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Vole
File:Bank
The bank vole lives in woodland areas in Europe and Asia.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Rodentia
Family: Cricetidae
Subfamily: Arvicolinae
in part
Genera

Arvicola
Lagurus
Microtus
Myodes
Phenacomys
Pliomys

A vole is a small rodent resembling a mouse but with a stouter body, a shorter hairy tail, a slightly rounder head, and smaller ears and eyes. There are approximately 70 species of voles; they are sometimes known as meadow mice or field mice in North America. The voles, together with the lemmings and the muskrats, form the subfamily Arvicolinae.

Contents

Description

Most vole species have rootless molars that fold into a series of triangles. Voles are one of the few rodents whose molars continue to grow during their entire life. Adult voles, depending on the species, are three to seven inches long with the length of the tail. Females tend to be larger.

Range

Species of voles can be found in Europe, Asia, North Africa and North America, and tundra areas.

Diet

Depending on the species, the vole's diet consists of seeds, tubers, conifer needles, bark, various green vegetation such as grass and clover, and insects. Some species will die, however, if deprived from their main meal, Douglas Fir Needles, for too long.[citation needed]

Predators

Many predators such as martens, raccoons, owls, hawks, coyotes, foxes, snakes, the red tailed hawk, weasels and cats eat voles. A common predator of voles is the short-eared owl as well as the northern spotted owl, the Saw-whet Owl,the barn Owl, and the Northern Pygmy Owl.[citation needed]

Age

The average life of a vole is 3–6 months. Voles rarely live longer than 12 months. The longest lifespan of a vole ever recorded was 18 months.[citation needed]

Genetics and sexual behavior

The prairie vole is a notable animal model for sexual fidelity, since the male is usually faithful to the female, and shares in the raising of pups. (The woodland vole is also usually monogamous.) Another species from the same genus, the meadow vole, has promiscuously mating males, and scientists have changed adult male meadow voles' behavior to resemble that of prairie voles in experiments in which a single gene was introduced into the brain via a virus.[citation needed] The behavior is influenced by the number of repetitions of a particular string of microsatellite ("junk") DNA, and the same DNA sequence is found in humans. Male prairie voles with the longest DNA strings spend more time with their mates and pups than male prairie voles with shorter strings.[1] However, other workers have disputed the gene's relationship to monogamy, and cast doubt on whether the human version plays an analogous role.[2] Physiologically, pair-bonding behavior has been shown to be tied up with vasopressin, dopamine, and oxytocin, with the genetic influence apparently arising via the number receptors for these substances in the brain; the pair-bonding behavior has also been shown in experiments to be strongly modifiable by administering some of these substances directly.

Voles exhibit complex genetic structures with much variation, and appear to be evolving rapidly when compared with other vertebrates. For this reason, they can be useful to archaeologists for dating strata, in a method referred to as the "vole clock."

Voles have a number of unusual chromosomal traits. Species have been found with anywhere from 17-64 chromosomes, and in some species males and females have different chromosome numbers. Female voles have been found with chromosomes from both sexes, and in one species the sex chromosomes contain 20% of the genome. All of these variations result in very little physical aberration: most vole species are virtually indistinguishable.[3]

Vole clock

The Vole clock is a method of dating archaeological strata. Investigations at sites across Europe have allowed construction of a detailed framework of how different vole species evolved over the last million years, and where and when specific species became extinct.

For many sites it is considered the most accurate way of dating, and also provides information on the climate and local environment. [4]

Classification

References

  1. ^ Hammock and Young,Science. 2005 Jun 10;308(5728):1630-4, summarized at New York Times, June 10, 2005, "DNA of Voles May Hint at Why Some Fathers Shirk Duties."
  2. ^ S. Fink et al., PNAS, July 18, 2006, vol. 103, no. 29, 10956-10960
  3. ^ Rodent's bizarre traits deepen mystery of genetics, evolution Accessed February 25, 2007
  4. ^ Use of Vole Clock on C4's Time TeamAccessed May 16, 2009

External links

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also vole

Contents

French

Verb

volé

  1. Past participle of voler.

Anagrams


Spanish

Verb

volé (infinitive: volar)

  1. First-person singular (yo) preterite indicative form of volar.

Simple English

Vole
File:Feldmaus Microtus
The bank vole lives in woodland areas in Europe and Asia.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Rodentia
Family: Cricetidae
Subfamily: Arvicolinae

Vole is a small mammal similar to a mouse.

There are about 70 species of voles. There are species in Europe, Asia, North Africa and North America. Adult voles, depending on the species, are 7.5 to 17.5 centimetres (three to seven inches) long.

Depending on the species, they eat seeds, grass or other plants, and insects.

Many animals hunt voles, for example wolves, owls, hawks, coyotes, foxes, weasels, and cats.


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