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Encyclopedia

IPA – number 103 (134)
IPA – text t͡ʃ
IPA – image File:IPA voiceless postalveolar
Entity ʧ
X-SAMPA tS
Kirshenbaum tS
[[:Media:|Sound sample]]

The voiceless palato-alveolar affricate or domed postalveolar affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. It is familiar to English speakers as the "ch" sound in "chip".

Historically, this sound often derives from a former voiceless velar plosive (k, as in English, Slavic languages and Romance languages), or a voiceless dental plosive by way of palatalization, especially next to a front vowel.

Contents

Features

Features of the voiceless domed postalveolar affricate:

Transcription

The International Phonetic Alphabet uses two symbols together to represent this sound: . They may be joined with a tiebar (t͡ʃ), and the t may sometimes be given the "retracted" diacritic (t̠ʃ). Formerly a ligature (ʧ) was used. Other phonetic transcriptions used include:

  • c
  • č
  • ch
  • cs
  • cz
  • tc (older Americanist transcription)
  • tx

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Albanian çelur [t͡ʃɛluɾ] 'open'
Aleut Atkan dialect chamĝul [t͡ʃɑmʁul] 'to wash'
Amharic አንቺ [ant͡ʃi] 'you' f. sg.
Arabic[1]Central Palestinian مكتبة [ˈmat͡ʃt̪abɐ]'library'corresponds to [k] in Standard Arabic and other varieties. See Arabic phonology
Jordanian كتاب [t͡ʃiˈt̪aːb]'book'
Iraqi
Azeri Əkinçi [ækint͡ʃi] 'the ploughman'
Basque txalupa [t͡ʃalupa] 'boat'
Catalan atxa [at͡ʃa] 'big candle' See Catalan phonology
Czech morče [mo̞rt͡ʃɛ] 'guinea pig' See Czech phonology
Coptic Bohairic dialect ϭⲟϩ [t͡ʃoh]'touch'
Croatian učitelj [ut͡ʃiteʎ]'teacher'
English bleach [bliːt͡ʃ] 'bleach' See English phonology
Esperanto ĉar [t͡ʃar] 'because'
Faroese tjørn [t͡ʃɶtn] 'lake'
Georgian[2] ჩიხი [t͡ʃixi] 'impasse'
Hebrew צ'כיה [t͡ʃɛxja] 'Czech Republic' See Hebrew phonology
Italian[3] ciao [t͡ʃao] 'ciao' See Italian phonology
Hungarian gyümölcs [ɟymølt͡ʃleː]'juice' See Hungarian phonology
K'iche' K'iche' [kʼit͡ʃeʔ] K'iche'' Contrasts with ejective form
Maltese bliċ [blit͡ʃ] 'bleach'
Norwegian kjøkken [t͡ʃøkːen] 'kitchen' Only in some dialects, see Norwegian phonology
Nunggubuyu[4] [t͡ʃaɾo] 'needle'
Persian چوب [t͡ʃuːb]'wood' See Persian phonology
Portuguese Brazilian[5] presidente [pɾeziˈdẽt͡ʃi] 'president' Allophone of /t/. See Portuguese phonology
Romanian cer [t͡ʃe̞r] 'sky' See Romanian phonology
Rotuman[6] joni [ˈt͡ʃɔni]'to flee'
Scottish Gaelic slàinte [slaːnt͡ʃə] 'health'
Serbian Чоколада/čokoláda [t͡ʃɔkɔˈlaːda] 'chocolate'
Slovak kľúč [klʲuːt͡ʃ] 'key'
Spanish[7] chafar [t͡ʃaˈfaɾ] 'to flatten' See Spanish phonology
Swahili jicho [ʄit͡ʃo] 'eye'
Turkish uçak [ut͡ʃak] 'airplane' See Turkish phonology
Ubykh [t͡ʃəbʒəja] 'pepper' See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainian чотири [t͡ʃo̞ˈtɪrɪ] 'four' See Ukrainian phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[8] chane [t͡ʃanɘ]

Mandarin Chinese, Russian, Japanese, Catalan, and Thai have a voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate /t͡ɕ/; this is technically postalveolar but it is less precise to use /t͡ʃ/.

Notes

Bibliography

  • Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), "Brazilian Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 227-232 
  • Blevin, Juliette (1994), "The Bimoraic Foot in Rotuman Phonology and Morphology", Oceanic Linguistics 33(2): 491-516 
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005). Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.). Blackwell. ʈ
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255-259 
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquipan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107-114 
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 117-121 
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Vakhtang, Chikovani (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (2): 255-264 
  • Watson, Janet (2002). The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic. New York: Oxford University Press. 

See also

  • List of phonetics topics
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