fact Sheet". NASA. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/sunfact.html. Retrieved on 2009-06-23. 
  2. ^ Montalban, J.; Miglio, A.; Noels, A.; Grevesse, N.; Di Mauro, M.P. (2004). "Solar model with CNO revised abundances". arΧiv: astro-ph/0408055 [astro-ph]. 
  3. ^ "Eclipse 99: Frequently Asked Questions". NASA. http://education.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse/pages/faq.html. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Solar System Exploration: Planets: Sun: Facts & Figures". NASA. Archived from the original on 2008-01-02. http://web.archive.org/web/20080102034758/http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Sun&Display=Facts&System=Metric. 
  5. ^ "The Physics Factbook". http://hypertextbook.com/facts/1999/MayKo.shtml. 
  6. ^ "Principles of Spectroscopy". University of Michigan: Astronomy Departement. 2007. http://www.astro.lsa.umich.edu/undergrad/Labs/spectro/short_spectro.html. 
  7. ^ a b Seidelmann, P. K.; Abalakin, V.K.; Bursa, M.; Davies, M.E.; de Bergh, C.; Lieske, J.H.; Oberst, J.; Simon, J.L.; et al. (2000). "Report Of The IAU/IAG Working Group On Cartographic Coordinates And Rotational Elements Of The Planets And Satellites: 2000". http://www.hnsky.org/iau-iag.htm. Retrieved on 2006-03-22. 
  8. ^ "The Sun's Vital Statistics". Stanford Solar Center. http://solar-center.stanford.edu/vitalstats.html. Retrieved on 2008-07-29. , citing Eddy, J. (1979). A New Sun: The Solar Results From Skylab. NASA. p. 37. NASA SP-402. http://solar-center.stanford.edu/vitalstats.html. 
  9. ^ Woolfson, M. (2000). "The origin and evolution of the solar system". Astronomy & Geophysics 41: 1.12. doi:10.1046/j.1468-4004.2000.00012.x. 
  10. ^ Simon, A. (2001). The real science behind the X-files : microbes, meteorites, and mutants. Simon & Schuster. pp. 25–27. ISBN 0684856182. http://books.google.com/books?id=1gXImRmz7u8C&pg=PA26&dq=bacteria+that+live+with+out+the+sun&lr=&ei=HiJ4SYWlC4LeyASZ-Y2xBg#PPA25,M1. 
  11. ^ a b Basu, S.; Antia, H.M. (2008). "Helioseismology and Solar Abundances". Physics Reports 457 (5–6): 217. doi:10.1016/j.physrep.2007.12.002. arΧiv:0711.4590. 
  12. ^ "Why is the sky blue?". Science Made Simple. 1997. http://www.sciencemadesimple.com/sky_blue.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-24. 
  13. ^ Than, K. (2006). "Astronomers Had it Wrong: Most Stars are Single". Space.com. http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/060130_mm_single_stars.html. Retrieved on 2007-08-01. 
  14. ^ Lada, C.J. (2006). "Stellar multiplicity and the initial mass function: Most stars are single". Astrophysical Journal 640 (1): L63–L66. doi:10.1086/503158. Bibcode2006ApJ...640L..63L. 
  15. ^ a b Croswell, K. (2008). "Milky Way keeps tight grip on its neighbor". New Scientist (2669): 8. http://space.newscientist.com/article/mg19926693.900-milky-way-keeps-tight-grip-on-its-neighbour.html. 
  16. ^ Kerr, F.J.; Lynden-Bell, D. (1986). "Review of galactic constants". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 221: 1023–1038. Bibcode1986MNRAS.221.1023K. http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?1986MNRAS.221.1023K&data_type=PDF_HIGH&type=PRINTER&filetype=.pdf. 
  17. ^ Kogut, A.; et al. (1993). "Dipole Anisotropy in the COBE Differential Microwave Radiometers First-Year Sky Maps". Astrophysical Journal 419: 1. doi:10.1086/173453. Bibcode1993ApJ...419....1K. 
  18. ^ Adams, F.; Laughlin, G.; Graves, G.J. M. (2004). "Red Dwarfs and the End of the Main Sequence". RevMexAA 22: 46–49. 
  19. ^ Zeilik, M. (2001). Astronomy: The Evolving Universe. Cambridge University Press. p. 282. ISBN 9780521800907. http://books.google.com/books?id=HQJ0rtsy8u0C&pg=PA282. 
  20. ^ "Stellar parameters". Space Science Reviews 43 (3–4): 244-250. 1986. doi:10.1007/BF00190626. 
  21. ^ Bessell, M. S.; Castelli, F.; Plez, B. (1998). "Model atmospheres broad-band colors, bolometric corrections and temperature calibrations for O - M stars". Astronomy and Astrophysics 333: 231–250. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1998A&A...333..231B. 
  22. ^ a b Zeilik, M.A.; Gregory, S.A. (1998). Introductory Astronomy & Astrophysics (4th ed.). Saunders College Publishing. p. 322. ISBN 0030062284. 
  23. ^ Falk, S.W.; Lattmer, J.M.; Margolis, S.H. (1977). "Are supernovae sources of presolar grains?". Nature 270: 700–701. doi:10.1038/270700a0. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v270/n5639/abs/270700a0.html. 
  24. ^ "Construction of a Composite Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) Time Series from 1978 to present". http://www.pmodwrc.ch/pmod.php?topic=tsi/composite/SolarConstant. Retrieved on 2005-10-05. 
  25. ^ El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (2005). Electric energy. CRC Press. pp. 87–88. ISBN 9780849330780. 
  26. ^ Phillips, 1995, pp. 319–321
  27. ^ Zirker, 2002, pp. 119–120
  28. ^ Zirker, Jack B. (2002). Journey from the Center of the Sun. Princeton University Press. pp. 120–127. ISBN 9780691057811. 
  29. ^ Phillips, Kenneth J. H. (1995). Guide to the Sun. Cambridge University Press. pp. 14–15, 34–38. ISBN 9780521397889. 
  30. ^ Reid, M.J. (1993). "The distance to the center of the Galaxy". Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 31: 345–372. doi:10.1146/annurev.aa.31.090193.002021. Bibcode1993ARA&A..31..345R. 
  31. ^ Eisenhauer, F.; et al. (2003). "A Geometric Determination of the Distance to the Galactic Center". Astrophysical Journal 597 (2): L121–L124. doi:10.1086/380188. Bibcode2003ApJ...597L.121E. 
  32. ^ Horrobin, M.; et al. (2004). "First results from SPIFFI. I: The Galactic Center". Astronomische Nachrichten 325 (2): 120–123. doi:10.1002/asna.200310181. http://www.mpe.mpg.de/SPIFFI/preprints/first_result_an1.pdf. 
  33. ^ Eisenhauer, F.; et al. (2005). "SINFONI in the Galactic Center: Young Stars and Infrared Flares in the Central Light-Month". Astrophysical Journal 628 (1): 246–259. doi:10.1086/430667. Bibcode2005ApJ...628..246E. 
  34. ^ Hubble News Desk (2000). Exposing the Stuff Between the Stars. Press release. http://www.ras.ucalgary.ca/CGPS/press/aas00/pr/pr_14012000/pr_14012000map1.html. Retrieved on 2007-05-10. 
  35. ^ Gillman, M.; Erenler, H. (2008). "The galactic cycle of extinction". International Journal of Astrobiology 386: 155. doi:10.1017/S1473550408004047. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?aid=1804088. 
  36. ^ Leong, S. (2002). "Period of the Sun's Orbit around the Galaxy (Cosmic Year)". The Physics Factbook. http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2002/StacyLeong.shtml. Retrieved on 2007-05-10. 
  37. ^ Garlick, M.A. (2002). The Story of the Solar System. Cambridge University Press. p. 46. ISBN 0521803365. 
  38. ^ Zirker, 2002, pp. 7–8
  39. ^ Bonanno, A.; Schlattl, H.; Paternò, L. (2008). "The age of the Sun and the relativistic corrections in the EOS". Astronomy and Astrophysics 390: 1115–1118. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20020749. arΧiv:astro-ph/0204331. 
  40. ^ Amelin, Y.; Krot, A.; Hutcheon, I.; Ulyanov, A. (2002). "Lead isotopic ages of chondrules and calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions.". Science 297 (5587): 1678–1683. doi:10.1126/science.1073950. PMID 12215641. 
  41. ^ Baker, J.; Bizzarro, M.; Wittig, N.; Connelly, J.; Haack, H. (2005). "Early planetesimal melting from an age of 4.5662 Gyr for differentiated meteorites". Nature 436: 1127–1131. doi:10.1038/nature03882. 
  42. ^ Goldsmith, D.; Owen, T. (2001). The search for life in the universe. University Science Books. p. 96. ISBN 9781891389160. http://books.google.de/books?id=Q17NmHY6wloC&pg=PA96. 
  43. ^ a b c Schröder, K.-P.; Smith, R.C. (2008). "Distant future of the Sun and Earth revisited". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 386 (1): 155. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13022.x. arΧiv:0801.4031.  See also Palmer, J. (2008). "Hope dims that Earth will survive Sun's death". New Scientist. http://space.newscientist.com/article/dn13369-hope-dims-that-earth-will-survive-suns-death.html?feedId=online-news_rss20. Retrieved on 2008-03-24. 
  44. ^ Carrington, D. (2000). "Date set for desert Earth". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/specials/washington_2000/649913.stm. Retrieved on 2007-03-31. 
  45. ^ Pogge, R.W. (1997). "The Once and Future Sun". New Vistas in Astronomy. Ohio State University (Department of Astronomy). http://www.astronomy.ohio-state.edu/~pogge/Lectures/vistas97.html. Retrieved on 2005-12-07. 
  46. ^ Sackmann, I.-J.; Boothroyd, A.I.; Kraemer, K.E. (1993). "Our Sun. III. Present and Future". Astrophysical Journal 418: 457. doi:10.1086/173407. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1993ApJ%2E%2E%2E418%2E%2E457S&db_key=AST&high=24809&nosetcookie=1. 
  47. ^ Godier, S.; Rozelot, J.-P. (2000). "The solar oblateness and its relationship with the structure of the tachocline and of the Sun's subsurface". Astronomy and Astrophysics 355: 365–374. Bibcode2000A&A...355..365G. http://aa.springer.de/papers/0355001/2300365.pdf. 
  48. ^ Phillips, 1995, pp. 78–79
  49. ^ Schutz, Bernard F. (2003). Gravity from the ground up. Cambridge University Press. pp. 98–99. ISBN 9780521455060. 
  50. ^ Phillips, 1995, p. 73
  51. ^ Phillips, 1995, pp. 58–67
  52. ^ a b García, R.; et al. (2007). "Tracking solar gravity modes: the dynamics of the solar core". Science 316 (5831): 1591–1593. doi:10.1126/science.1140598. PMID 17478682. 
  53. ^ Basu et al. (2009). "Fresh insights on the structure of the solar core". The Astrophysical Journal 699 (699): 1403. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/699/2/1403. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ApJ...699.1403B. Retrieved on 2009-07-10. 
  54. ^ a b c d e f "NASA/Marshall Solar Physics". Solarscience.msfc.nasa.gov. 2007-01-18. http://solarscience.msfc.nasa.gov/interior.shtml. Retrieved on 2009-07-11. 
  55. ^ Zirker, 2002, pp. 15–34
  56. ^ Phillips, 1995, pp. 47–53
  57. ^ "Genesis : Search for Origins | JPL | NASA". Genesismission.jpl.nasa.gov. http://genesismission.jpl.nasa.gov/science/mod3_SunlightSolarHeat/FusionChemistry/index.html. Retrieved on 2009-07-11. 
  58. ^ "NASA's Cosmos". Ase.tufts.edu. http://ase.tufts.edu/cosmos/print_chapter.asp?id=24. Retrieved on 2009-07-11. 
  59. ^ NASA (2007). "Ancient Sunlight". Technology Through Time (50). http://sunearthday.nasa.gov/2007/locations/ttt_sunlight.php. Retrieved on 2009-06-24. 
  60. ^ a b Schlattl, H. (2001). "Three-flavor oscillation solutions for the solar neutrino problem". Physical Review D 64 (1): 013009. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.64.013009. 
  61. ^ a b c d e f "Nasa – Sun". Nasa.gov. 2007-11-29. http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/sun_worldbook.html. Retrieved on 2009-07-11. 
  62. ^ ed. by Andrew M. Soward ... (2005). "The solar tachocline: Formation, stability and its role in the solar dynamo". Fluid dynamics and dynamos in astrophysics and geophysics reviews emerging from the Durham Symposium on Astrophysical Fluid Mechanics, July 29 to August 8, 2002. Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp. 193–235. ISBN 9780849333552. http://books.google.de/books?hl=de&lr=&id=PLNwoJ6qFoEC&oi=fnd&pg=PA193. 
  63. ^ Mullan, D.J (2000). "Solar Physics: From the Deep Interior to the Hot Corona". in Page, D., Hirsch, J.G.. From the Sun to the Great Attractor. Springer. p. 22. ISBN 9783540410645. http://books.google.de/books?id=rk5fxs55_OkC&pg=PA22. 
  64. ^ a b c d e f g h i Abhyankar, K.D. (1977). "A Survey of the Solar Atmospheric Models". Bull. Astr. Soc. India 5: 40–44. http://prints.iiap.res.in/handle/2248/510. 
  65. ^ Gibson, E.G. (1973). The Quiet Sun. NASA. ASIN B0006C7RS0. 
  66. ^ Shu, F.H. (1991). The Physics of Astrophysics. 1. University Science Books. ISBN 0935702644. 
  67. ^ Parnel, C.. "Discovery of Helium". University of St Andrews. http://www-solar.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/~clare/Lockyer/helium.html. Retrieved on 2006-03-22. 
  68. ^ De Pontieu, B.; et al. (2007). "Chromospheric Alfvénic Waves Strong Enough to Power the Solar Wind". Science 318 (5856): 1574–77. doi:10.1126/science.1151747. PMID 18063784. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/318/5856/1574. 
  69. ^ Solanki, S.K.; , W. and Ayres, T. (1994). "New Light on the Heart of Darkness of the Solar Chromosphere". Science 263: 64–66. doi:10.1126/science.263.5143.64. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/263/5143/64. 
  70. ^ a b c Hansteen, V.H.; Leer, E. (1997). "The role of helium in the outer solar atmosphere". The Astrophysical Journal 482: 498–509. doi:10.1086/304111. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997ApJ...482..498H. 
  71. ^ a b c d e f Erdèlyi, R.; Ballai, I. (2007). "Heating of the solar and stellar coronae: a review". Astron. Nachr. 328: 726–733. doi:10.1002/asna.200710803. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/116320594/abstract. 
  72. ^ a b c d e Dwivedi, Bhola N. (2006). "Our ultraviolet Sun" (pdf). Current Science 91 (5): 587–595. ISSN 0011-3891. http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/sep102006/587.pdf. 
  73. ^ a b c d e f g Russell, C.T. (2001). "Solar wind and interplanetary magnetic filed: A tutorial". in Song, Paul; Singer, Howard J. and Siscoe, George L. (pdf). Space Weather (Geophysical Monograph). American Geophysical Union. pp. 73–88. ISBN 978-0875909844. http://www-ssc.igpp.ucla.edu/personnel/russell/papers/SolWindTutorial.pdf. 
  74. ^ A.G, Emslie; J.A., Miller (2003). "Particle Acceleration". in Dwivedi, B.N.. Dynamic Sun. Cambridge University Press. p. 275. ISBN 9780521810579. 
  75. ^ European Space Agency (2005). The Distortion of the Heliosphere: Our Interstellar Magnetic Compass. Press release. http://www.spaceref.com/news/viewpr.html?pid=16394. Retrieved on 2006-03-22. 
  76. ^ a b
  77. ^ Hansen, C.J.; Kawaler, S.A.; Trimble, V. (2004). Stellar Interiors: Physical Principles, Structure, and Evolution (2nd ed.). Springer. p. 19–20. ISBN 0387200894. 
  78. ^ Hansen, Kawaler & Trimble (2004, pp. 77–78)
  79. ^ Aller, L.H. (1968). "The chemical composition of the Sun and the solar system". Proceedings of the Astronomical Society of Australia 1: 133. Bibcode1968PASAu...1..133A. http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?1968PASAu...1..133A&data_type=PDF_HIGH&whole_paper=YES&type=PRINTER&filetype=.pdf. 
  80. ^ Hansen, Kawaler & Trimble (2004, § 9.2.3)
  81. ^ a b c Biemont, E. (1978). "Abundances of singly ionized elements of the iron group in the sun". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 184: 683–694. Bibcode1978MNRAS.184..683B. 
  82. ^ Ross and Aller 1976, Withbroe 1976, Hauge and Engvold 1977, cited in Biemont 1978.
  83. ^ Corliss and Bozman (1962 cited in Biemont 1978) and Warner (1967 cited in Biemont 1978)
  84. ^ Smith (1976 cited in Biemont 1978)
  85. ^ Signer and Suess 1963; Manuel 1967; Marti 1969; Kuroda and Manuel 1970; Srinivasan and Manuel 1971, all cited in Manuel and Hwaung 1983
  86. ^ Kuroda and Manuel 1970 cited in Manuel and Hwaung 1983:7
  87. ^ a b Manuel, O.K.; Hwaung, G. (1983). "Solar abundances of the elements". Meteoritics 18 (3): 209. Bibcode1983Metic..18..209M. http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?1983Metic..18..209M&data_type=PDF_HIGH&whole_paper=YES&type=PRINTER&filetype=.pdf. 
  88. ^ "The Largest Sunspot in Ten Years". Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). 2001-03-30. http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/gsfc/spacesci/solarexp/sunspot.htm. Retrieved on 2009-07-10. 
  89. ^ "NASA Satellites Capture Start of New Solar Cycle". PhysOrg (Science/Physics News). 2008-01-04. http://www.physorg.com/news119271347.html. Retrieved on 2009-07-10. 
  90. ^ Lean, J.; Skumanich, A.; White, O. (1992). "Estimating the Sun's radiative output during the Maunder Minimum". Geophysical Research Letters 19 (15): 1591–1594. doi:10.1029/92GL01578. 
  91. ^ Ehrlich, R. (2007). "Solar Resonant Diffusion Waves as a Driver of Terrestrial Climate Change". Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 69 (7): 759. doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2007.01.005. arΧiv:astro-ph/0701117. 
  92. ^ Clark, S. (2007). "Sun's fickle heart may leave us cold". New Scientist 193 (2588): 12. doi:10.1016/S0262-4079(07)60196-1. http://environment.newscientist.com/channel/earth/mg19325884.500-suns-fickle-heart-may-leave-us-cold.html. 
  93. ^ Robert Zimmerman, "What's Wrong with Our Sun?", Sky and Telescope August 2009
  94. ^ Haxton, W.C. (1995). "The Solar Neutrino Problem". Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 33: 459–504. doi:10.1146/annurev.aa.33.090195.002331. Bibcode1995ARA&A..33..459H. http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?1995ARA%26A..33..459H&data_type=PDF_HIGH&type=PRINTER&filetype=.pdf. 
  95. ^ Alfvén, H. (1947). "Magneto-hydrodynamic waves, and the heating of the solar corona". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 107 (2): 211. Bibcode1947MNRAS.107..211A. http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?1947MNRAS.107..211A&data_type=PDF_HIGH&whole_paper=YES&type=PRINTER&filetype=.pdf. 
  96. ^ Parker, E.N. (1988). "Nanoflares and the solar X-ray corona". Astrophysical Journal 330 (1): 474. doi:10.1086/166485. Bibcode1988ApJ...330..474P. http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?1988ApJ...330..474P&data_type=PDF_HIGH&type=PRINTER&filetype=.pdf. 
  97. ^ Sturrock, P.A.; Uchida, Y. (1981). "Coronal heating by stochastic magnetic pumping". Astrophysical Journal 246 (1): 331. doi:10.1086/158926. Bibcode1981ApJ...246..331S. http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?1981ApJ...246..331S&data_type=PDF_HIGH&type=PRINTER&filetype=.pdf. 
  98. ^ Kasting, J.F.; Ackerman, T.P. (1986). "Climatic Consequences of Very High Carbon Dioxide Levels in the Earth’s Early Atmosphere". Science 234 (4782): 1383–1385. doi:10.1126/science.11539665. PMID 11539665. 
  99. ^ "The Mean Magnetic Field of the Sun". Wilcox Solar Observatory. 2006. http://wso.stanford.edu/#MeanField. Retrieved on 2007-08-01. 
  100. ^ "CNN.com - Sci-Tech - Space - Sun flips magnetic field - February 16, 2001". Archives.cnn.com. http://archives.cnn.com/2001/TECH/space/02/16/sun.flips/index.html. Retrieved on 2009-07-11. 
  101. ^ "The Sun Does a Flip". Science.nasa.gov. 2001-02-15. http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2001/ast15feb_1.htm. Retrieved on 2009-07-11. 
  102. ^ Wang, Y.-M.; Sheeley, N.R. (2003). "Modeling the Sun's Large-Scale Magnetic Field during the Maunder Minimum". The Astrophysical Journal 591: 1248–56. doi:10.1086/375449. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ApJ...591.1248W. 
  103. ^ "planet, n.". Oxford English Dictionary. December 2007. http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/50180718?query_type=word&queryword=planet. Retrieved on 2008-02-07.  Note: select the Etymology tab
  104. ^ Goldstein, Bernard R. (1997). "Saving the phenomena : the background to Ptolemy's planetary theory". Journal for the History of Astronomy (Cambridge (UK)) 28 (1): 1–12. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JHA....28....1G. Retrieved on 2008-02-06. 
  105. ^ Ptolemy; Toomer, G. J. (1998). Ptolemy's Almagest. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691002606. 
  106. ^ Sider, D. (1973). "Anaxagoras on the Size of the Sun". Classical Philology 68 (2): 128–129. doi:10.1086/365951. http://www.jstor.org/stable/269068. 
  107. ^ Goldstein, B.R. (1967). "The Arabic Version of Ptolemy's Planetary Hypotheses". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 57 (4): 9–12. doi:10.2307/1006040. 
  108. ^ "Khwarizm". Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation. 2005. http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=482. Retrieved on 2008-01-22. 
  109. ^ (Saliba 1980, p. 249)
  110. ^ Saliba, G. (1995). A History of Arabic Astronomy: Planetary Theories During the Golden Age of Islam. New York University Press. p. 173. ISBN 0814780237. 
  111. ^ Langermann, Y.T. (1985). "The Book of Bodies and Distances of Habash al-Hasib". Centaurus 28: 108–128 [111]. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0498.1985.tb00831.x. 
  112. ^ (Singer 1959, p. 151) (cf. (Zaimeche 2002))
  113. ^ (Zaimeche 2002)
  114. ^ Toomer, G.J. (1964). "Review: Ibn al-Haythams Weg zur Physik by Matthias Schramm". Isis 55 (4): 463–465 [463–4]. doi:10.1086/349914. 
  115. ^ "Galileo Galilei (1564–1642)". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/galilei_galileo.shtml. Retrieved on 2006-03-22. 
  116. ^ "Sir Isaac Newton (1643–1727)". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/newton_isaac.shtml. Retrieved on 2006-03-22. 
  117. ^ "Herschel Discovers Infrared Light". Cool Cosmos. http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/classroom_activities/herschel_bio.html. Retrieved on 2006-03-22. 
  118. ^ a b Thomson, W. (1862). "On the Age of the Sun's Heat". Macmillan's Magazine 5: 288–293. http://zapatopi.net/kelvin/papers/on_the_age_of_the_suns_heat.html. 
  119. ^ Lockyer, J.N. (1890). The meteoritic hypothesis; a statement of the results of a spectroscopic inquiry into the origin of cosmical systems. Macmillan and Co. Bibcode1890QB981.L78...... 
  120. ^ Darden, L. (1998). "The Nature of Scientific Inquiry". http://www.philosophy.umd.edu/Faculty/LDarden/sciinq/. 
  121. ^ Hawking, S. W. (2001). The Universe in a Nutshell. Bantam Books. ISBN 0-55-380202-X. 
  122. ^ "Studying the stars, testing relativity: Sir Arthur Eddington". Space Science. European Space Agency. 2005. http://www.esa.int/esaSC/SEMDYPXO4HD_index_0.html. Retrieved on 2007-08-01. 
  123. ^ Bethe, H. (1938). "On the Formation of Deuterons by Proton Combination". Physical Review 54 (10): 862–862. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.54.862.2. 
  124. ^ Bethe, H. (1939). "Energy Production in Stars". Physical Review 55 (1): 434–456. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.55.434. 
  125. ^ Burbidge, E.M.; Burbidge, G.R.; Fowler, W.A.; Hoyle, F. (1957). "Synthesis of the Elements in Stars". Reviews of Modern Physics 29 (4): 547–650. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.29.547. Bibcode1957RvMP...29..547B. 
  126. ^ Phillips, T. (2007). "Stereo Eclipse". Science@NASA. NASA. http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2007/12mar_stereoeclipse.htm. Retrieved on 2008-06-19. 
  127. ^ Wade, M. (2008). "Pioneer 6-7-8-9-E". Encyclopedia Astronautica. http://www.astronautix.com/craft/pio6789e.htm. Retrieved on 2006-03-22. 
  128. ^ a b Burlaga, L.F. (2001). "Magnetic Fields and plasmas in the inner heliosphere: Helios results". Planetary and Space Science 49: 1619–27. doi:10.1016/S0032-0633(01)00098-8. 
  129. ^ Burkepile, C. (1998). "Solar Maximum Mission Overview". http://web.hao.ucar.edu/public/research/svosa/smm/smm_mission.html. Retrieved on 2006-03-22. 
  130. ^ Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (2005). Result of Re-entry of the Solar X-ray Observatory "Yohkoh" (SOLAR-A) to the Earth's Atmosphere. Press release. http://www.jaxa.jp/press/2005/09/20050913_yohkoh_e.html. Retrieved on 2006-03-22. 
  131. ^ "Sungrazing Comets". LASCO (US Naval Research Laboratory). http://sungrazer.nrl.navy.mil/. Retrieved on 2009-03-19. 
  132. ^ JPL/CALTECH (2005). "Ulysses: Primary Mission Results". NASA. http://ulysses.jpl.nasa.gov/science/mission_primary.html. Retrieved on 2006-03-22. 
  133. ^ Calaway, M.J. (2009). "Genesis capturing the sun: Solar wind irradiation at Lagrange 1". Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 267 (7): 1101. doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2009.01.132. 
  134. ^ "STEREO Spacecraft & Instruments". NASA Missions. March 8, 2006. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/stereo/spacecraft/index.html. Retrieved on May 30 2006. 
  135. ^ Howard R. A., Moses J. D., Socker D. G., Dere K. P., Cook J. W. (2002). "Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI)". Solar Variabilit and Solar Physics Missions Advances in Space Research 29 (12): 2017–2026. 
  136. ^ Beletsky, Y. (2007). "The Milky Way Near the Southern Cross". Astronomy Picture of the Day. NASA. http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap070517.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-26. 
  137. ^ White, T.J.; Mainster, M.A.; Wilson, P.W.; Tips, J.H. (1971). "Chorioretinal temperature increases from solar observation". Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics 33 (1): 1. doi:10.1007/BF02476660. 
  138. ^ Tso, M.O.M.; La Piana, F.G. (1975). "The Human Fovea After Sungazing". Transactions of the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology 79: OP788. PMID 1209815. 
  139. ^ Hope-Ross, M.W. (1993). "Ultrastructural findings in solar retinopathy". Eye 7: 29. PMID 8325420. 
  140. ^ Schatz, H.; Mendelblatt, F. (1973). "Solar Retinopathy from Sun-Gazing Under Influence of LSD". British Journal of Ophthalmology 57 (4): 270. doi:10.1136/bjo.57.4.270. PMID 8325420. 
  141. ^ Chou, B.R. (2005). "Eye Safety During Solar Eclipses". http://sunearth.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse/SEhelp/safety2.html.  "While environmental exposure to UV radiation is known to contribute to the accelerated aging of the outer layers of the eye and the development of cataracts, the concern over improper viewing of the Sun during an eclipse is for the development of "eclipse blindness" or retinal burns."
  142. ^ Ham, W.T. Jr.; Mueller, H.A.; Sliney, D.H. (1976). "Retinal sensitivity to damage from short wavelength light". Nature 260: 153. doi:10.1038/260153a0. 
  143. ^ Ham, W.T. Jr.; Mueller, H.A.; Ruffolo, J.J. Jr.; Guerry, D. III, (1980). "Solar Retinopathy as a function of Wavelength: its Significance for Protective Eyewear". in Williams, T.P.; Baker, B.N.. The Effects of Constant Light on Visual Processes. Plenum Press. pp. 319–346. ISBN 0306403285. 
  144. ^ Marsh, J.C.D. (1982). "Observing the Sun in Safety". Journal of the British Astronomical Association 92 (6): 257. Bibcode1982JBAA...92..257M. http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?1982JBAA...92..257M&data_type=PDF_HIGH&type=PRINTER&filetype=.pdf. 
  145. ^ Espenak, F. (2005). "Eye Safety During Solar Eclipses". NASA. http://sunearth.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse/SEhelp/safety.html. Retrieved on 2006-03-22. 
  146. ^ "The Green Flash". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/weather/features/understanding/greenflash.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-08-10. 
  147. ^ Kardos, T. (2003). Earth science. J.W. Walch. p. 87. ISBN 9780825145001. http://books.google.de/books?id=xI6EDV_PRr4C&pg=PT102. 
  148. ^ Barsh, G.S. (2003). "What Controls Variation in Human Skin Color?". PLoS Biology 1: e7. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0000027. 
  149. ^ "What is the proper name for the sun?". The Straight Dope. http://www.straightdope.com/mailbag/msunname.html. Retrieved on 2007-12-05. 
  150. ^ "Opportunity's View, Sol 959 (Vertical)". NASA. 2006. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/mer/images/pia01892.html. Retrieved on 2007-08-01. 
  151. ^ Allison, M.; Schmunk, R. (2005). "Technical Notes on Mars Solar Time as Adopted by the Mars24 Sunclock". NASA/GISS. http://www.giss.nasa.gov/tools/mars24/help/notes.html. Retrieved on 2007-08-01. 
  152. ^ Osgood, Charles E. "From Yang and Yin to and or but." Language 49.2 (1973): 380–412 . JSTOR. 16 Nov. 2008 <http://www.jstor.org/search>.

Further reading

  • Thompson, M.J. (2004). "Solar interior: Helioseismology and the Sun's interior". Astronomy and Geophysics 45 (4): 21–25. 

External links

Find more about Sun on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Definitions from Wiktionary

Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource

Error creating thumbnail: sh: convert: command not found
Images and media from Commons

News stories from Wikinews

Learning resources from Wikiversity


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

See also Sun, Sun., sūn, sǔn, sùn, and sün

Contents

English

Most common English words: miles « real « eye « #495: sun » cut » everything » six

Alternative forms

The sun
  • (proper noun, star which the Earth revolves around): (capitalized) Sun

Etymology

From Old English sunne, from Proto-Germanic *sunnon, from heteroclitic inanimate Proto-Indo-European *séh₂wl, genitive *sh₂uln-ós (of the sun). Cognates include Old High German sunna, Middle High German sunne, German Sonne, Latin sol, Russian солнце (sólntse) and Ancient Greek ἥλιος (hēlios).

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
the sun

Plural
-

the sun

  1. The star which the Earth revolves around and receives light and warmth from.[1]

Translations

Noun

Singular
sun

Plural
suns

sun (plural suns)

  1. (astronomy) A star,[1] especially when seen as the centre of any single solar system.
  2. The light and warmth which is received from the sun.[1]
  3. Something like the sun in brightness or splendor.[2]
  4. Sunrise or sunset.[2]

Derived terms

Translations

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Verb

Infinitive
to sun

Third person singular
suns

Simple past
sunned

Past participle
sunned

Present participle
sunning

to sun (third-person singular simple present suns, present participle sunning, simple past and past participle sunned)

  1. (transitive) To expose to the warmth and radiation of the sun.[2]
    Beautiful bodies lying on the beach, sunning their bronzed limbs.
  2. (transitive) To warm or dry in the sunshine.[2]
  3. (intransitive) To be exposed to the sun.[1]

Translations

See also

References

  • Notes:
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 The Illustrated Oxford Dictionary, Oxford University Press, 1998
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Webster's College Dictionary, Random House, 2001

Anagrams


Finnish

Pronoun

sun

  1. (colloquial) Genitive form of sinä.

See also


Inari Sami

Pronoun

sun

  1. (personal) he or she

Mandarin

Noun

sun (Pinyin sūn)

  1. grandson

Pinyin syllable

sun

  1. A transliteration of any of a number of Chinese characters properly represented as having one of three tones, sūn, sǔn, or sùn.

Usage notes

  • English transcriptions of Chinese speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Chinese language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.

Simple English

"The Sun" redirects here. For the newspaper, see The Sun (newspaper).
File:India Goa Fort Chapora Chapora
The Sun as it is seen from Earth.

The Sun is a star and the largest object in our solar system. It makes up 99.86% of the matter in the solar system. Even the giant planet Jupiter is tiny compared to the sun. The planets in our solar system move around the sun in orbits. Our sun can be seen in the sky in the day time. It is seen as a large yellow ball. The sun is basically a very, very large ball of plasma bubbling with non-stop explosions. These explosions give off so much energy that if we could gather all the Sun's energy for one second it would be enough to power the U.S.for 9 million years. Even though the sun is 93 million miles (150 million km) from the earth, we still feel this energy.

The sun is so bright that it can hurt to look at it and can damage your eyesight, so never stare at the sun and never use binoculars or a telescope to look at it. The Sun makes light, heat and the solar wind. Solar wind moves past the earth outside our atmosphere. It is made of plasma and small particles that fly away from the sun all the way as far as Neptune. The sun is the main source of energy for life on Earth. It is no wonder that for ancient peoples the sun was an object of worship.

The Sun is at the middle of our solar system. Each planet travels in a more-or-less round orbit with the sun in the center. Each planet orbits at a different distance from the sun. The orbits of the planets are not perfect circles. They are closed-curves called ellipses. The planets closest to the Sun get more heat. Planets farther away are colder. Only the earth has a climate that is right for humans.

Almost all life on our planet ultimately depends on the light energy that comes from our Sun. Plants use solar energy as food so they can grow. This process is called photosynthesis, the green in the leaves is a pigment which is called chlorophyll.

In the center of the Sun, in its core, great heat and pressure combine hydrogen gas into helium gas which produces large amounts of energy. This is called nuclear fusion.

People can look at the Sun if they use special lenses that make it safe. When they do this, darker spots are sometimes seen on the surface of the Sun; these spots are called sunspots. The number of sunspots on the Sun gets bigger and then smaller in a cycle of about 11 years. These sunspots affect the weather on Earth and can also affect electronics. A solar storm in 1989 shut down the electric power grid in Quebec and put the entire province in darkness for nine hours.

Contents

How the Sun was made

Scientists think that the Sun started from a very large cloud of dust and small bits of ice 4.6 billion years ago. At the center of that huge cloud, some of the material started to build up into a ball. Once this ball got big enough, reactions inside it caused that ball to shine.

At that point, the Sun blew away all the rest of the cloud from itself, and the planets formed from the rest of this cloud.

How the Sun works

At its core, or very center, hydrogen atoms collide together at great temperature and pressure so that they fuse to form atoms of helium. This process is called nuclear fusion. This fusion changes a very small part of the hydrogen atoms into a large amount of energy. This energy then travels from the core to the surface of the Sun, called the photosphere, where it shines into space. Energy can take thousands of years to reach the Sun's surface because the sun is so huge and most of the way it is passed from atom to atom along the way.

Features of the Sun

Sunspots

If the Sun is viewed through a very special telescope, dark areas known as sunspots can be seen. These areas are caused by the sun's magnetic field. The sunspots only look dark because the rest of the Sun is very bright.

Sunspot cycle

This is a cycle of 11 years, and every 11 years, there are more sunspots on the Sun than in the past or future years. Between these 11 years, sunspots may decrease in number. This cycle has been around since about the 1700s; before that was the Maunder Minimum, a few hundred years where there were very few sunspots. Astronomers do not know what caused this.

Prominences

Some space telescopes, like the ones that orbit the sun have seen huge arches that extend from the sun. These are called solar prominences. Solar prominences come in many different shapes and sizes; some of them are so large that the Earth could fit inside of them, and there are a few shaped like hands!

Layers of the Sun

There are three different layers that make up the atmosphere of the sun.

Photosphere

This is the surface of the sun. The light that the Earth receives from the Sun is radiated from this layer. Below this layer, the Sun is opaque, or not transparent to light.

Coronosphere

This is the layer of which the sun's rays "shine". It can be best seen during a solar eclipse

Solar eclipses

Sometimes, the Sun "disappears" from the sky, and all that people see is a black but shining ball. This is because the Moon has moved right in front of the Sun and blocks almost all of its light. These happen almost every year, and very similar solar eclipses happen every 18 years, 11.3 days; a period called the Saros.

The fate of the Sun

Scientists called astrophysicists say our Sun is a main-sequence star in the middle of its life. In about another 4-5 billion years, they think it will get bigger and become a red giant star. The sun would be up to 250 times its current size, as big as 1.4 AU and will swallow up the earth.

Earth's fate is still a bit of a mystery. Previous calculations show that Earth could escape to a higher orbit. This due to the solar wind, which drops 30% of the sun's mass, But a newer study shows that Earth would possibly vanish itself. This would happen while the sun continues to get bigger due to the tidal forces. However, the sun will lose mass.

Anyway, Earth's ocean and air would have long since worn out. This is even though the sun is still in its main sequence stage. After the Sun reaches a point where it can no longer get bigger, it will literally explode. But not like a supernova. Rather it will expand rapidly and lose its layers, forming a planetary nebula. Eventually the sun will shrink into a white dwarf. Then, over several hundred billion or even a trillion years, the sun would fade into a black dwarf.

References

Listen to this article · (info)
File:Sun.ogg
This audio file was created from an article revision dated 19 July 2006, and does not play the most recent changes to the article. (Audio help)
Error creating thumbnail: sh: convert: command not found
Wikimedia Commons has images, video, and/or sound related to:
Sun
Wikijunior has more about this subject:


bjn:Mataharikrc:Кюнrue:Сонце


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 03, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Sun, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message