Kosher: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Kosher

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

(Redirected to Kashrut article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Part of a series on
Star of David.svg        Lukhot Habrit.svg        Menora.svg
Judaism
Portal | Category
Jewish religious movements
Orthodox (Haredi · Hasidic · Modern)
Conservative · Reform
Reconstructionist · Renewal · Humanistic
Rabbinic · Karaite
Jewish philosophy
Principles of faith · Kabbalah · Messiah · Ethics
Chosenness · Names of God · Mussar
Religious texts
Tanakh (Torah·Nevi'im·Ketuvim)
Ḥumash · Siddur · Piyutim · Zohar
Rabbinic literature (Talmud·Midrash·Tosefta)
Religious Law
Mishneh Torah · Tur
Shulchan Aruch · Mishnah Berurah
Kashrut · Tzniut · Tzedakah · Noahide laws
Holy cities
Jerusalem · Safed · Hebron · Tiberias
Important figures
Abraham · Isaac · Jacob
Moses · Aaron · David · Solomon
Sarah · Rebecca · Rachel · Leah
Rabbinic sages
Jewish life cycle
Brit · Pidyon haben · Bar/Bat Mitzvah · Marriage
Niddah · Bereavement
Religious roles
Rabbi · Rebbe · Posek · Hazzan/Cantor
Dayan · Rosh yeshiva · Mohel · Kohen/Priest
Religious buildings & institutions
Synagogue · Beth midrash · Mikveh
Sukkah · Chevra kadisha
Holy Temple / Tabernacle
Jewish education
Yeshiva · Kollel · Cheder
Religious articles
Sefer Torah · Tallit · Tefillin · Tzitzit · Kippah
Mezuzah · Hanukiah/Menorah · Shofar
4 Species · Kittel · Gartel
Jewish prayers and services
Shema · Amidah · Aleinu · Kaddish · Minyan
Birkat Hamazon · Shehecheyanu · Hallel
Havdalah · Tachanun · Kol Nidre · Selichot
Judaism & other religions
Christianity · Islam · Judeo-Christian
Abrahamic faiths · Pluralism · Others
Related topics
Antisemitism · Zionism · Holocaust

Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus, כַּשְׁרוּת) is the set of Jewish dietary laws. Food in accord with halakha (Jewish law) is termed kosher in English, from the Ashkenazi pronunciation of the Hebrew term kashér (כָּשֵׁר), meaning "fit" (in this context, fit for consumption by Jews according to traditional Jewish law). Food that is not in accordance with Jewish law is called treif (Yiddish: טרײף or treyf, derived from Hebrew: טְרֵפָהtrēfáh).

Many of the basic laws of kashrut are derived from the Torah's Books of Leviticus and Deuteronomy, with their details set down in the oral law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) and codified by the Shulchan Aruch and later rabbinical authorities. The Torah does not explicitly state the reason for most kashrut laws, and many varied reasons have been offered for these laws, ranging from philosophical and ritualistic, to practical and hygienic.

About one-sixth of American Jews maintain the kosher diet.[1]

The word “kosher” has become a part of English slang, a colloquialism, meaning proper, legitimate, genuine, fair, or acceptable.[2][3][4]

Contents

Principles of kashrut

The laws of kashrut derive from various passages in the Torah, and are numerous and complex, but the key principles are as follows:

  • Only meat from particular species is permissible:
    • Mammals that both chew their cud (ruminate) and have cloven hooves can be kosher. Animals with one characteristic but not the other (the camel, the hyrax and the hare because they have no cloven hooves, and the pig because it does not ruminate) are specifically excluded (Leviticus 11:3-8).[5][6]
    • In 2008, a rabbinical ruling determined that giraffes and their milk are eligible to be considered kosher.The giraffe has both split hooves and chews its cud, characteristics of animals considered kosher. Findings from 2008 show that giraffe milk curdles, meeting kosher standards. Although kosher, the giraffe is not slaughtered today because the process would be very costly, they are hard animals to restrain, and to prevent the species from becoming endangered.[7][8][9]
    • Non-kosher birds are listed outright (Deuteronomy 14:12-18) but the exact references are disputed and some references refer to families of birds (24 are mentioned). The Mishnah[10] refers to four signs provided by the sages:[11]
1. A dores (predatory bird) is not kosher
Additionally, kosher birds possess the following three physical characteristics:
2. An extra toe
3. A zefek (crop)
4. A korkoban (gizzard) with a peelable lumen
However, individuals are barred from merely applying these regulations alone; an established tradition (masorah) is necessary to allow birds to be consumed, even if it can be substantiated that they meet all four criteria.[12] The only exception to this is turkey. There was a time when certain authorities considered the signs enough, so Jews started eating this bird without a masorah because it possesses all the signs (simanim in Hebrew) and there is a place for this in Jewish law.[citation needed]
  • Fish must have fins and scales to be kosher (Leviticus 11:9-12). Shellfish and other non-fish water fauna are not kosher.[13]
  • Insects are not kosher, except for certain species of kosher locust (unrecognized in almost all communities).[14]
  • That an animal is untamed does not preclude it from being kashrut, but a wild animal must be trapped and ritually slaughtered (shechted) rather than killed some other way to be kosher.
  • Generally any animal that eats other animals, whether they kill their food or eat carrion (Leviticus 11:13-19), is not kosher, as well as any animal that was partially eaten by other animals (Leviticus 22:8).
  • Meat and milk (or derivatives) cannot be mixed (Deuteronomy 14:21) in the sense that meat and dairy products are not served at the same meal, served or cooked in the same utensils, or stored together. Observant Jews have separate sets of dishes, and sometimes different kitchens, for meat and milk, and wait anywhere between one and six hours after eating meat before consuming milk products.[15]
Examples of cloven hooves in goats (upper left), pigs (lower left) and cows (lower right). But horses lacks cloven hooves (upper right)
  • Mammals and fowl must be slaughtered in a specific fashion: slaughter is done by a trained individual (a shochet) using a special method of slaughter, shechita (Deuteronomy 12:21). Among other features, shechita slaughter severs the jugular vein, carotid artery, esophagus and trachea in a single continuous cutting movement with an unserrated, sharp knife, avoiding unnecessary pain to the animal. Failure of any of these criteria renders the meat of the animal unsuitable. The body must be checked after slaughter to confirm that the animal had no medical condition or defect that would have caused it to die of its own accord within a year, which would make the meat unsuitable.[16]
  • As much blood as possible must be removed (Leviticus 17:10) through the kashering process; this is usually done through soaking and salting the meat, but organs rich in blood (the liver) are grilled over an open flame.[17]
  • Utensils used for non-kosher foods become non-kosher, and make even otherwise kosher food prepared with them non-kosher. Some such utensils, depending on the material they are made from, can be made suitable for preparing kosher food again by immersion in boiling water or by the application of a blowtorch.
  • Food prepared by Jews in a manner that violates the Shabbat (Sabbath) may not be eaten until the Shabbat is over.[18]
  • Passover has special dietary rules, the most important of which is the prohibition on eating leavened bread or derivatives of this (chametz, Exodus 12:15). Utensils used in preparing and serving chametz are also forbidden on Passover unless they have been cleansed (kashering).[19] Observant Jews often have separate sets of meat and dairy utensils for Passover use only.
  • Certain foods must have been prepared in whole or in part by Jews, including:
A cocoon found among barleycorns in a commercially available bag of barley. Food such as seeds, nuts and vegetables need to be checked so as to avoid eating insects.
  • Biblical rules control the use of agriculture produce: for produce grown in the Land of Israel a modified version of the Biblical tithes must be applied, including Terumat HaMaaser, Maaser Rishon, Maaser Sheni, and Maaser Ani (untithed produce is called tevel); the fruit of the first three years of a tree’s growth or replanting are forbidden for eating or any other use as orlah;[25] produce grown in the Land of Israel on the seventh year is Shviit, and unless managed carefully is forbidden as a violation of the Shmita (Sabbatical Year).

The following rules of kashrut are not universally observed:

  • The rule against eating chadash (new grain) before the 16th of the month Nisan; many hold that this rule does not apply outside the Land of Israel
  • In addition, some groups follow various eating restrictions on Passover which go beyond the rules of kashrut, such as the eating of gebrochts or garlic.

Reason for kashrut laws

There continues to be a debate among various theories about the purposes and meaning of the laws regarding kashrut.

Traditional Jewish philosophy divided the 613 mitzvot into just two groups - laws which have a rational explanation (mishpatim) and those which do not (chukim).

Some Jewish scholars have held that these dietary laws should simply be categorized with a group of laws that are considered irrational in that there is no particular explanation for their existence. The reason for this is that it is believed that there are some of God's regulations for mankind that the human mind is not necessarily capable of understanding. Related to this is the idea that the dietary laws were given as a demonstration of God's authority and that man should obey without asking for a reason.[26]

This last view has been rejected by most classical and modern Jewish authorities[citation needed]. For example Maimonides holds that a Jew is permitted to seek out reasons for the laws of the Torah.[27]

As moral symbolism

During the first few centuries of the Common Era some philosophers held that the laws of kashrut were symbolic in character. In this view, kosher animals represent virtues, while non-kosher animals represent vices. The first indication of this view can be found in the 1st century BCE Letter of Aristeas, which argues that the laws "have been given ... to awake pious thoughts and to form the character".[28] It later reappears in the prolix allegories of Philo of Alexandria, and in the writings of some of the early Christian Church Fathers. The majority of Jewish and Christian theologians, and biblical scholars, reject the symbolism hypothesis, but it features in the work of the 19th century Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch.

The Torah prohibits 'seething the kid (goat, sheep, calf) in its mother's milk', a practice cruel only in concept, which would not be understood as cruelty by either the kid or its mother and would not cause them additional suffering; but which might still potentially inflame a human's taste for ultimate power over those creatures who are weaker. Thus, kashrut prohibits the practice itself, even if the resulting mixture is to be discarded.

Health reasons

There have been various attempts to provide empirical support for the view that the Israelite food laws have health benefits or purpose, one of the earliest being from Maimonides in his Guide for the Perplexed. Processing rules can have an impact; for instance, glatt, the requirement that lungs be checked to be free of adhesions, would prevent consumption of animals who had been infected with tuberculosis. Similarly, the ban on slaughtering of an unconscious animal would eliminate many sick and possibly infectious animals from being consumed. It is plausible for the toxicity of animals to be affected by the foods they eat.

However, these risks can usually be reduced by ensuring the meat is properly cooked; similarly the diseases and toxins which occur in the food of animals are also dangerous when those foods are eaten directly (e.g. eating the vegetables, seeds, and fruit that cows eat, rather than the cows themselves), something which the food laws don't specifically forbid. The claim that the laws have a hygiene/health purpose has therefore fallen out of favour among Biblical scholars, particularly since there are dangers that the laws do not cover; for example, there are no prohibitions on the types of fruit and vegetables which can be eaten, even though there are many poisonous herbs, seeds, berries, and fruits.

Nevertheless, some continue to pursue the idea that the food laws introduce health benefits. In 1953, Dr. David I. Macht, an Orthodox Jew who is one of the primary proponents of the theory of biblical scientific foresight, conducted toxicity experiments on many different kinds of animals and fish.[29] His experiment involved lupin seedlings being supplied with extracts from the meat of various animals; Macht reported that in 100% of cases, extracts from ritually unclean meat inhibited the seedling's growth more than that from ritually clean meats.[30] In addition, Dr. Macht's research indicated that mixtures of meat and milk, and meat that wasn't ritually slaughtered, appeared to be more toxic to lupin seeds than meat from other sources.[31] Macht's claim that his methodology,[32][33] known as phytopharmacology, could have any conclusions in relation to human consumption, has never[34] been scientifically corroborated by independent researchers, and is regarded by the scientific community as not being mainstream science; at the request of a Seventh-day Adventist Church publication, Macht's study was explicitly challenged by a series of senior biologists[35]

Jewish mysticism

Hasidism believes that everyday life is imbued with channels connecting with Divinity, the activation of which it sees as helping the Divine Presence to be drawn into the physical world;[36] Hasidism argues that the food laws are related to the way in which such channels, termed sparks of holiness, interact with various animals.

According to the teachings of Hasidism, sparks of Holiness are released whenever a Jew manipulates any object for a holy reason (which includes eating, if it is done with the intention to provide strength to follow the laws of the Torah);[37] however, in the view of Hasidism, not all animal products are capable of releasing their sparks of holiness.[38] The Hasidic argument is that God designed the animals in a way that gives clear signs about whether sparks can be released from them or not, the signs being expressed in the biblical categorization into ritually clean and ritually unclean;[39] the signs themselves are not believed to be the cause of the animal being kosher, and hence if a cow happens to born with a fully fused hoof, it does not become non-kosher on this basis alone.

Separation from other cultures

According to Christian theologian Gordon J. Wenham, the purpose of kashrut was to help Jews maintain a distinct and separate existence from other peoples; he alleges that the effect of the laws of kashrut was to prevent socialization and intermarriage with non-Jews, preventing Jewish identity from being diluted.[40] Wenham argued that since the impact of the food laws was a public affair, this would have enhanced Jewish attachment to them as a reminder of the distinct status of Jews.[40]

Pig taboo

Anthropologist Marvin Harris proposed that the Jewish prohibition against pork results from mundane socio-economic concerns. Although wild pigs forage in the forests, there are no such environments for them in the region that was Canaan, and consequently they must instead be fed grain; however, the grain which pigs eat is also that eaten by people, and so the pigs would compete with humans for survival during years of bad harvest. As such, raising pigs could have been seen as wasteful and decadent; Harris cites examples of similar ecological reasons for religious practices, including prohibitions against pork, in other religions of the world.[41]

Self-discipline

According to other theories, the practice of kashrut serves as a daily exercise in self-discipline and self-control, strengthening the practitioner's ability to choose other difficult paths. The ability to rationally curb one's most basic appetites can be seen as the prerequisite to living in a civilized society. Also, Jews consider the aspects of kosher slaughter which emphasize and incorporate the need to avoid unnecessary suffering of the animal a reminder to the believer that having the power of life and death or to cause suffering, even to a farm animal born and bred to be eaten, is a serious responsibility rather than a pleasure to be sought after; and that to actually indulge in pleasure in the power to cause suffering, even in so common a practice as hunting, is to damage our own moral sensibilities.[citation needed]

The prohibition against eating the fruits of a tree for the first three years also represents a capacity for self-discipline and self-denial, as well as a lengthy period of appreciation for the bounty of God, prior to losing oneself in its enjoyment. Similarly, the requirement to tithe one's harvest, aside from the social justice aspect, serves as a reminder that this material wealth is not purely the result of one's own efforts, but represents a gift from God; and as such, to share the gift with one's fellows does not represent a real loss to anyone, even oneself.[citation needed]

Non-Orthodox outlook

Orthodox Judaism and Conservative Judaism hold that Jews should follow the laws of kashrut as a matter of religious obligation. Reform Judaism and Reconstructionist Judaism hold that these laws are no longer binding. Historically, Reform Judaism actively opposed kashrut as an archaism inhibiting the integration of Jews in the general society. More recently, some parts of the Reform community have begun to explore the option of a more traditional approach.[citation needed] This tradition-leaning faction agrees with mainstream Reform that the rules concerning kashrut are not obligatory, but believe that Jews should consider keeping kosher because it is a valuable way for people to bring holiness into their lives. Thus Jews are encouraged to consider adopting some or all of the rules of kashrut on a voluntary basis. The Reconstructionist movement advocates that its members accept some of the rules of kashrut.

Many Jews observe kashrut partially, by abstaining from pork or shellfish, or not drinking milk with a meat dish. Some keep kosher at home but have no problem eating in a non-kosher restaurant.

In the summer of 2004, a controversy arose in New York City over the presence of copepods (tiny crustaceans) in the city water supply. While some authorities hold that these creatures are microscopic and therefore negligible, others note that they are almost the size of a small insect, such as a gnat, and far larger than bacteria or other single-celled creatures; in fact can be detected by the naked eye.[42] The Central Rabbinical Council has ruled that water should be filtered.[43]

Linguistic borrowing

By extension, the broader sense of the word kosher has the meanings legitimate, acceptable, permissible, genuine, or authentic.[2][3][4][44] For example, the Babylonian Talmud uses kosher in the sense of virtuous, when referring to the Dãrayavahush I (known in English, via Latin, as Darius) as a "kosher king"; Darius, a Persian King, assisted in building the Second Temple.[45]

The word kosher is also part of some common product names. Sometimes it is used as an abbreviation of koshering, meaning the process for making something kosher; for example, kosher salt is a form of salt which has irregularly-shaped crystals, making it particularly suitable for preparing meat according to the rules of kashrut, because the increased surface area of the crystals absorbs blood more effectively. At other times it is used as a synonym for Jewish tradition; for example, a kosher dill pickle is simply a pickle made in the traditional manner of Jewish New York City pickle makers, using a generous addition of garlic to the brine,[46] and is not necessarily compliant with the traditional Jewish food laws.[47]

Ethical eating

The translation of the root כ ש ר (K-Sh-R, Kaf-Shin-Resh) when used in this context is generally accepted to be about the "fitness" or "kosherness" of the food for consumption. There are two major strains of thought on alternative ways that "kashrut" should be practiced in order to more broadly categorize food as fit for consumption. In addition to these two major trains of thought, some, especially in the United Kingdom, have taken the fitness of the food they eat as directly dependent on how ethically it was produced, specifically in relation to its impact on the world and its people. For instance, only Fairtrade teas and coffees are served in some synagogues and community centers and eggs used are organic or free range.

Advertisements

Vegetarianism

Many vegetarian restaurants and producers of vegetarian foods acquire a hechsher, certifying that a Rabbinical organization has approved their products as being kosher. The hechsher will usually certify that certain vegetables have been checked for insect infestation and steps have been taken to ensure that cooked food meets the requirements of bishul Yisrael.

Vegetables such as lettuce, cabbage, broccoli and cauliflower must be checked for insect infestation. The proper procedure for inspecting and cleaning will vary by species, growing conditions, and the views of any particular rabbi.

  • Many coffee creamers currently sold in the United States are labeled as "non-dairy", yet also have a "D" alongside their hechsher, which indicates a dairy status. This is because of an ingredient (usually sodium caseinate), which is derived from milk. The rabbis categorize it as dairy that cannot be mixed with meat, but the US government considers it to lack the nutritional value of milk. Such products are also unsuitable for vegans and other strict dairy abstainers.
  • On the other hand, kashrut does recognize some processes as capable of converting a meat or dairy product into a pareve one. For example, rennet is sometimes made from stomach linings, yet is acceptable for making kosher cheese,[48] but such cheeses might not be acceptable to some vegetarians, who would eat only cheese made from a vegetarian rennet. The same applies to kosher gelatin, which is an animal product, despite its pareve status. These exceptions do not hold true for Orthodox Jews, who require special supervision for cheese and will only accept gelatin in cases such as medical gel capsules which are for health reasons and no alternative is possible.
  • Kashrut has procedures by which equipment can be cleaned of its previous non-kosher use, but that might be inadequate for those with allergies, vegetarians, or adherents to other religious statutes. For example, dairy manufacturing equipment can be cleaned well enough that the rabbis will grant pareve status to products manufactured afterward. Nevertheless, someone with a strong allergic sensitivity to dairy products might still react to the dairy residue, and that is why some products will have a "milk" warning on a product, which is legitimately pareve.

Kashrut and animal welfare

Kashrut prohibits slaughter of an unconscious animal. Kosher slaughter, shechita, involves cutting the trachea and esophagus with a sharp, flawless knife. At the same time, the carotid arteries, which are the primary supplier of blood to the brain, are severed. The profound loss of blood and the massive drop in blood pressure render the animal insensate almost immediately. Studies done by Dr. H. H. Dukes at the Cornell University School of Veterinary Medicine indicate that the animal is unconscious within seconds of the incision[49]. According to Rabbi Barry Dov Lerner, "[...]kosher slaughtering is the way that Jews try to minimize the pain and fear felt by animals being killed for food." [50]

In 1978, a study incorporating EEG (electroencephalograph) with electrodes surgically implanted on the skull of 17 sheep and 15 calves, and conducted by Wilhelm Schulze et al. at the University of Veterinary Medicine in Germany concluded that "the slaughter in the form of a ritual cut is, if carried out properly, painless in sheep and calves according to EEG recordings and the missing defensive actions" (of the animals), but that "For sheep, there were in part severe reactions both in bloodletting cut and the pain stimuli" when Captive Bolt Stunning (CBS) was used, which is common in normal (non-kosher) slaughtering.[51]

Independant scientific advisory groups such as the UK Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC) and Animal welfare groups object to kosher slaughter on the basis that it can take several minutes for the animal to die and thus claim it causes suffering. Since the spinal cord is not severed completely at the first cut, it is thought that the slaughtered animal's nervous system continues to function during the initial moments of the slaughter, causing the animal to undergo a slow and painful death. In 2003 in the UK the FAWC concluded that the way Kosher meat is produced causes severe suffering to animals and should be banned immediately. Kosher butchers deny their method of killing animals is cruel and expressed anger over the recommendation.[52]

In April 2008, the Food and Farming minister in the UK, Lord Rooker, stated that Kosher meat should be labelled when it is put on sale, so that the public can decide whether or not they want to buy food from animals that have bled to death. He was quoted as saying, "I object to the method of slaughter ... my choice as a customer is that I would want to buy meat that has been looked after and slaughtered in the most humane way possible.". The RSPCA supported Lord Rooker's views.[53]

Specific kashrut laws counter some of the rituals of ancient times, such as eating only one leg of a live animal so that people would not have to deal with eating the entire animal at one time (Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 56b); this law applies even to non-Jews and is part of the Noahide Laws. Most authorities have ruled that any unnecessary suffering during the animal's life will render otherwise kosher meat treife.[citation needed]

Kosher marketing and advertising

History of Kosher Marketing

In 1911, Proctor and Gamble was the first company to advertise that their product, Crisco, was kosher. Over the next 2 decades, companies such as Lender's Bagels, Maxwell House, Manichewitz, and Empire evolved and gave the kosher market more shelf space. In the 1960s, Hebrew National hotdogs launched a "we answer to a higher authority" campaign which was created to appeal to Jews and non-Jews alike. From that point on, kosher became a symbol for both quality and value.

The kosher market quickly expanded and with it more opportunities for kosher products. Menachem Lubinsky, CEO of LUBICOM Marketing Consulting, created Kosherfest in the 1980s in order to provide a forum for those involved in the kosher industry to meet and exchange ideas. Lubinsky projects that there in the next few years will be as many as 14 million kosher consumers and $40 billion in sales of kosher products.

Product labeling standards

The circled U indicates that this product is certified as kosher by the Orthodox Union (OU). The word "pareve" indicates that this product contains neither milk nor meat derived ingredients

Although reading the label of food products can identify obviously non-kosher ingredients, some countries allow manufacturers to neglect to mention certain ingredients; such 'hidden' ingredients can include lubricants, flavorings, and other additives, which in some cases, such as when natural flavourings are used, are more likely to be derived from non-kosher substances. However, producers of foods and food additives can contact Jewish religious authorities to have their products certified as kosher: this would most likely involve a visit to the manufacturing facilities by a committee from a rabbinic organisation, rather than by an individual rabbi, in order to inspect the production methods and contents, and if everything is sufficiently kosher a certificate would be issued.

Manufacturers sometimes identify the products which have received such certification by adding particular graphical symbols to the label; these symbols are known in Judaism as hechsherim. Due to differences in kashrut standards held by different organizations, the hechsheirim of certain Jewish authorities may at times be considered invalid by other Jewish authorities[citation needed]; the certification marks of the various rabbis and organisations are too numerous to list, but one of the most commonly used in the United States of America is that of the Union of Orthodox Congregations, who use a U inside a circle, symbolising the initials of Orthodox Union. A single K is sometimes used as a symbol for kosher, but since many countries do not allow letters to be trademarked (the method by which other symbols are protected from misuse), it only indicates that the company producing the product claims that it is kosher.

Many of the certification symbols are accompanied by additional letters or words to indicate the category of the product, according to Jewish religious law; the categorisation may conflict with legal classifications, especially in the case of food which Jewish religious law regards as dairy, but legal classification does not.

  • D:Dairy
  • M:Meat, including poultry
  • Pareve: food which is neither meat nor dairy
  • Fish
  • P:Passover-related (P is not used for Pareve)

In many cases constant supervision is required, because, for various reasons, such as changes in manufacturing processes, products which were once kosher may cease to be so; for example, a kosher lubricating oil may be replaced by one containing tallow, which many rabbinic authorities view as non-kosher. Such changes are often co-ordinated with the supervising rabbi, or supervising organisation, to ensure that new packaging, which will not suggest any hechsher or kashrut, is used for the new formulation. But in some cases, existing stocks of pre-printed labels with the hechsher may continue to be used on the now non-kosher product; for such reasons, there is an active grapevine among the Jewish community discussing which products are now questionable, as well as products which have become kosher but whose labels have yet to carry the hechsher. There are also newspapers and periodicals covering the subject of kashrut products.

Legal usage

Advertising standards laws in many jurisdictions prohibit the use of the phrase kosher in a product's labelling, unless it can be shown that the product conforms to Jewish dietary laws; however, the legal qualifications for conforming to Jewish dietary laws are often defined differently in different jurisdictions. For example, in some places the law may require that a rabbi certify the kashrut nature, in others the rules of kosher are fully defined in law, and in others still it is sufficient that the manufacturer only believes that the product complies with Jewish dietary regulations. In several cases, laws restricting the use of the term kosher have later been determined to be illegal religious interference.

Other religions

Islam has a related but different system, named halal, and both systems have a comparable system of ritual slaughter (shechita in Judaism and Ḏabīḥah in Islam).

The Seventh-day Adventist Church expects adherence to the kosher laws, which they refer to as clean foods.[54] Adventists believe that adherence to the laws is not only healthy, but also keeps the body, the metaphorical temple, clean. Many members practice vegetarianism and veganism.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Stern, the author of How to Keep Kosher: A Comprehensive Guide to Understanding Jewish Dietary Laws, is one of a million or so American Jews (out of around six million total) who keeps her kitchen year-round according to the laws of kashruth, or kosher.
  2. ^ a b Eric Partridge, Tom Dalzell, Terry Victor, The New Partridge Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English: J-Z, Volume 2, Taylor & Francis, 2006, p. 1172, ISBN041525938X
  3. ^ a b Worldnetweb.Princeton dictionary definition of Kosher.
  4. ^ a b Phythian, B. A. (1976). A concise dictionary of English slang and colloquialisms. The Writer, Inc.. pp. 110. ISBN 0871160994. "Kosher Genuine. Fair. Acceptable." 
  5. ^ Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De'ah 79
  6. ^ For a comprehensive review of the issue involving the difficulty that neither the hyrax nor the hare are ruminants, see Rabbi Natan Slifkin's "The Camel, the Hare and the Hyrax."
  7. ^ Giraffe is kosher, rabbis rule in Israel
  8. ^ Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De'ah 82:1-5
  9. ^ Rabbi Air Z. Zivotofki, What's the Truth About Giraffe Meat!, Kashrut.com, http://www.kashrut.com/articles/giraffe/ 
  10. ^ Bavli Chullin 3:22-23
  11. ^ Kashrut.com: Are Turkeys Kosher?, part 2
  12. ^ Kashrut.com: Are Turkeys Kosher?, part 3
  13. ^ Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De'ah 83 and 84
  14. ^ Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De'ah 85
  15. ^ Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De'ah 87 et seq
  16. ^ Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De'ah 1-65
  17. ^ Shulchan Aruch Yoreh De'ah 66-78
  18. ^ Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim, 318:1
  19. ^ Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim, 431-452
  20. ^ Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De'ah 114
  21. ^ Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De'ah 113
  22. ^ a b Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De'ah 115
  23. ^ Many rely on lenient rulings by Rabbi Moshe Feinstein in Teshuvot Igrot Moshe. Yoreh De'ah 1:47 and other 20th century rabbinic authorities who rule that strict government supervision prevents the admixture of non-kosher milk, making supervision unnecessary. See also Rabbi Chaim Jachter. "Chalav Yisrael - Part I: Rav Soloveitchik's View". http://www.koltorah.org/RAVJ/13-7%20Chalav%20Yisrael%20-%20Part%201.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  24. ^ Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De'ah 112, Orach Chayim 603
  25. ^ http://www.star-k.org/kashrus/kk-medi-terumos.htm
  26. ^ William H. Shea, Clean and Unclean Meats, Biblical Research Institute, December 1998 (archived from the original on 2008-02-12)
  27. ^ Mishneh Torah Korbanot, Temurah 4:13 (in eds. Frankel; "Rambam L'Am")
  28. ^ Letter of Aristeas, 145-154
  29. ^ Macht (September-October 1953) (pdf). An Experimental Pharmalogical Appreciation of Leviticus XI and Deuteronomy XIV. XXXVII. Bulletin of the History of Medicine. pp. 444–450. http://members.dslextreme.com/users/hollymick/Macht1953.pdf. 
  30. ^ Macht 1953 op. cit.
  31. ^ David I. Macht, Medical Leaves 1940; 3:174-184
  32. ^ Macht, D.I. , Contributions to phytopharmacology or the applications of plant physiology to medical problems, Science 1930, 71:302
  33. ^ Macht, D.I., Science and the Bible, Science (1951) 114: 505
  34. ^ at the time of writing
  35. ^ Ministry Magazine, March 1953, p37-38 "This Question of Unclean Meats": Responses to Macht's study from heads of biology depts.
  36. ^ The Chassidic Masters on Food and Eating, chabad.org
  37. ^ Meat, chabad.org
  38. ^ לקוטי אמרים תניא (Hebrew), chabad.org
  39. ^ Re'eh, rabbifriedman.org (archived from the original on 2007-08-29).
  40. ^ a b Gordon J. Wenham, The Theology of Unclean Food, The Evangelical Quarterly 53, January March 1981, p.6-15
  41. ^ Marvin Harris, Cows, Pigs, Wars, and Witches
  42. ^ Brick, Michael; Patrick Healy (2004-06-01). "There's Something in the Water, And It May Not Be Strictly Kosher". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C04E5D71631F932A35755C0A9629C8B63. Retrieved 2009-03-17. 
  43. ^ "Orthodox Jews worry water isn’t kosher". Daily Times. 2004-06-03. http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_3-6-2004_pg9_9. Retrieved 2009-03-17. 
  44. ^ Jewish dietary laws
  45. ^ Tractate Rosh Hashanah 3a, Schottenstein Edition, Mesorah Publications Ltd.
  46. ^ Brief note on kosher pickles in "The Pickle Wing" of nyfoodmuseum.org
  47. ^ Kashrut: Jewish Dietary Laws "Judaism 101"
  48. ^ The rennet must be kosher, either microbial or from special productions of animal rennet using kosher calf stomachs.[1] Retrieved August 10, 2005.
  49. ^ [2]
  50. ^ [3]
  51. ^ Schulze W, Schultze-Petzold H, Hazem AS, Gross R. Experiments for the objectification of pain and consciousness during conventional (captive bolt stunning) and religiously mandated (“ritual cutting”) slaughter procedures for sheep and calves. Deutsche Tierärztliche Wochenschrift 1978 Feb 5;85(2):62-6. English translation by Dr Sahib M. Bleher
  52. ^ Halal and Kosher slaughter 'must end'
  53. ^ Halal and kosher meat should not be slipped in to food chain, says minister
  54. ^ Seventh-Day Adventist Fundamental Beliefs

External links

Further reading

  • Mary Douglas, Purity and Danger: An analysis of the concepts of pollution and taboo, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1966
  • Samuel Dresner, Seymour Siegel and David Pollock The Jewish Dietary Laws, United Synagogue, New York, 1982
  • Binyomen Forst, The Laws of Kashrus, Moznaim, 1999
  • Isidore Grunfeld, The Jewish Dietary Laws, London: Soncino, 1972
  • Isaac Klein, A Guide to Jewish Religious Practice, JTSA, 1992
  • James M. Lebeau, The Jewish Dietary Laws: Sanctify Life, United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism, New York, 1983
  • Yacov Lipschutz, Kashruth: A Comprehensive Background and Reference Guide to the Principles of Kahruth. New York: Mesorah Publications Ltd, 1989
  • Munk, Shechita: Religious, Historical and Scientific Perspectives, Feldheim Publishers, New York, 1976
  • Aharon Pfeuffer Kitzur Halachot Basar B'Chalav

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

(There is currently no text in this page)


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message