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Encyclopedia

Basic Latin alphabet
 AaBbCcDd 
EeFfGgHhIiJj
KkLlMmNnOoPp
QqRrSsTtUuVv
 WwXxYyZz 

V is the twenty-second letter in the basic modern Latin alphabet. Its name in English alphabet (pronounced /viː/) is spelled vee.[1]

Contents

The letter

The letter V ultimately comes from the Semitic letter Waw, as do the modern letters F, U, W, and Y. See F for details.

In Greek, the letter "upsilon" (Υ) was adapted from waw to represent, at first, the vowel /u/ as in "moon". This later developed to /y/, the vowel spelled ü in German.

In Latin, it was borrowed in early times as V (without the stem) to represent the same /u/ sound, as well as the consonantal /w/. Thus, num — or, as originally spelled, NVM — was pronounced "noom" (/num/) and via / VIA was pronounced "wee-a" (/wia/). From the first century A.D. on, depending on Vulgar Latin dialect, consonantal /w/ developed into /β/, then later to /v/.

In Roman numerals, the letter V is used to represent the number 5. It was used because it resembled the convention of counting by notches carved in wood, with every fifth notch double-cut to form a "V".

During the late Middle Ages, two forms of "v" developed, which were both used for modern u and v. The pointed form "v" was written at the beginning of a word, while a rounded form "u" was used in the middle or end, regardless of sound. So whereas valor and excuse appeared as in modern printing, "have" and "upon" were printed haue and vpon. The first distinction between the letters "u" and "v" is recorded in a Gothic alphabet from 1386, where "v" preceded "u". By the mid-1500s, the "v" form was used to represent the consonant and "u" the vowel sound, giving us the modern letter "u". Capital "U" was not accepted as a distinct letter until many years later.[2]

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, /v/ represents the voiced labiodental fricative. See Help:IPA.

Similarly to J, K, Q, W, and Y, V is not used very frequently in the Basic English Language. However, it appears frequently in the Spanish and French languages.

This letter is not used in the Polish alphabet, along with Q and X. In loan words the letter W (pronounced /v/) is used instead.

Other names

  • Catalan: ve, pronounced [ve], but in dialects that lack the /v/ sound is named ve baixa "low vee".
  • French:
  • Italian: vi or vu
  • Spanish: uve (recommended) / ve (traditional). In some countries it is called ve corta, ve baja, ve pequeña, or ve chica. These further terms are needed to distinguish ve from be, the letter B, as both are pronounced /b/ in Spanish.
  • Portuguese:
  • German: fau

In Japanese, V is often called "bui" (ブイ). This name is an approximation of the English name which substitutes the voiced bilabial plosive for the voiced labiodental fricative (which doesn't exist in native Japanese phonology) and differentiates it from "bī" (ビー), the Japanese name of the letter B. The sound can be written with the relatively recently developed katakana character 「ヴ」(vu)[3] va, vi, vu, ve, vo (ヴァ, ヴィ, ヴ, ヴェ, ヴォ?), though in practice the pronunciation is usually not the strictly labiodental fricative found in English. Moreover, some words are more often spelled with the b equivalent character instead of vu due to the long-time use of the word without it (e.g. "Violin" is more often found as baiorin (バイオリン?) than as vaiorin (ヴァイオリン?) due partly to inertia, and to some extent due to the more native Japanese sound).

In Chinese Hanyu Pinyin, letter V is missing, as there is no sound [v] in Standard Mandarin but the letter “v” is used by most input methods to enter letter “ü”, since it’s missing on most keyboards. Romanised Chinese is a popular method to enter Chinese text phonetically.

In Irish Language the letter v is sometimes used in loan words from English, such as Vean Van. However the sound "Ví" appears naturally in Irish when the letter B is lenitised or softened, i.e. [b] followed by a h forms a [v] so "Bhí" is pronounced Vee, "An Bhean"(the woman) is pronounced van, et cetera.

Codes for computing

Alternative representations of V
NATO phonetic Morse code
Victor ···–
Signal flag Flag semaphore Braille

In Unicode the capital V is codepoint U+0056 and the lowercase v is U+0076.

The ASCII code for capital V is 86 and for lowercase v is 118; or in binary 01010110 and 01110110, respectively.

The EBCDIC code for capital V is 229 and for lowercase v is 165.

The numeric character references in HTML and XML are "V" and "v" for upper and lower case respectively.

See also

References

  1. ^ "V" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "vee," op. cit.
  2. ^ Pflughaupt, Laurent (2008). Letter by Letter: An Alphabetical Miscellany. trans. Gregory Bruhn. Princeton Architectural Press. pp. 123–124. ISBN 9781568987378. http://books.google.com/books?id=63Qnbt2CMiMC&pg=PA124. Retrieved on 2009-06-21. 
  3. ^ Not an entirely new character, 「ヴ」 is simply the character for u (ウ) with the addition of a dakuten, the same mark used to change the sound of other kana. The dakuten is, for example, used to transform ka (カ) to ga (ガ), hi (ヒ) to bi (ビ) and ta (タ) to da (ダ).
The Basic modern Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letter V with diacritics
ṼṽṾṿƲʋ
Two-letter combinations
VaVbVcVdVeVfVgVhViVjVkVlVmVnVoVpVqVrVsVtVuVvVwVxVyVz
VAVBVCVDVEVFVGVHVIVJVKVLVMVNVOVPVQVRVSVTVUVVVWVXVYVZ
Letter-digit & Digit-letter combinations
   V0V1V2V3V4V5V6V7V8V9    0V1V2V3V4V5V6V7V8V9V   

history palaeography derivations diacritics punctuation numerals Unicode list of letters ISO/IEC 646


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

The Universal Character Set
Letter v.svg
Unicode name LATIN SMALL LETTER V
Basic Latin U+0076

Contents

Translingual

Etymology 1

Greek letter Υ, from which Latin V derived Minuscule variation of Latin V, from seventh century Old Latin adoption of Old Italic letter 𐌖 (V), from Greek letter Υ (Y), Upsilon).

Letter

v lower case (upper case V)

  1. The twenty-second letter of the basic modern Latin alphabet.
See also

Etymology 2

Lower case form of upper case roman numeral V, from abbreviation of IIIIΛ or IIIIV (representing 5), from tally stick markings resembling \\\\⋁ or ////⋌, from the practice of designating each fifth notch with a double cut, like the corresponding Western tally mark, tally mark 5.

Alternative forms

Numeral

v (lower case Roman numeral, upper case V)

  1. cardinal number five (5).

See also

Etymology 3

Symbol

v

  1. (physics) velocity
  2. (phonetics) used in the International Phonetic Alphabet and in several romanization systems of non-Latin scripts to represent a voiced labiodental fricative (IPA: /v/).

See also

Other representations of V:


English

Etymology

From Middle English lower case letter v (also written u), from Old English lower case u and respelling of Old English f between vowels and voiced consonants.

  • Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter ᚠ (f), “‘feoh’”) Old English lower case f from 7th century replacement by Latin lower case f of the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter  (f), feoh), derived from Etruscan letter 𐌅 (v).
  • Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter ᚢ (u), “‘ur’”) Old English lower case u from 7th century replacement by Latin lower case v of the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter  (u), ur), derived from Raetic letter u.

Before the 1700s, the pointed form v was written at the beginning of a word, while a rounded form u was used elsewhere, regardless of sound. So whereas valor and excuse appeared as in modern printing, have and upon were printed haue and vpon. Eventually, in the 1700s, to differentiate between the consonant and vowel sounds, the v form was used to represent the consonant, and u the vowel sound. v then preceded u in the alphabet, but the order has since reversed.

Pronunciation

  • (phoneme): IPA: /v/
  • (letter name): IPA: /viː/ (spelled vee)
 Audio (US)help, file

Letter

v (lower case, upper case V)

  1. The twenty-second (22nd) letter of the English alphabet.

See also

  • Previous letter: u
  • Next letter: w

Abbreviation

v

  1. Alternative form of v..

Noun

Singular
v

Plural
vs or v's

v (plural vs or v's)

  1. a shape resembling the letter v
    The impact was so strong, it bent the bar into a v.

Czech

Pronunciation

Preposition

v

  1. in (inside, for an enclosed space) (followed by the locative case)
    On je v divadle. -- He is in the theater.
  2. at (indicating time) (followed by the accusative case)
    V šest hodin. -- At six o’clock.
  3. on (indicating a day) (followed by the accusative case)
    V pátek. -- On Friday.
  4. in (indicating a year) (followed by the accusative case)
    V roku 2007. -- In the year 2007.
  5. in (indicating a month) (followed by the locative case)
    V lednu. -- In January.

Synonyms

Usage notes

  • The more usual form is v, while ve is used before words starting with f, v, w and certain consonant clusters

Dutch

Pronunciation

  • (letter name): IPA: /veː/

Letter

v (lower case, upper case V)

  1. The twenty-second letter of the Dutch alphabet.

See also

  • Previous letter: u
  • Next letter: w

Italian

Noun

v m. and f. inv.

  1. See under V

Latin

Pronunciation

  • (phoneme): IPA: /w/, /u/, /uː/

Letter

v (lower case, upper case V)

  1. (sometimes with littera'") The 20th letter of the Latin alphabet.

See also

  • Previous letter: t
  • Next letter: x

Mapudungun

Letter

v (lower case, upper case V)

  1. The twenty-fourth letter of the Mapudungun alphabet.

Usage notes

It is a vowel.

See also

  • Previous letter: u
  • Next letter: w

Romanian

Pronunciation

  • (phoneme): IPA: /v/
  • (letter name): IPA: /ve/

Letter

v (lower case, upper case V)

  1. The twenty-sixth letter of the Romanian alphabet.

See also

  • Previous letter: u
  • Next letter: x

Serbian

Pronunciation

  • (phoneme) IPA: /ʋ/

Letter

v (lower case, upper case V)

  1. The 28th letter of the Serbian Latin alphabet.

See also

  • Previous letter: u
  • Next letter: z

Spanish

Pronunciation

  • (phoneme): IPA: /b/
  • (letter name):
    • (traditional) IPA: ['be̞ˑ] (spelled ve)
    • (common in most countries) IPA: ['uˑ.β̞e̞] (spelled uve)
    • (common in some countries) IPA: [ˌbe̞ 'ko̞ɾ.t̪ä] (ve corta), [ˌbe̞ 'β̞äˑ.hä] or [ˌbe̞ 'β̞äˑ.xä] (ve baja), ve pequeña, or [ˌbe̞ 'ʧiˑ.kä] (ve chica)

Letter

v (lower case, upper case V)

  1. The twenty-fifth (25th) letter of the Spanish alphabet.

Usage notes

The common letter names, as well as phrases like ve de vaca are used to distinguish the letter v from the letter b. This is done because the two letters represent a single phoneme in modern Spanish, causing their traditional names be and ve both to be pronounced as ['be̞ˑ].

See also

  • Previous letter: u
  • Next letter: w

Simple English

The Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd
Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj
Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp
Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv
Ww Xx Yy Zz

V is the twenty-second (number 22) letter in the English alphabet.

Meanings for V









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