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[[File:|thumb|200px|White blood cells seen under a microscope from a urine sample.]]

A urinalysis (or "UA") is an array of tests performed on urine and one of the most common methods of medical diagnosis.[1] A part of a urinalysis can be performed by using urine dipsticks, in which the test results can be read as color changes.


Medical urinalysis

A typical medical urinalysis usually includes:

  • a description of color and appearance.
  • specific gravity - normally 1.010 to 1.030. This test detects ion concentration of the urine. Small amounts of protein or ketoacidosis tend to elevate results of the specific gravity.
  • pH - normally 4.8 to 7.5.
  • ketone bodies - normally negative (absent)
  • protein - normally negative (absent)
  • nitrites
  • urobilinogen
  • bilirubin
  • glucose - normally negative (absent)
  • RBC number
  • WBC number
  • hCG - normally absent, this hormone appears in the urine of pregnant women. Home pregnancy tests commonly detect this substance.

Microscopic examination

. The urine is under the cover slide, in the upper segment formed by the H-shaped grooves.]] The numbers and types of cells and/or material such as urinary casts can yield a great detail of information and may suggest a specific diagnosis.

See also


  1. Simerville JA, Maxted WC, Pahira JJ (March 2005). "Urinalysis: a comprehensive review". American family physician 71 (6): 1153–62. PMID 15791892. 

External links


Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary



Blend of urine and analysis.


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urinalysis (plural urinalyses)

  1. (medicine) The comprehensive analysis of urine.

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