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IPA – number 129
IPA – text v
IPA – image [[File:|{{{imagesize}}}]]
Entity v
Kirshenbaum v
Sound sample

The voiced labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is v, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is v.

Although this is a familiar sound to most European listeners, it is cross-linguistically a fairly uncommon sound, being only a quarter as frequent as [w]. The presence of [v] and absence of [w], along with the presence of otherwise unknown front rounded vowels [y, ø, œ], is a very distinctive areal feature of European languages and those of adjacent areas of Siberia and Central Asia.Template:Fact Speakers of East Asian languages which lack this sound like Mandarin and Japanese tend to pronounce [v] as [b], thus failing to distinguish the English words "very" and "berry".



Features of the voiced labiodental fricative:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz европа [evˈropʼa] 'Europe' See Abkhaz phonology
Albanian valixhe [validʒɛ] 'case'
Arabic Siirt[1] ذهب [vaˈhab] 'gold' See Arabic phonology
Armenian վեց [vɛtsʰ] 'six'
BaiDali  ? [ŋv˩˧] 'fish'
Catalan Balearic[2] blava [ˈblavə] 'blue' (f.) See Catalan phonology
southern Catalonia[4]
Chechen вашa/vaṣa [vaʃa] 'brother'
Czech voda [voda] 'water' See Czech phonology
Dutch[5] vreemd [vremt] 'strange' See Dutch phonology
English valve [væɫv] 'valve' See English phonology
Ewe[6] ? [évlɔ] 'he is evil'
Faroese ða [ˈɹøːva] 'speech'
French[7] valve [valv] 'valve' See French phonology
Georgian[8] იწრო [ˈvitsʼɾo] 'narrow'
German Wächter [ˈvɛçtɐ] 'guard' See German phonology
Greek βερνίκι [ve̞r.ˈ] 'varnish' See Modern Greek phonology
Hungarian veszély [vɛseːj] 'danger' See Hungarian phonology
Italian[9] avare [aˈvare] 'miserly' ( See Italian phonology
Kabardian зэвы [zævɛ] 'narrow'
Ladino mueve [ˈmwɛvɛ] 'nine'
Maltese iva [iva] 'yes'
Norwegian vann [vɑn] 'water' See Norwegian phonology
Polish[10] wór [vur] 'bag' See Polish phonology
Portuguese[11] vinho [ˈviɲu] 'wine' See Portuguese phonology
Romanian val [val] 'wave' See Romanian phonology
Russian[12] волосы [ˈvoləsɨ] 'hair' Contrasts with palatalized form. See Russian phonology
Slovak voda [voda] 'water'
Spanish[13] afgano [av'ɣano̞] 'Afghan' See Spanish phonology
Swedish vägg [ˈvɛg] 'wall' See Swedish phonology
Turkish ev [ev] 'house' See Turkish phonology
Vietnamese vê [ve] 'to roll' Variety: [je]. See Vietnamese phonology

See also

  • List of phonetics topics



  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (1-2): 53-56 
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90-94 
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), "Illustrations of the IPA:French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (2): 73-76 
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (2): 45-47 
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103-107 
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005). Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.). Blackwell. 
  • Padgett, Jaye (2003), "Contrast and Post-Velar Fronting in Russian", Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 21 (1): 39-87 
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 117-121 
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Vakhtang, Chikovani (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (2): 255-264 
  • Watson, Janet (2002). The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic. New York: Oxford University Press. 
  • Wheeler, Max W (2005). The Phonology Of Catalan. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199258147. 


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